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Questions tagged [bjt]

BJT stands for Bipolar Junction Transistor. It is a three-terminal electronic device constructed of doped semiconductor material and may be used in amplifying or switching applications.

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Why is Vbc absent from bjt equations?

In BJT biasing the voltages Vbe and Vce are always present in calculations. Is the voltage Vbc absent from any equation because one of the collector, base and emitter is grounded or any other reason ...
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Why would one drive LEDs with a common emitter?

I've seen tutorials aimed at beginners suggest the way to drive an LED from something without enough current drive is this: (option A) but why not this: (option B) Option B seems to have some ...
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BJT in Reverse Active Mode of Operation

What will happen if for a BJT transistor it's Emitter terminal is treated as collector and collector as Emitter in a common Emitter amplifier circuit?
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Why can't two series-connected diodes act as a BJT?

Another form of the question is: will joining two diodes with wires (pn-np) make a transistor-equivalent? I read that they are not equivalent, but why?
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A question about Vce of an NPN BJT in saturation region

Below is an NPN transistor symbol and the voltages at its terminals are Vb, Vc and Ve with respect to the ground: I read that: during the saturation the Vce = (Vc-Ve) settles to around 0.2V and the ...
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How do BJT transistors work in a saturated state?

This is what I know about NPN BJTs (Bipolar Junction Transistors): The Base-Emitter current is amplified HFE times at Collector-Emitter, so that Ice = Ibe * HFE <...
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Terminology for BJT “regions of operation”

How regions (modes) of operation are defined and correctly named? The most controversial thing is the so named “saturated region/mode”. It is defined differently, sometimes radically different, in ...
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Differential and Multistage Amplifiers(BJT)

I want to determine the currents in each of the branches. I could analyse the current mirror portion and the differential amplifier portion, but facing problem thereafter. I could find the ...
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Why can't class A amp drive 8 ohm speaker with just one BJT?

I designed this class A amplifier. It's my first attempt at designing an amplifier with transistors. My objective is to build a guitar amplifier with tubes, but I figured that building an amp with ...
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How do I saturate an NPN transistor?

I understand that in "saturation mode", a BJT functions as a simple switch. I've used this before driving LEDs, but I'm not sure I understand clearly how I got the transistor into that state. Does a ...
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6answers
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When is a MOSFET more appropriate as a switch than a BJT?

In my experimentation, I've used only BJTs as switches (for turning on and off things like LEDs and such) for my MCU outputs. I've been repeatedly told, however, that N-channel enhancement-mode ...
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How does this constant current sink actually work?

I have implemented a constant current source and it works wonderfully, but I was just hoping to try and understand it a little bit more! Here is the circuit in question: I have tried doing some ...
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BJT 2 stage Amp. Output problem

So I built the following circuit to amplify the output from my microphone. I am testing it using a 1KHz sinewave of 10mV peak value. The Mic is biased using a 10k resistor. The signal is input into a ...
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BJT Input AC Signal Amplitude

This question is referring to npn BJT CE: If we look at base voltage vs. collector current plot we can see that at approximately 0.7V on base to emitter junction, the BJT starts rapidly conducting. ...
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Basic operation of a bipolar junction transistor

I've tried really hard to understand the basic operational principle of a transistor. I've referred to many books and been to forums but have never got a convincing answer. Here are the things I want ...
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Design of a discrete BJT current buffer for low-current op amp

I built and simulated this BJT current buffer for an opamp based on examples I found in various places online: Link to simulation of above schematic It simulates fine, but I am pretty sure it will ...
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Prevent high-side BJT saturation

I am building high-speed (10-20ns on BC847-class transistors) digital "buffer"/"inverter" out of BJTs. Scheme is attached. While I can prevent saturation of low-side BJT by adding Schottky diode, it'...
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What do multiple emitters/collectors imply in a BJT schematics symbol?

I sometimes come across with BJT symbols from which multiple lines come out of emitter or collector. Are such BJTs different kind of devices? What does it mean in solid-state level?
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How does early voltage affect collector current?

The transistor in the following circuit is said to feature \$I_{C} = 1.0mA\$ at \$V_{BE} = 0.7V\$ and \$V_{CE} = 10V\$. If \$V_{A} = 50V\$ and \$\beta = 50\$, find \$V_{B}\$ and \$V_{C}\$. simulate ...
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ICEO, ICBO physical interpretation in BJT

I am stuck with the equation: ICEO = (1+β) ICBO My questions are: What is the physical interpretation of this equation? Will both the currents exist simultaneously? Are any of the reverse currents ...
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BJT Amplifier with Emitter Bypass Capacitor Design [closed]

I am trying to design a BJT amplifier. The circuit is shown below with its parameters. beta=180 RL=20kΩ VA=0 (early effect can be ignored) VCC=15V There are three constraints listed below: Swing ...
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About BJT, JFET & MOSFET transconductance

For BJT, the term "gm" refers to base-emitter conductance. But when we are talking about FETs and MOSFETs, where is this "gm"? Between gate-source junction for JFET? Drain to source conductance for ...
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BJT common-base output resistance derivation

In Sedra/Smith the following image may be founded that is used for output resistance equation derivation of common-base BJT amplifier. The question is why the gm*v and v/re currents are directed up? ...
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BJT base connected to ground and still operates?

