Greatest Hits

58 votes
2 answers

What do solid/striped lines on a wire indicate?

What do solid or dashed lines on a wire indicate? Is there a difference between the solid and dashed indicators?
Mark Harrison's user avatar
95 votes
12 answers

How can I tell the size of a barrel power connector?

Spring cleaning, and I'm trying to get power supplies for all my devices with missing power supplies. They're all the typical barrel power connector, and I'm having a dickens of a time trying to ...
dwwilson66's user avatar
  • 3,452
40 votes
6 answers

How to reduce DC voltage using resistors?

How would one go about using a 12 V DC power source to power something which needs 4.5 V DC using resistors? Is there a way to determine how much adding a resistor would drop the voltage?
John's user avatar
  • 547
28 votes
6 answers

How to Calculate the time of Charging and Discharging of battery?

How do I calculate the approximated time for the Charging and Discharging of the battery? Is there any equation available for the purpose? If yes, then please provide me.
Farid-ur-Rahman's user avatar
12 votes
8 answers

How to convert an expression from SOP to POS and back in Boolean Algebra?

How to convert a Sum of Products (SOP) expression to Product of Sums (POS) form and vice versa in Boolean Algebra? e.g.: F = xy' + yz'
user avatar
207 votes
4 answers

USART, UART, RS232, USB, SPI, I2C, TTL, etc. what are all of these and how do they relate to each other?

As a novice electronics hobbyist, I have heard these terms and more being thrown around everywhere. At its root, I understand that they are all based on communication between devices, computers, ...
capcom's user avatar
  • 5,952
384 votes
8 answers

What is the difference between \$V_{CC}\$, \$V_{DD}\$, \$V_{EE}\$, \$V_{SS}\$

I've seen lots of schematics use \$V_{CC}\$ and \$V_{DD}\$ interchangeably. I know \$V_{CC}\$ and \$V_{DD}\$ are for positive voltage, and \$V_{SS}\$ and \$V_{EE}\$ are for ground, but what is the ...
Shubham's user avatar
  • 6,214
330 votes
6 answers

Choosing power supply, how to get the voltage and current ratings?

Power supplies are available in a wide range of voltage and current ratings. If I have a device that has specific voltage and current ratings, how do those relate to the power ratings I need to ...
Olin Lathrop's user avatar
83 votes
9 answers

How does a capacitor block DC?

I am confused with this! How does a capacitor block DC? I have seen many circuits using capacitors powered by a DC supply. So, if capacitor blocks DC, why should it be used in such circuits? Also, ...
Arun M's user avatar
  • 1,235
103 votes
10 answers

Why does a Tesla car use an AC motor instead of a DC one?

I was just watching a mega factory video and wondered why they use an AC motor which requires a power inverter instead of DC which may be powered directly from their DC battery? Introducing an ...
wizzup's user avatar
  • 1,141
74 votes
5 answers

Relation and difference between Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms

I have become a bit confused about these topics. They've all started looking the same to me. They seem to have the same properties such as linearity, shifting and scaling associated with them. I can't ...
Vineet Kaushik's user avatar
39 votes
8 answers

Saving Arduino sensor data to a text file

How can I save data retrieved from a sensor to a text file on the computer?
desNotes's user avatar
  • 529
66 votes
4 answers

Does mAh measure how long a battery would last?

I know mAh tells how much milliamperes a battery can deliver in an hour. But does that also tell how many hours the battery would last? Sorry but I don't really get it. If we're talking about a water ...
supertonsky's user avatar
207 votes
13 answers

What's the difference between a microcontroller and a microprocessor?

What's the difference between a microcontroller and a microprocessor?
endolith's user avatar
  • 28.8k
79 votes
10 answers

How much voltage/current is "dangerous"?

Related: Safe current/voltage limit for human contact? From what I've heard: 110 V (or 220 V; household voltage pretty much) is dangerous (i.e. can kill you) I think there's consensus on this, ...
user541686's user avatar
  • 1,184
69 votes
9 answers

Difference between latch and flip-flop?

What is the difference between a latch and a flip-flop? What I am thinking is that a latch is equivalent to a flip-flop since it is used to store bits and is also equivalent to a register which is ...
Ankur Trapasiya's user avatar
108 votes
5 answers

Why are there 3 pins on some batteries?

