# Questions tagged [bit-rate]

Questions relating to the rate at which bits are transmitted over a channel (wired or wireless). Usually specified in bits/s or a multiple of that unit. Related but not the same as baud rate or symbol rate.

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### SPI: effective payload throughput per clock tick?

Let's say I'm clocking a SPI bus at 30 MHz. What payload throughput can I actually expect? 30 Mbps, or less? (E.g. are high overheads imposed by pauses, control packets, packet headers, packet ...
9k views

### Wireless Audio Transmitter

I am working on a project that will digitize an audio signal from a standard RCA jack and transmit that signal using Bluetooth to a receiver and then convert it back to an analog signal which I will ...
10k views

### How to calculate the data rate of LoRa?

Picture below is from this web, how to calculate the data rate ? For example, how much kbps is Bw125Cr48Sf4096 ?
3k views

### Does the fundamental frequency affect the bit rate on a wire?

This is from the book Computer Networks by Tennenbaum: The bandwidth is still the width of the band of frequencies that are passed, and the information that can be carried depends only on this ...
2k views

### Why a high number of harmonics means a lower bitrate?

I am studying on a book (I'm still at basics) and I haven't understood why a signal with a lower number of harmonics implies a low bit rate. I have this figure: It clearly shows how a signal with a ...
292 views

### How can I be sure that a multi-bit-per-symbol encoding schema exists?

(I came up with this question when I try to understand bit rate and baud rate.) Suppose I have some data to transfer. And the data is binary encoded as a data amount of N bits. If I use 2 symbols to ...
6k views

### Nyquist theorem, seems wrong to me

For Nyquist theorem, for channels without noise the bit rate is: $N=2B\log_2(L)$ N= bit rate, B= bandwidth, L= number of levels Intuitively I say that it should be: $N=B\log_2(L)$ ...
225 views

### UART bit-rate vs frequency fundamentals

I am analysing some requirements regarding the sampling to be performed on a UART. There is information provided however I am slightly confused by it and would like some clarification: "The UART ...
104 views

### 40% Channel Utilization on 1Mb Satellite

Using the Slide Window technique, consider a satellite channel with: 500 byte frames sends 270 ms delay on send and receive 1 Mbps rate communication protocol is Sliding-windows Ignore the length ...
183 views

### How to stretch high frequency digital signals (e.g., MIDI) into the audio range

I'm curious about the possibility of sonifying MIDI data, which has a bitrate of 31250. The range of human hearing extends to about 20kHz, which means that the fastest bits of the signal would lie ...
518 views

### Why is the data rate a function of the length of the transmission line?

The length of a transmission line is limiting the highest possible data rate on that line. Why are faster signals more likely to become corrupted on long transmission lines than on shorter ones, with ...
66 views

### Expected percentage of collisions for uni-directional wireless transmissions

I am developing battery-powered sensors to measure different parameters inside my house. The measurements are taken by simple AVR controllers (no Arduino) at more or less regular intervals and will ...
1k views

### Difference between spectral efficiency and bit rate

I am reading articles about error correcting codes, facing to a term "spectral efficiency". Due to the context, I guessed that it means "bit rate", but I wonder are these two terms equivalent or not? ...
327 views

### How do they read out HD, high frame rate CCD image sensors

Having little experience with CCD image sensors, I have learned that reading pixels via shift registers from a relatively large size CCD must be fast to achieve some reasonable frame rate. Let's say, ...
139 views

### MSP430 Baud Rate Generation: Datasheet Discrepancy

My project is based around the MSP430F5529. From the MSP430x5xx family user guide: NOTE: Baud-rate settings quick set up To calculate the correct the correct settings for the baud-rate ...
266 views

### Can I use a CAN-bus for acquiring data.

I am trying to develop a robotic system that has a distributed DAQ system with one main computer that has the high level control loop. I have a question about the data that has to be transmitted ...
2k views