When in university I used to get confused how a transistor (NPN) can draw current from ground. I'm now studying power amplifiers and again, this same configuration appears. How does Ir draw current ...
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BJT Bias Design and Operating

I'm to the task to design a BJT Common-Emitter Amplifier with resistance at the emitter as in the figure, and for that I need to: get the values for \$R_{1}\$, \$R_{2}\$, \$R_{C}\$ and \$R_{E}\$ ...
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Dependence of transistor current gain on operating conditions

According to "Gray & Meyer: Analysis and Design of Analog integrated circuits" transistor current gain Beta (in forward-active region) depend on operating conditions of the transistor. Region 1 ...
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When to use what transistor

So there are several types of transistors: BJT JFET MOSFET Combine all that with the various flavors of each (NPN, PNP, enhancement mode, depletion mode, HEXFET, etc) and you've got a wide array of ...
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Why pull base of BJT switch?

I often notice usage pull resistor for base of bipolar transistor, e.g. \$R2\$ here: Why it's used? I understand pull resistors for FETs, because of gate's high impedance an EMI can easy switch it. ...
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Do I need a base resistor for a BJT?

I have a 74HC595 shift register that I shift bits into from an 5v Arduino. The pins on the shift register is connected to the base of 2N3904 BJT's through a 4.7kOhm resistor. I have noticed that if I ...
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How does the current travel in Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)?

I am completely unable to understand the current direction in npn transistor. in figure 1, the red arrow indicates the electron flow(which is from emitter terminal to collector terminal). thus ...
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How to dual power PIC18F4550?

In the datasheet there is this shematic how to dual power 18F4550. However they don't specify which transistor to use and what resistor values have to be. For capacitor I use 100uF (diode side) and ...
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Learning Multiplexing with LEDs, transistor switching speeds

I am working with some friends trying to multiplex. The issue we run into is we aren't sure if we are hitting a limit on transistor switching speeds. I am unsure if this is a hardware or software ...
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A confusion about the formula for transistor Vbe Ic characterisitcs

Below is NPN BJT transistor Vbe Ic characteristics and the formula: Many texts approximate this equation as: Ic = Is*e^(Vbe/Ut) and following this they say when Vbe=0, Ic becomes equal to Is. ...
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How to keep current from draining out the bottom of this push-pull amplifier?

In an earlier question I asked about driving a speaker with a BJT transistor. @Jonk offered a push-pull amplifier design of his own, and @G36 noted its similarity to the JLH amplifier described in a ...
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Alternating between two LEDS using BJTs

I would like to control the output of two LEDs with a single pushbutton. When the button is open, D2 should be off and D3 should be on; when the button is closed, D2 should be on and D3 should be off. ...
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Why does the collector current direction remain the same in saturation and active region?

The collector current direction remains same in both active and saturation state where the former puts the base collector junction reverse biased and the latter puts the base collector junction ...
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For this current mirror circuit, what is the effect of doubling of the emitter area of transistor Q3?

The transistors have finite β and an infinite early voltage. Derive the expression for \$ I_0 \$ in terms of \$ I_{REF} \$and β. In this question Io has to be represented in terms of \$I_{REF} \$.......
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Effect of bootstrapping in amplifier circuit

I am trying to understand this "bootstrap bias" amplifier circuit. The picture below is adapted from the book "Transistor Techniques" by G. J. Ritchie: This circuit is a variation of the "voltage ...
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How is this circuit for interfacing 20V signal with 3v3 microcontroller

I have designed the following circuit to interface a 12-20V signal to a microcontroller running on 3.3 volts. The signal is either 20V or open circuit. I want the circuit to be as resilient as ...
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615 views

Pass device selection for bench DC power supply

I'm designing a DC Bench Power Supply. This one will be 0-30V, 0-300mA, but I expect I'll try some heftier models once I've gotten this one worked out. I'm following the general design procedure ...
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MOSFETs or BJTs for using as switch for audio signals

I was wondering which component is better for using as voltage controlled switch for audio signals (e.g. music signal from mp3 player). Should I use MOSFETs or BJTs? The max rail voltage is ...
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Is BJT a Voltage controlled device or Current controlled device?

I have searched already for this question, but everywhere I see debate instead of clear answer. Though it is not that important of a matter whether we call it a voltage controlled device or current ...
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1answer
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How to determine current limiting resistor values for push pull amplifier driven by op amp?

I'm looking to increase the output current drive of a high voltage op amp using a push pull amplifier. The OPA454 datasheet includes an application circuit to do exactly this, and includes some ...
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1answer
601 views

Increasing the compliance voltage range for a variable, two-quadrant constant current pin-driver circuit

The following is for hobbyist work and I have no commercial intentions at all. Only a handful (two?) will be built. (I use these for part testing and curve generation, though with the higher voltage ...
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6answers
1k views

Why would the transistor not switch?

I was reading an example from a text book. And for this circuit above the author claims when R3 is less than 100 ohm Q3 will not switch. I couldn't figure out the "reason" why. But I verified with ...
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Zener Noise Generator - NPN BJT Amplifier Analysis

I'm interested in creating a low voltage white noise generator by means of a zener diode, as detailed here: Zener & BJT Noise Generator. Specifically, I want to use the circuit here, in order to ...
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4answers
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Why emitter follower is so noisy and distorted in large signal?

I have a signal around 20 V peak-peak. I want to feed it into an emitter follower BJT and I have no experience in working with such large signals. The BJT is well in bias point ( I tested the ...
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Confusion about the meaning of re and rπ

In BJT small-signal models there is both re and rπ parameters. They both represent the dynamic resistor between the base and the emitter terminals. But I read that they are different by a factor of β ...
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What's the difference between NPN and PNP transistors?

Suppose that I know how an NPN transistor works. How different is a PNP transistor? What are the operational differences between a PNP and a NPN?
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What's the usage of two NPN transistors with their bases and collectors tied together?

I'm thinking to know what is the usage of these parts of this circuit. Source It's the schematic of UT70C Digital multimeter.