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# Questions tagged [analog]

Analog circuits have a range of voltages, rather than just two as in digital logic.

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### Calculating drain current with series N-channel MOSFETs

When two N-channel MOSFETS are connected in series, with common gate connections, then how can I analyze this circuit to determine Id through these MOSFETS, as a function of Vgs and Vds? simulate ...
1k views

### Analog analog multiplication, part of a hybrid CPU (for fun)

Short version: How do I make an analog multiplier that takes two analog DC inputs? Long version: I made a comment recommending Ben Eaters videos for another question, while doing so I ended up ...
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### Barkhausen Stability Criterion and when feedback can be considered positive

My analog design book says the following: "As a signal $S_\epsilon$ propagates around the loop and returns to the summer $\Sigma$ as $S_f$, it experiences a frequency-dependent phase ...
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### How to design differential sensing analog front end for self capacitive touch panel [closed]

Please tell me how to design circuit of analog front end for self capacitive touch panels by using multisim or ltspice software, show me the circuitry or its connections
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### Arduino mega 2560 Analog max reference voltage

Each time I power up the Arduino, the max reference voltage which is represented by 1023 changes. I observed this by measuring the voltage from the Aref pin each time. Is there any internal function ...
258 views

### How to calculate the voltage drop across a load connected in series to the secondary coil of a transformer

I need to know how to calculate the voltage drop across a load connected in series to the secondary coil of a transformer. I know the resistance (Rs) and inductance (Ls) of the secondary coil (and ...
478 views

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### Voltage doubler

I'm a little lost as to what is going on in this circuit. The book I am reading mentions that the load would see double the voltage of the input voltage. How does this work?
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### AD8304 strange behaviour with low current

I am currently experiencing a strange behaviour from my AD8304. I am using the AD8304 evalboard (the evalboard is described on pages 18 and 19 of the datasheet). To test it, I had connected a Keithley ...
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### How to design a rail to rail push-pull buffer? [closed]

In 180nm technology, I can't get the output from 0 to 5 volt for the input (0-5V.) The maximum output obtained is 1.64V to 3.46V.
1 vote
260 views

### Impedance matching in common collector

The last stage of a power amplifier to an 8 ohm speaker is usually a common collector. Now many textbooks mention that it is used as a buffer as it has a low output impedance compared to the speaker (...
1 vote
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Theoretical question: I have seen in many analog signal circuits that the analog input pin is pulled down through a resistance. Sometimes it is also pulled up and sometimes there is a capacitor ...
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### Calculating pulse width

The following circuit is taken from The Art of Electronics book. Assuming the base-emitter voltage drop of 0.6V for both the transistors, the C1 charges to approximately 4.4V (left-to-right) when ...
1 vote
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### How to properly ground an old turntable and tonearm?

I have a specific question about proper grounding of an old turntable that hopefully has some general merit for such older devices. This question came up while I was inspecting the wiring of the ...
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### Cadence Virtuoso CMOS layout: MIMcap become unrecognised after instantiating a new component

I have a really weird issue with the layout of my design (TSMC 0.18um BCD). I have three components (A, B and C), all of which are LVS and DRC clean and sitting in their own respectable NBLs. ...
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### Reverse engineering a 1.5 V spy earpiece [closed]

I am very interested in spy earpieces. They work on 1.5 V and amplify EMF signals generated by a nearby device. I wanted to get a circuit and re-create the spy earpiece but was not able to find ...
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### I need clarification for an audio power amplifier circuit component

Below is the block diagram of my first design using an audio power amplifier. The input to the audio power amplifier comes from an SC200 module by Quectel. The output of the PA is connected to a ...
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### How to use two or more ultrasonic transducer drivers?

My circuit is below, it has two ultrasonic transducers, transformers and drivers. The transformer is B78416A2232A003, the transducer is MCUSD14A40S09RS-30C, the driver is PGA460-Q1. Digital interface ...
1 vote
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### Cascode current mirror transistor biasing

I'm having trouble intuitively understanding how a MOSFET cascode current mirror functions. I understand that the purpose of M3 is to shield M2 such that variations in applied voltage do not affect ...
63 views

### Back calculating the input from output signal chain with an isolated amplifier and opamp

We are measuring the voltage of a charger using the below circuit with the help of an ADC present in a microcontroller. The value of charger voltage is required for some other applications. The value ...
1k views

### Why are there ripples in the passband of some filters, like the Chebyshev filter?

Please see the Bode magnitude plot as we steadily increase the input frequency to the filter. Why does the magnitude oscillate? What physical component(s) in the filter circuit is producing that ...
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### How to set the output impedance of this circuit?

Assuming no biasing, would setting the Re to 300 Ω be the proper method of impedance matching? simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I figure that at some point, a ...
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### Boost converter output formula and component values

I want to build a simple boost converter for learning purposes that outputs 12V/1A from a 5V/2A source. A simple boost converter has an inductor, diode, capacitor and some transistor that can be ...
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### Why do we want the input devices to dominate the thermal- and flicker-noise as well as mismatch?

I have thought about it and still cannot find a good reason for it. Why do we want the input devices to dominate the thermal- and flicker-noise as well as mismatch? This is from Tradeoffs and ...
780 views

### Microcontroller - Measure Resistance in Circuit

I am creating circuit that will control power of heater coil. For controling power I am using Arduino PWM that controls voltage and by Ohm's Law I am calculating desired power. P = V^2 / R Now the ...
183 views

### TI Design note Differential to Single-Ended Conversion clarification needed

The below image is from this TI design note. When I did my own calculation for $V_\text{out}$, I obtained a different equation (given below). V_\text{out} = (V_\text{outP} - V_\text{outN}) \times ...
1 vote
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### How does Vds affect the overall transconductance of this OTA?

