Questions tagged [architecture]

As used in EE.SE, it describes the physical topology and techniques of routing power, ground, data and control lines across a given area. This could be a CPU/MPU, circuit board or the lighting of LED's around a pool. Electrical parameters and physical (object) constraints ultimately decide the most efficient and safe layout. The term 'architecture' has no scale (size) until it is defined by schematics, diagrams, blue prints.

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CPU no pipeline vs 1 stage pipeline

I was taking the the P.E. practice exam and there is a question that shows a CPU without pipeline stages. There were options for both a 1 stage pipeline or that it was a non-pipelined architecture. ...
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Should I get rid of my bias towards active high?

I realise that in all my circuits I consider active-high the "natural" default and active-low a goofy situation that needs to be inverted. I pull down all data and control lines (resets, output enable,...
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What is the difference in VHDL between multiple architectures and multiple generate statements within one architecture?

Considering two cases: Case 1: A top file where, depending on a parameter P, I make use of the generate statements to ...
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What is the simplest instruction set that has a C++/C compiler to write an emulator for? [closed]

I'm looking into writing a little software emulator that emulates/runs instructions. The easiest would be to invent my own instruction set, but I thought it would be more fun if I write an emulator ...
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How does a computer know when to “get” the output from the ALU?

Basically what the title says, I guess I've got some sort of misconception or somthing probably. The ALU can have, say, a ripple carry adder which doesn't produce its entire output all at the same ...
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Embedded Architecture [closed]

The most common idea on 'new age' embedded devices - IoT Devices is using an Arm Cortex (Mostly M Series) processor as Central Unit and some Sensors and Peripherals for acquiring data and metrics (...
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How to select the most appropriate (serial) bus for controller?

In the context of a robotic project where different 'payloads' and/or robotics arms (end-deflector) should be mated mechanically with power, data and control connections support, I would like to ...
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1answer
45 views

Non-isolated DC power distribution for an appliance

I am building an appliance where we have a device where we need to have a +48 V/300 W DC power rail and a +24 V/300 W DC power rail. The AC (mains) should be world-compatible (both low- and high- ...
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AI hardware architecture

I am looking for more info on AI hardware architectures, but I am a bit confused. Here are my questions: Does it all come down to MACs(Multiply And Accumulate) units? Do MACs usually integrate into ...
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3answers
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Why is there a system controller and a microcontroller in the same FPGA?

I am starting to dig into the FPGA world. While exploring the FPGA SmartFusion2 architecture I found out that there is a microcontroller (ARM Cortex-M3) and at the same time a system controller. Why ...
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1answer
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How is pipelined DES different from sequential DES?

I implemented DES (Data Encryption Standard) Coder in VHDL using ISE IDE by Xilinx in sequential architecture which was pretty easy and straightforward. Now my task is to do the same using pipelined ...
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What is a Programmer's Model?

The manual of a computer processor usually includes a description of something called programmer's model. This section normally presents the core registers of the processor, operating modes, ...
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Internal physical layer in microcontrollers

I am working on a project and while doing the component selection I realised that many microcontrollers have MAC & PHY layer on the different chip. Except for TM4C1294 microcontroller (there might ...
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If a flip-flop D is given in input D = 1 when the clock is C = 1

If a flip-flop D is given in input D = 1 when the clock is C = 1, and then, when the clock becomes C = 0, D = 0, what will be the status eventually assumed by the flip-flop? Will it be 0?
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How is the code written in ARM7 compatible with ARM9?

I'm studying ARM families, In the above image, it is written that the code by supported ARM7 can be migrated to ARM9 and others. ARM7 uses the Von-Neumann architecture (single bus for data and ...
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PIC32 vs dsPIC vs ARM vs AVR, does the architecture matter when we are programming in C-language anyways? [closed]

We are currently using 32-bit PIC32 Microcontroller. It is working fine for our needs, but we are also exploring other microcontollers that can suite us better + we have other projects for which we ...
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Step-down voltage directly or in intermediate steps?

Couldn't make up my mind :P Characteristics: 12V-80V Vin (DC) 3.3V system In general terms (considering architecture and design) is it better to do directly 3.3V from Vin or is it better to do ...
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802 views

Replace ALU With Lookup Table? [closed]

Disclaimer: So this is obviously a silly question and I want to start by saying I don't want to discuss the financial costs of this, as I'm aware CPU cache is expensive. As this hasn't been made ...
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143 views

What affects the design of a SOC or uC to offer XIP or RAM for code execution

I have been trying to understand the factors in controller / SoC design such that it can execute code from either XIP flash or from a RAM. There are controllers that support an XIP flash of around 5MB ...
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1answer
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unconnected line (xx,yy) to (XX,YY) - Altium designer

Newbie in Altium designer here. I have read the online documentation from Altium, however, I still have a warning when trying to compile my schematic in Altium: my schematic: The warning says: ...
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What actually happens when we set direction on GPIOs in controllers ?

Generally, while working on GPIO pins of any controller/device, we set the directions for the GPIO pins. Let's say in LPC2148(ARM7 core) controller, we have IODIR to configure the direction of Pin. We ...
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1answer
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What is an architecture?

I've read many times the terms: cpu architecture hardware architecture software architecture computer architecture And so I thought an architecture describes the structure (layout,interface, ...
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What type of processor in usual 8-digits pocket calculator?

There are a lot of +,-,*,/,CE,MC,M+,M-,MR buttons 8-digits calculators on market with keyboard layout like: ...
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project RT level using register [closed]

to every one. excuse my poor english. may someone help me resolve this problem. What does RT level means? A,B,C,D,W,X,Y and Z are register of n bit. project the RT level of this function just using on ...
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Difference between multiple pipelines and superscalar?

