I read that watts is amps multiplied by voltage.
This is correct.
But then I read that it depends on the wattage ... what determines wattage?
It depends what kind of device you're talking about. Some devices may have a power (wattage) limit different from their voltage or current limits. As an example, overloading the power (wattage) might cause the part to fail from burning up due to high temperatures, while overloading the voltage might cause the part to fail due to sparks crossing between conductors that aren't meant to be connected.
I thought that the outlet supplied voltage, and the device uses that.
The outlet of what? If you're talking about a power supply, this is true except in special cases.
How do amperes, watts, etc. come into the whole big picture?
Usually a power supply will provide a (mostly) fixed voltage output. The load will determine the current drawn. Unless it tries to draw more current than the supply is able to provide, in which case the supply voltage might sag, or the supply might fail.
I also found that you need to know how much resistance is in a circuit to determine how many amps equals how many volts.
This is only true if your circuit is made up only of resistors. More generally, different loads will draw a current that depends on the voltage supplied. You have to look at the datasheet for each part to find out what that current is and how it depends on voltage.
I thought wattage was force.
This is entirely wrong. Wattage is power. Power is the rate that work is done, or the rate of energy being transformed from one form to another. For example, transforming electrical energy into heat, or transforming chemical energy into electrical energy.
A supply that provides more power can supply energy more quickly. A load that draws more power requires energy be supplied more quickly.
Then I read that a volt is what "pushes" electrons ...
This is more or less right. A gradient of voltage produces a force on a charge carrier.
... I read that wattage is a force equal to one joule per second.
This is nonsense. A joule per second is a unit of power, not force. One watt is equal to one joule per second.
How does it make any sense to understand that voltage is the power when wattage is considered force?
It does not make sense. Wattage is not force.
Assume I do not know the wattage, what is the amperes of one volt then?
It depends on the load or device. If you read the datasheet of a given device it will tell you the required current (amperage). If you have a resistor, Ohm's law applies: I = V / R.
Can anyone make this clear(er) to me?
We'll do our best, but it sounds like you are having trouble grasping the fundamentals. I'd recommend finding a single, reputable book that explains this material and read that, rather than trying to learn from a bunch of different random websites that might be written with different expectations about the reader's level of knowledge.