Lots of new batteries (for mobile devices, MP3 players, etc) have connectors with 3 pins. I would like to know what is the purpose of this and how should I use these three pins? They are usually ...
adopilot's user avatar
  • 1,183
0 votes
2 answers

Block diagram of 16:1 MUX using four 4:1 MUX only

As far as I know we can make a 16:1 MUX using five 4:1 MUX. For four 4:1 MUX, I think we have to apply NOT to different selection lines but I am not getting the correct configuration to do that.
Debakar Roy's user avatar
36 votes
4 answers

Headphone wire color coding

How do I tell which wire is which if I have a copper wire, red and green coded wire? Is the unshielded copper wire ground?
stanigator's user avatar
17 votes
12 answers

How is it possible to have high voltage and low current? It seems to contradict the relationship between current and voltage in E=IR

I have read different forums and watched a few youtubes (in addition to my textbook readings) and the explanations seem to fall short. The issue seems to be how we are first taught about a direct ...
Mountain Scott's user avatar
44 votes
8 answers

How are current and voltage related to torque and speed of a brushless motor?

I know that electric vehicles have different performances depending on battery and motor, but it's not clear how electrical and mechanical units are related. Will a 100V motor raise against slopes ...
jumpjack's user avatar
  • 870
81 votes
7 answers

Using clothesline steel core wire rope for AC and DC

As I am currently in a war zone, I don't have many options for cabling. I found this clothesline (steel core plastic wire rope) that appears to be one mm of diameter (steel core diameter.) 13 meters ...
USER249's user avatar
  • 661
112 votes
11 answers

What is negative voltage?

Just a general electronics question: What is negative voltage, like -5 Volt? From my basic knowledge, power is generated by electrons wandering from the minus to the plus side of the power source (...
Michael Stum's user avatar
  • 1,319
7 votes
3 answers

How to build a 3-input NAND gate from 2-input NAND gates or a 3-input NOR gate from 2-input NOR gate?

For NAND, I am doing a truth table for it and then truth tables for all the possible combinations, but as you can see the process is very long and I am still yet to get an answer. Same goes for NOR ...
studious's user avatar
  • 389
34 votes
6 answers

Reducing voltage with resistors

I have been looking around for an easy way to convert 12V to 5V. I have seen some people saying that a simple resistor is all that is needed. $$ Volts = Ohms \cdot Amps $$ $$ Amps = \frac{Volts}{...
Konner Rasmussen's user avatar
19 votes
2 answers

How do I calculate the cutoff frequency of a low pass rc circuit?

I want to calculate the cutoff frequency for a specific filter, but I can't find any formula for that. I know the formula for the cutoff frequency of a low pass filter: $$f_c=\frac{1}{2\pi RC}$$ ...
rablentain's user avatar
7 votes
6 answers

Open and Short Circuit questions

I am confused on the terms Open, Short, and Closed when talking about circuits. As far as I know: a) Open circuit means the wires are cut off so there will be no current flow, but there is voltage. b)...
nicy12's user avatar
  • 115
14 votes
11 answers

What are the behaviors of capacitors and inductors at time t=0?

Do capacitors act as an open circuits or closed circuits at time t=0? Why? What about inductors? I tried it out, and what I got was this: Initially when I opened the switch, the capacitor acted like ...
user avatar
93 votes
4 answers

What are the different types of solder used for?

How do I know when to use lead, flux-core, lead-free, or any other kind of solder out there? Do you have any tips on solder gauge for specific applications?
82 votes
7 answers

What is "forward" and "reverse" voltage when working with diodes?

What is the difference between "forward" and "reverse" voltages when working with diodes and LEDs? I realize this question is answered elsewhere on the interwebs such as wikipedia, but I am looking ...
JYelton's user avatar
  • 34.3k
121 votes
7 answers

What’s the proper soldering iron temperature for standard .031" 60/40 solder?

I recently purchased a Weller WES51 soldering iron as my first temperature controlled iron and I'm looking for recommendations on the best default temperature to use when soldering. I'm using mainly ....
Redwood's user avatar
  • 4,375
67 votes
8 answers

Why is high input impedance good?

Naive perhaps, but Why is high input impedance a good thing? Is high input impedance always a good thing?
Everyone's user avatar
  • 3,011
43 votes
9 answers

What is the reverse recovery time in a diode?

What is the reverse recovery time in a diode?
Cell-o's user avatar
  • 867
86 votes
8 answers

What is the relation between FFT length and frequency resolution?

