Questions tagged [cpu]

The CPU, known as the Central Processing Unit, is known as the heart of the computer. It is responsible for carrying out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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AMD 5600x microprocessor substrate damage

I hope this question lies within the guidelines. I have acquired this AMD 5600x microprocessor for a very low price. It was dropped on the corner (see picture) where we can see some delamination. The ...
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Does the memory bus span multiple layers on die?

My question is if you take any model desktop CPU such as the ones manufactured by Intel would the design of the memory bus span multiple layers of a single die or would it be contained on a single ...
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CPU (core) all located in close proximity. A coincidence or by design?

I've noticed pictures of decaped IC chips and noticed that CPU (cores) found on die are all located close together. Is there a reason for this or is it just a coincidence? If it is not a coincidence ...
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What can negatively impact a motherboard's / CPU's clock generator / oscillator?

Is it possible for a clock generator / oscillator to be skewed by something from the electrical grid (e.g. to work perfectly fine at place A, and have issues at place B - all reproducible)? What would ...
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How important is a PCIE_PEG_TXN pin on a motherboard?

I managed to break the PCIE_PEG_TXN 2 pin on my motherboard according to this pin layout: https://sector.biz.ua/docs/lga-775-1150-1151-1156-1155-1366-2011-pinouts/s1200_1.png I am curious if it is ...
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1answer
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Chip/Manufacturer ID - Possible ":C" logo

Does anyone recognize this chip or manufacturer logo? This chip is believed to be a circa 1990 25 MHz 386DX but the markings are a mystery. The marking at the corner looks familiar (...
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Why do modern processors use few advanced cores instead of many simple ones or some hybrid combination of the two?

I understand that memory is a big bottleneck in modern computer systems, but can't a system with many simple cores be more efficient than one with single digit number of advanced cores for some tasks? ...
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Are there any digital walkie talkies or radios with CPUs on them? [closed]

That's it! Are there any modern radios (not smartphones. More like walkie talkies or ham sets or those used in cars) that contain CPUs on them and somehow interact with the analog radio signals?
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Are coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures a subset of dataflow architecture?

By definition, dataflow architectures consist of large modules in the dataflow path, such as adders and multipliers for integer, floating-point, or fixed-point computation. Hence, are coarse-grained ...
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What is the cost of increasing the number of register names?

Increasing the number of registers in a CPU, has the upside that more values can be kept in registers instead of having to spill to stack. It has some downsides, one of which is that more instruction ...
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How does programmed IO vs interrupt driven IO work? [closed]

I know how programmed IO and interrupt driven IO work but I am confused if I am right about their working or not: This is the flowchart given in this site: https://slideplayer.com/slide/265620/ I used ...
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Confirm if Dell PowerEdge R720 Power port mixes pin layout/wiring of PCIE and keying/shape of CPU port

This cable 1 works fine to power a PCIE accelerator device (Intel N3000-N FGPA PAC) on Dell PowerEdge R720. The power connector that plugs into the riser seems to break power cable/port standards/...
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Why do old ICs especially CPUs have golden caps and bottom lids?

What was the advantage of having a golden heat spreader and bottom lid ? Contacts make sense because of the electrical properties. This is still done today. But what were the effects of using gold ...
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CPU die: does it have in-die wires on single side of both?

Internet search finds single vs double sided memory, here discussions are about Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) for singe vs double sided. I'm interested to know if e.g. Intel processors, as they are ...
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How to trigger CPU burst operation?

I am working on a piece of hardware design verification, which includes CPU(ARC), Design( containing AHB), and SRAM connecting to the AHB bus. I want to know if CPU can do burst write on the SRAM via ...
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Attach heat sink to cpu cooler in order to decrease CPU temperature

The best SMALL FACTOR cpu cooler that I have found so far is this one: I am building a portable PC; therefore, the smaller the better. I have already checked the specifications and that cpu Noctua ...
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How can an instruction be fetched every cycle?

From what I understand, in a pipelined CPU, every stage takes 1 cycle. But instructions are fetched from memory which takes up to ~150 cycles. The CPU fetches most instructions from the L1-cache, but ...
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Transistors collector input output of other transistor?

I'm new to computer science and trying to learn the basics. Have learnt how to create logical gates using simple components like relays, thanks to nandgame.com. This was easy, boolean functions, have ...
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1answer
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Internal differences between CPUs of the same architecture

What is the difference between, for example an Intel i3-4005U (1.7 GHz) and an Intel i3-4025U (1.9 GHz)? These CPUs are from the same generation, have the same amount of cores, cache, iGPU, and ...
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What is the difference between stalling and flushing in a microprocessor?

As the title suggests, I want to understand the difference. Attaching the reference.
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Are ARM instructions directly sent to the decoder or first stored in a register?