### Serial LVDS camera interface

I am interested in using the greyscale version (VM-010-BW-LVDS) of this camera module: VM-010: phyCAM-S camera module, WVGA monochrome I want to use the camera with external trigger (in snapshot ...
3k views

### How can the Nyquist theorem for the maximum bit-rate of a noiseless channel be derived?

I've been given the formula: $$I = 2* H * log_2(L)$$ where: $I$ = Maximum data rate in bits per second for a noiseless channel $H$ = Bandwidth that the channel will carry (that is, the range ...
121 views

### How does Nyquist bit rate formula relate Bandwidth, Signal Rate, and Bit Rate?

I know what each of Bandwidth, Signal rate, and Bit rate mean. But I am having trouble in their mathematical relationship with each other. I will use the notation of the textbook I am reading from (...
266 views

### 8051 baud rate calculator using 16-bit timer for software UART timing

I'm making a project in which pulsed laser beam data is sensed through many optical sensors (one sensor per port pin), so essentially, I'm going to be making 4 UARTs to sense this. Currently I am ...
301 views

### Is there a fieldbus with more than 250 nodes per segment?

We plan to realize a sensor cable several 1000m long which has ideally every 1-2m a magnetic field sensor on a small 10x30mm platine with microprocessor/FPGA for DSP and I2C on chip communication. ...
198 views

### Half-duplex Bit-Banged Port for 8051 microcontrollers too slow?

I was looking at: https://www.maximintegrated.com/en/app-notes/index.mvp/id/3524 and it claims that one can achieve over 2mbps on a 32Mhz clock when bit-banging with an 8051. That means 1mbps on 16Mhz....
1k views

### Baud to bit mapping for the UART?

Before starting the question, a reminder of the difference between on how a baud rate and a bit rate relate. Two people are standing 1km apart and they want to exchange a 8 bits of data. ...
2k views

### What is the maximum bitrate supported in the Can Bus?

i began reading about Can Bus for my final year project i have to send a file to be flashed into the microcontroller using the CAN BUS . I have found that the maximum bitRate that can be achieved is ...
391 views

### What's the relationship between samples and bits?

I was talking to a friend today that I have a transmitter which is capable of sending 128 samples/second. Note that each sample is a voltage level represented by a floating point decimal. He then ...
359 views

### CAN bus - bit timing

I am trying to work with a Microchip MCP2515 CAN Controller (16 MHz oscillator) alongside a MCP2551/61 CAN transceiver. I have been successful trying to setup the device via SPI, but I am unable ...
112 views

### What is the minimum freqeuncy required to transmit 2400 bits per second? [closed]

Yes we can use diiferent symbols and modulation sechemes for example QAM ,DPSK,QPSK etc... you can use any modulation secheme. What will be or can be the minimum frequency to transmit information ...
225 views

### What does ECLK rate mean?

I'm reading a spec doc on some CPU and I didn't get what does this mean: The CPU core requires only a single clock input at the ECLK rate What does ECLK abbreviation stand for? What does ECLK rate ...
83 views

### Schmitt trigger inverters or regular inverters for clean high speed data processing

I made a circuit in which data is passed in from phototransistors (part# PT334-6C) into a microcontroller (part# AT89C4051) serial port via schmitt trigger inverters (part# 74HC14) and a demultiplexer ...
39 views

### THINNET 10BASE2 Network using RG-58 Coaxial Cable operating frequecy?

I am trying to figure out what the signal frequency of a 10BASE2 network is. Specifically the frequency of the signal being carried over coaxial cable. Data transfer is 10Mbps and the network adapters ...
59 views

### calculating maximum sense speed of amplified phototransistor circuit

I made the following photo-transistor circuit to sense light with the exact parts shown. Resistors are 5% tolerance 1/4 watt. The circuit does work, but what I would like to know is how do I calculate ...
537 views