If I have sampled a signal using proper sampling methods (Nyquist, filtering, etc) how do I relate the length of my FFT to the resulting frequency resolution I can obtain? Like if I have a 2,000 Hz ...
Kellenjb's user avatar
  • 17.6k
7 votes
3 answers

definition of power signals and energy signals

Why is it so that for a signal to be an energy signal it must have power zero and for a power signal the energy value should be infinity ?
danny gotze's user avatar
7 votes
4 answers

AVRDUDE does not recognize USBasp device

I'm am having issues with my USBasp programmer (Windows 10). I installed the WinUSB driver using zadig 2.4. When I run AVR dude with the following parameters ...
bas's user avatar
  • 581
16 votes
3 answers

Can you clarify what an 1NO1NC switch is?

I've come across multiple mentions of switches described as 1NO1NC. They often described as having 2 options: ON/(OFF) and (ON)/OFF and from what I gather they have 3 terminals for wires: a NO ...
Ben's user avatar
  • 305
51 votes
8 answers

How can I tell charge-only USB cables from USB data cables?

Like most computer hobbyists and programmers, I've amassed boxes of USB cables to connect USB, Micro-USB, and Mini-USB to chargers, computers, and gadgets. These cables are a mix of phone charger ...
Benzo's user avatar
  • 613
8 votes
4 answers

"Unknown subcircuit" in LTSpiceXVII

I'm attempting to simulate a circuit that is intended to take a 5V/GND input and make split +/- 2.5V rails with a virtual ground. When I try to simulate, LTSpice complains about "unknown subcircuit" ...
user avatar
-3 votes
6 answers

how to calculate total resistance in circuit with parallel and series resistors connected

A battery of EMF 8.0 V and internal resistance r = 1.0 – is connected to an external circuit as shown: I need to find out the total resistence and my problem is that I dont know which resistors ...
corkalom's user avatar
23 votes
7 answers

Torque kgcm (what is kgcm)?

I know what torque is but I find difficult to understand what Torque: 3kgcm means ? I am not sure, how much weight that motor can carry, and I want to know how I can calculate that. Please give me ...
Splendid's user avatar
  • 341
39 votes
7 answers

VHDL: Converting from an INTEGER type to a STD_LOGIC_VECTOR

I built a mod-16 counter, and the output result is a INTEGER (all the examples I saw used INTEGER). I built a hex-to-7-segment-display decoder, and its input is a STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (wrote it that way ...
J. Polfer's user avatar
  • 3,800
225 votes
7 answers

Why was Mini USB deprecated in favor of Micro USB?

Mini USB connectors were standardized as part of USB 2.0 in 2000. In 2007, the USB Implemeters Forum standardized Micro USB connectors, deprecating Mini USB connectors four months later. Why? What ...
Dan Fabulich's user avatar
  • 2,151
130 votes
5 answers

Difference between UART and RS-232?

Most of the time RS-232 and UART come together in serial communication theories. Are they both the same? From my readings I concluded UART is a hardware form of the RS-232 protocol. Am I correct?
tollin jose's user avatar
  • 3,192
19 votes
7 answers

Why does the thickness of a wire affect resistance?

A teacher explained why by using a highway analogy. The more lanes you have, the faster the cars go through, where the number of lanes obviously represent the wire thickness and the cars represent ...
user27379's user avatar
  • 193
11 votes
5 answers

What is the minimum required voltage for charging a 3.7 V Li-ion battery?

I have a cell phone battery that has the following written on one side: 3.7 V 1000mAh Limited charge voltage: 4.2 volts I understand that the first line means, that the battery will always give 3....
gpuguy's user avatar
  • 1,638
88 votes
5 answers

How much current can I draw from the Arduino's pins?

What's the maximum amount of current which I can draw from each of the Arduino's pins without tripping any of the internal fuses? Is there a limit per pin as well as an overall limit for the whole ...
berry120's user avatar
  • 1,917
33 votes
6 answers

Slow Blow vs Fast Acting Fuse

Is there any way to tell the difference between a slow blow and a fast acting Fuse? I had one blow in my amp and I know its 125v 5a, but i'm not sure if it is a slow blow or fast acting fuse. Is ...
Sean's user avatar
  • 1,074
3 votes
3 answers

What is reverse saturation current?

The official page of Wikipedia mentions that reverse saturation current is a part of minority current caused by the drift of charges. I am really confused about this. In class, we have been taught the ...
Abhishek Rastogi's user avatar
126 votes
7 answers

Why does micro USB 2.0 have 5 pins, when the A-type only has 4?

What is the extra, 5th, pin on micro usb 2.0 adapters for? Here is an image with the different connectors. Most of them have 5 pins, but the A-type host only has four. (source:
Sponge Bob's user avatar
  • 5,263