I am trying to determine the sizing of transistors in the OTA as shown below, using the gm/id methodology. I wanted gm1 and gm2 to have much larger gm than the other transistors to reduce noise. I ...
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### If using these components, can a circuit still be defined as "analog"?

Taking a circuit using transistors, CMOS dividers and monostable multivibrators, can it be considered as analog one or it becomes digital?
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### Analog audio amplifier schematic

I am a complete noob in electronics and I have to design an analog audio amplifier (schematic in Capture CIS and calculus) for my CAD's semester project with the given input data: ...
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### Correct way of referring to property of a component in an equation

What is the correct way of referring to voltage drop of a diode in an equation? For example I want to show the output voltage of the following circuit in an equation Imagine that the diode is labeled ...
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### Passive linear circuit to generate high-voltage spikes from a 10 V peak-to-peak square wave

How to implement a passive linear cırcuıt to generate high-voltage spikes from a 10 V peak-to-peak square wave with a source resistance of 50 Ω with a frequency of less than 5 MHz? Peak value of the ...
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### How to detect voltage peaks above a set threshold?

I have a power source that will generate voltage peaks for a very short amount of time (around 20 - 100 Microseconds long). I am trying to develop an electrical circuit that will capture the peak ...
1 vote
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### What does this table mean in the context of an ADC

I found this ADC. I came across these noise tables. My questions: In Table 1 how are the paratheses values (uVpp) calculated? From Table 2 what do those values mean in practical terms?
1 vote
676 views

### Connect a geophone to an Arduino Uno board

I'm a student working with an Arduino Uno. I don't have much experience in electronics. I need a help to convert the analog data that coming from geophone as the output and save it from .wav format.
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### USB Type-C sink states

I'm a Digital engineer. I'm trying to understand how to write a testbench to verify the fsm state transitions in USB type C when acting as a sink, sink with accessory support and sink with try_sink ...
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### Understanding Bode Plot of power supply loop

I am trying to decode the bode plot of a feedback loop of power supply measured on Bode 100 (network analyser) in 'intuitive manner'. 1. High gain (60 to 40 dB) at lower frequencies (0 -100 Hz) ...
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### Why did this PIC circuit short circuit?

I have short circuit problem in an analog reader circuit with a PIC 18F4620. There is a potentiometer connected to pin AN0. The resistance value of the potentiometer is shown on a 7 segment display (...
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### Standards for measuring analog audio signal devices

I'm making a Analog Channel Strip for a project. I'm searching for standards that let me or give me an advice of how to measure Dynamic Range, THD and THD+N, SNR, Frequency Response and input/output ...
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### BJT selection for the reference circuit

I have simulated the below circuit in LTspice and found that the BJT (Q203) is having less power dissipation (~1mW) then the Q202 BJT. However, the designer selected a 200mW package for the Q203 and ...
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### Switch design for shorting the power control pins?

I have been struggling to design this switch for a while and I would appreciate any help. Problem Background: I'm designing a power system for a submersible, using the Mini-box OpenUPS battery ...
517 views

### Achieve -12~12V PWM Signal isolate

I have used IL300 to isolate 0~5V PWM signal before and it works great. The circuit is shown below. But now I need to isolate -12 ~ +12V PWM signal. Is there any possibility or suggested circuit to ...
96 views

### How can I decrease the update rate of the analog conversion?

I'm working on this analog converter circuit. The potentiometer is connected to pin AN0. The resistance value is shown on a 7 segment display. The circuit works fine but the ADC's update rate is too ...
285 views

### How does a current mirror work?

I'm trying to understand how current mirrors work. In the text book Microelectronics by Jacob Millman, section 3-11, example 3-8, there is a picture of a current mirror: They said if we consider \\$V_{...
228 views

### voltage divider inside differential op amp configuration

I'm working on a DIY analog synth based on the CEM3340 chip. When feeding it 12V at VCC it will output waves at different amplitudes that I'll want to scale to 5V to -5V: Square: 0-10.7V Sawtooth: 0-...
20 views

### Trying to ground ADC0832 properly

I trying to use ADC0832 for voltage and current measurement on Raspberry Pi 4, previously I was using MCP3008 for that purpose. But I want to simplify the system. So, I am trying to implement ADC0832, ...
198 views

### Transformer's capacitance

Our main purpose is create the transfer function of a transformer, and we want that for a resonance frequency higher than 1 MHz for our LLC transformer in an LED project. https://www.omicron-lab.com/...
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### Looking for a component that accepts a broad range of discrete values (e.g. 0 to 50 VDC) and outputs a LOGIC HIGH; otherwise output is LOGIC LOW [closed]

I am looking for a component that will accept multiple discrete values ranging from 0 to 50 VDC, but it doesn't have to be 50 VDC. I am looking for a broad range. This range could be 0 to 30 VDC or 0 ...
2k views

### Concept of Bootstrapping in Electronics

I was trying to study about bootstrapping in electronic circuits. When I checked in Internet Wiki says it is a method to improve the input impedance of an amplifier. In the power electronics context, ...