### Dual mode Bluetooth for transmitting audio and connecting with an App [closed]

​Hi my name is Raveen Baloo from Singapore. Currently, I'm working on a project, building a case box which has a MCU and a LCD screen. A removable bluetooth dongle is connected to the case box which ...
341 views

### wireless sensor baud rate calculation

I need to calculate baud rate of wireless sensor which operates on 433.92Mhz and uses OOK modulation. Signal wave form and packet structure are known. Packet = 36bit (44.7ms), each bit consists of 2 ...
1k views

### Baudrate and BTR0/BTR1

I am creating an application that uses standard function that sets bitrate. The parameters required are BTR0 and BTR1. But the user of my application will enter the standard value of the Baudrate (eg. ...
119 views

### frequency allocation for telecommunication companies

For a high bit rate in data communication we need a high bandwidth. Suppose there are hundreds of carriers in a particular region and they are all allocated microwave frequencies. Minimum spacing ...
20 views

### Data rate with modulation and conventional encoding

I had a rather simple question. Say I had a SISO communications system with an information data rate of 50 Mbps that uses QPSK modulation and a rate 1/2 conventional coding. What would be my symbol ...
20 views

### sampling rate and bit resolution for Scanning Probe Microscopy

I am trying to compare two products and see which one offers higher performance in terms of sampling rate and bit resolution. Below are the specs I was able to gather from product1 and product 2. (...
20 views

### Determing proper wireless parameters for HMTRP radio module

I'm trying to properly setup an HM-TRP FSK radio module to send and receive data the best it can at 56kbps. I think I'm wrong with setting it up to use 600Khz "receive bandwidth" and 160Khz "modulate ...
51 views

### Connecting mixed-speed multiple serial devices to two microcontrollers

I'm trying to figure out the best way to integrate all devices flawlessly on the 8051 based microcontrollers. If each device was the same low speed, then I could multiplex each and every one of them ...
60 views

### Serial baud calculation without using serial interrupt - 8051

Here's the situation. I have a project which utilizes multiple sensors and connects to another unit through standard UART (8N1). Because no data needs to be missed from any device, I made the ...
183 views

### How does widening the frequency band allows us to make faster pulses in a radio link?

I’m new to radio communication and completely ignorant in the topic. I spent some time writing software which includes calculation of the channel capacity (in bits/second or symbols/second or bauds) ...
707 views

### How to calculate bit time of any signal?

Given a data rate or clock rate, how to calculate bit time of any signal/interface? As per what I know, bit time = 1/data rate. Is it correct? I got a little confused when I could not calculate the ...
38 views

### measuring the BER for various input data rate over a custom made channel

I have a wireless channel, for which I need to pass binary bits and input and measure the BER at the output. The problem for me here is varying the data rate at the input. How can I represent the ...
1k views

### Using HC05 Bluetooth SerialPort to stream music/voice via Arduino

I'm considering streaming music/voice over Bluetooth serial link (via HC05) from PC to Arduino. By doing this, there would be no need for a SD card. Here is the questions I have. Any help is ...
61 views

### Minimum threshold fm equation

I have been searching and working to understanding this equation below in relation to FM signals minimum threshold. Pr [dBm]= (Eb/N0)+10∗log10(Rb)+N0 −Gm Eb is the energy per bit to noise power ...
839 views

### UART speed limitation factors? [duplicate]

I want to ask about using UART to send data from uC to PC. So I have some questions. I wonder what is the maximum of the UART bit rate? What factors affect the UART speed? For example does using DMA ...
175 views

### MCP4131 with 8 - bit

I am using MCP4131 with 7 - bit ( 0 - 127 ). Datasheet said that, it can work bit 7 and 8 bit and i definetly need to use it with 8 bit ( 0 - 255 ). Here is my code below; ...
844 views

### How to measure the actual bits of data transfer over a USB cable? [closed]

EDIT 1 I am doing an investigation and I have to do an experiment and write a report based on different USB speeds. Edit 2 To explain my investigation again, I am trying to measure the rate of data ...