I have read some threads and the wiki articles, but still don't seem to understand what exactly the difference is between having multiple parallel pipelines and the superscalar architecture. I know ...
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6answers
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how to know how many bits a microcontroller has?

How can I know what kind of architecture a microcontroller has? For example where can I read in the datasheet of the pic 16F873 how many bits architecture is? 8, 16, 32? Next question what does: What ...
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244 views

Can we declare output as “inout” to design a flip flop in VHDL?

I want to design a JK flip flop in VHDL. In this output depends on previous state. One method to implement this condition is by declaring a state as a signal inside the architecture. Another method ...
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355 views

Example Instruction Set Architechture

Not entirely sure which stack site to post this question to, but I'll give this section a whirl. I have a question on my homework which reads as follows: Instruction Set Architecture. You are ...
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1answer
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Serial communication best practices

I actually need to communication between my pc and a device using serial protocol through USB. I'm looking for some guidances and best practices and messaging architecture. Do you know any reference ...
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Why do some Integrated Circuits get so hot?

I was reading an article about Radeon 6990 recently and it was recommending 1200 Watts of power supply and the entire machine to be kept dipped in mineral oil because air cooling would kill it in a ...
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613 views

Accessing an SRAM Array?

As im learning about Computer Architecture im trying to understand it from the ground up (Transistors in CMOS in particular) I came across the simple 6T schematic for SRAM (2 inverters) Mostly makes ...
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3answers
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VHDL: Architecture naming and interpretation

Note: I am using Xilinx's ISE and have an FPGA board to work with (with switches and lights and so on), and I've hacked together some simple projects so far. At the same time I'm reading several ...
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How does the Harvard architecture help?

I was reading about arduino and the AVR architecture and got stuck at the point that how does pipeline stall or bubbling is solved by Harvard architecture introduction in the AVR.I mean what Harvard ...
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1answer
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What is CLK in UART/USART used for?

I'm studying computer architecture at my university and I've been recently asked a question: what is CLK used for in UART/USART? The first obvious thing is that it is used for dividing frequency when ...
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Sorting of data from instructions ( ARM I-cache and D-cache )

Some ARM cores like the ARM9 family of cores have a Harvard Architecture, at least at the cache level. That is they access two seperate caches, an I-cache for instructions and a D-cache for data ( ...
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1answer
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What's the purpose of this checkerboard pattern?

This gigabit Ethernet NIC has a checkerboard pattern out of copper etched on the PCB: Each square is electrically isolated. What's the point of adding these? I guess that the PCB isn't filled with a ...
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Advantages of 32-bit 48-96 Mhz microprocessors (such as in Arduino Due)

It seems Arduino Due ( 32-bit, 84 Mhz, ARM-Cortex-M3-based SAM3X8E ) was released today. In addition, clearly there is a myriad of processors in this category ( 32-bit / 48-96 Mhz / ARM ) as well as ...
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Why are there no 256-bit or 512-bit microprocessors?

In an 8-bit microprocessor its data bus consists of 8 data lines. In a 16-bit microprocessor its data bus consists of 16 data lines and so on. Why is there neither a 256-bit microprocessor nor a 512-...
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5answers
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How do I design my very own ARM based processors?

I have several questions about how I would design my own ARM-based CPU? How does one start with an ARM license and end up with a package ready to be soldered on to a board? What do I get from ARM (I ...
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Why is a datapath in microcontrollers always a power of 2 wide?

Microcontrollers data paths are always a power of 2 wide: 4 bit, 8, 16, 32 bit, etc. Even PICs which use 12-bit wide instructions are 8-bit controllers. Why? Is there any design advantage to this? ...
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What are the properties of an N-bit microcontroller?

I've heard of 8 bit microcontrollers and 16-bit microcontrollers. I've even heard about 7 bit microcontrollers and 1 bit microcontrollers. What are the general attributes of these groups? How do I ...
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300 views

System on chip questions

I was reading about System on Chip on wikipedia and I was wondering Is the iPhone an example of this? Is the system saved on a processor? How is the system actually put on the device? Thanks!
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Constructing a logic circuit with a control line

I have a question about logic gates. I am wondering how to construct a logic circuit that makes its outputs c and d equal to its inputs a and b when a control is set to 0. If the control is set to 1, ...
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How to select a DSP chip for ECG/EMG signals

I want to select a DSP chip which I can use for some ECG/EMG signal processing. I am looking for an evaluation kit. The input signals are already in digital format (taken from phsionet.org). I am also ...
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634 views

Efficient spike detecting Microprocessor or DSP architecture

I am looking for microcontroller or DSP (or its architectures) which are efficient in terms of power as well as performance in detecting spikes. I want to run an algorithm which detects spikes and ...
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2answers
517 views

Looking for a open-source ALU

I am looking for a open ALU to compute several equations like these: y1 = e^((constant1 - x)^2/(2*x)) y2 = constant2/y1 y3 = y2*constant3 + x*constant4 Where x ...
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Digital Architecture Design Question: Fast way to perform a floating point exponential operation

does anyone knows how is the fast way to perform a floating point exponential operation? (like this y = 2.71^(3.45)) Thank you to all posible links to references or articles. EDIT: I am pondering ...
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Resources to learn about the AVR/RISC architecture

I think I have used enough of the AVR series by atmel to say that I understand how to use it. I know somethings about how it actually works, but I would like to know more. Are there any good resources ...
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Why does more transistors = more processing power?

According to Wikipedia, processing power is strongly linked with Moore's law: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore's_law The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an ...
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What are different types of computer architectures?

I am going through the book "Elements of computing systems". This book teaches how to build a whole computer from scratch. While I was just browsing the chapters on computer architecture, I noticed ...