# Questions tagged [control-system]

A system that may be electronic circuits or even software that uses control theory (principally differential equations) to control an output by monitoring various aspects of the system under control and varying inputs all towards meeting a defined goal. Some famous examples are controlling a rockets thrust angle to ensure directional control.

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### Advice on connecting heater directly to SP2 relay of PID controller?

I have an old Omega CN-9121 PID Controller and a 105Watts 115V Fibre heater mantle with an inbuilt K-type CHromel-Alumel temperature thermocouple also attached into it. I plan to use the PID ...
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### Interpreting basic contact and switch behaviour in a control system diagram

This might sound a stupid question but in a control system using buttons and contacts I have a bit confusion when it comes to picturing the real device. As an example if we have the following diagram: ...
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### Doubt on singular value decomposition

I am studying control systems and I am studying the topic of Singular Value Decomposition(SVD). I have found a transfer matrix of a systemm, and computed its DC gain. Then I have performed the ...
107 views

### PI Compensator (for DC-DC Converter Control) transfer function derivation

Here is a PI compensator implemented using a OP-AMP. However, I'm wondering why Gc(s) = - vc/v, instead of vc/v. Not quite sure why there is a negative sign here since Gc(s) is defined as vc/v if I'm ...
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### State-Space-Model from more dimensional Transfer-Function

Im trying to extract the State-Space-Model for an cascaded Buck/Boost-Converter from an set of Transfer-functions $G(s)$ (which I generated with Plecs/Matlab). First of all I want to analyse the ...
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### When do the positive sequence negative sequence, and zero sequence apprea?

I have analyzed three phases current in different cases, but I am still confused about some cases. Positive and Negative sequences are appeared but not the zero. Zero sequences is appeared, while ...
84 views

### Why does a pole at high frequencies attenuates noise?

I am trying to understand the concept of realizability for an improper transfer function, and I am struggling to understand some concepts. I know that if I have an improper transfer function, for ...
86 views

### What is a non causal system?

I am stydying control systems, and I am trying to understand better the topic of causality. I know that a system is causal if the actual state depends only on the past states and on the present ...
533 views

### What supplies ATS control circuit when the mains fail?

In a church, I've seen a large generator and ATS panel (automatic transfer switch) so that the generator turns on when there is a failure in the mains. If there is no power in the mains, How does the ...
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### Why if I add a pole at high frequencies to an improper transfer function it becomes realizable?

Suppose I have an improper transfer function, for example: $T(s)=\frac{s^2+1}{s+2}$ I know that this transfer function is unrealizable. Moreover, I have seen that to make it realizable it is ...
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### RHP zeros in control systems

In the slides of the following link is expressed the concept I am trying to understand : slides I am studying control systems. I have seen that if I have a zero in the RHP, by using decoupling I can ...
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### How do I get the transfer functions of each channel for a control system?

Consider acontrol system with the following transfer matrix: $G(s)=\begin{pmatrix} G_{11}(s) & G_{12}(s)\\ 0&G_{22}(s) \end{pmatrix}$ and suppose I want to get the transfer functions ...
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### op amp stability theory

A little stuck and could use some help. This TI stability App Note on page 15 calculates the Thevenin equivalent circuit of a capacitively loaded op-amp and I can't figure out how they get that form ...
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### What does a peak in the complementary sensitivity function means?

I am studying control systems, and I am focusing on the concept of Sensitivity function and Complementary sensitivity function. I have seen that the sensitivity function is related to disturbance ...
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### How do I find value of gain that stablizes the system from root locus?

Consider the following root locus: which is obtained by the following code: ...
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### Condition for absolute stability

A necessary condition for absolute stability of a system is Gain cross over frequency < Phase cross over frequency Where Gain cross over frequency is the frequency at which Gain = 1 or 0 dB ...
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### Buck Converter Feedback Circuitry

Recently I have been studying feedback in switching power converters, and one thing that is still a bit confusing to me is the way the error amplifier is implemented. Here is what the control diagram ...
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### Switching frequency and controller's crossover frequency in DC-DC converters

In the context of control loop stability of DC-DC Converters, A switch mode power supply is essentially a sampled-data system, therefore the theoretical maximum bandwidth is one half the switching ...
267 views

### finding zeta and wn for a 4th order system?

If we have a 4th order system,such as the one in snapshot, how we can find its undamped natural frequency and damping ratio? Because on wikipedia ,i found case of 2nd order system and couldn't find ...
428 views

### Why gain crossover frequency must be lower than phase crossover frequency for stable systems?

As far as I understood from here, phase margin means the amount of phase that needs to be added in order to coincide with 0 db gain and -180 degrees phase. Likewise for the gain margin it means means ...
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### how to properly integrate kalman filter in a project?

this can be a little bit complex to understand, so I ll try my best to explain and hopefully someone can answer me or guide me on this. I'm doing a time series prediction on some data that I have, ...
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### Stability of SMPS designed for a motherboard

Many books have covered the stability of many configurations of switch mode power supplies and they have given details on how to set the poles and the zeros of the compensator to make the the power ...
184 views

### Is unstable system unstable for ALL inputs?

We define system to be stable if for all bounded inputs, it will give bounded output at all times. But does unstable system means it will have unbounded output for any input? This question is ...
145 views

### Meaning of “ramp time”?

I have read that ramp means slope but what is the meaning of "ramp time" ? For example,if we have a saw-tooth wave,what will be its ramp time? Please kindly explain with figure/graphics