As far as I understood, the fetched "data"(not instruction) is first loaded to one of the CPU registers. But in case of a single "instruction"(not data) fetched from the memory, is ...
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Is it true that CISC architectures generally consume more power than RISC architectures?

I keep hearing CISC architectures consume more power than RISC architectures. This is said to be the reason for using RISC architectures for low-power applications. I am a skeptic, I think it could be ...
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How does an operating system or program detect the CPU model name? [closed]

What kind of binary compatibility is present for 2 processors sharing an Instruction Set?. I had asked a question on Computer Science Stack Exchange, to which I got an answer which said: As a trivial ...
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1answer
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Where is the RAM stored on a RISC-V CPU? [closed]

Does RISC-V have any opinion on whether the RAM is stored on the same chip as the CPU (like on ARM devices) or on a separate chip somewhere on the motherboard (like on an x86 desktop)? I assume that ...
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What is the lowest level of CPU programming above transistors?

In my CS program, my professor has claimed that NAND gates are the most basic gate to engineer, and so every other gate and higher-level circuits found in CPUs are made from NAND gates (no source ...
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Which approach is mostly used to create an electronic device? [closed]

I am very new to electronics, what I know so far (which may be wrong) is that there are two approaches to create an electronic device (examples of electronic device: pocket calculator, TV remote ...
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How does the current processor technology with low clock rates (<10 GHz) deals with mmWave (>10 GHz) technology used in 5G?

What I mean is that most abundant computing processors in market have the clock frequencies in the range of 2-4 GHz and from wikipedia: As of 2012, the CPU-Z record for the highest CPU clock rate is ...
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1answer
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Why can't an Asynchronous CPU use a simple "completion bit" to signal completion?

I've been reading about how asynchronous CPUs work, but they always seem to involve some complicated way of communication. Wikipedia talks about a two-way and four-way handshake. I found a pdf from ...
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Size of a memory cache

Assuming we have a virtual address issued by a model CPU that contains a total of 32 bits and 20 bits of this address are reserved for the tag + the cache comprises a total of 1024 cache lines. Should ...
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How prevalent is adoption of IEC and/or IPC standards among the major electronics manufacturers, especially CPU makers like Intel & AMD?

I spent part of the weekend learning about the history of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and IPC (originally an abbreviation for Institute of Printed Circuits) and their standards....
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Logisim: Implementing a control unit for "Addition", "Logic bitwise AND" and "right logic shift" in ALU [closed]

I'm very new to circuit design. I've built an ALU and now I only need a control unit for three operations, "Addition", "Logic bitwise AND" and "right logic shift". What ...
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In a CPU, how are LU inputs/outputs controlled and fed back to registers?

Basic problem: CPU instruction chooses which register to feed into a LU (such as an ALU), which then outputs a number somewhere and fed back into a register. But sometimes you want to feed the answer ...
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How were "old" chips manufactured, such as the 6502?

Recently, there have been several youtube vids (example) talking about how modern CPUs are manufactured. Basically, it's a complex nightmare of dropping molten tin and lighting it with light, which ...
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How can I fix delay between Instruction and Program Counter?

I am designing the MIPS processor, this includes Data Memory and Instruction memory for testing. I had a problem with IM synthesis covered in this question (How to make a synthesizable Instruction ...
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Why aren't current CPUs designed for more powerful cooling systems? [closed]

Chips on the present can't get smaller, higher speeds and voltages increase heating, so why don't CPU manufacturers aim for more powerful cooling systems instead of looking for parallelization? We are ...
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Building a stepper in Logisim - Cannot find the error

I try to build a stepper based on a book. I have been looking for the error for hours now, but still could not find it. Maybe you can help me with this issue? This is my stepper: This is a working ...
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What is the most important CPU price factor [closed]

I have two intel CPUS with distinct features. intel i7 8550U intel i5 8300H Which have big performance difference with the cheaper 8300H being higher in memory ...
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What are the factors that determine the clock speed of a processor?

What are the factors that determine the clock speed of a processor? Since the speed of electricity is the same for all processors then I assume that how fast the binary data is transmitted to ...
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Was the Intel 186 chip commonly used anywhere? Was it only found in industrial computers? Why not PCs?

I don't think the Intel 186 was in any "home computers" or PCs, but I see other people referencing it as a common chip. Also, I've heard that NEC V20s had the 186 instruction set in addition ...
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Difficulty in understanding the concept of operand forward in pipeling and when to use split phase

Given below is a question from \$\text{GATE } 2015 \text{ CS}\$ paper, Consider the sequence of machine instruction given below: \begin{array}{ll} \text{MUL} & \text{R5, R0, R1} \\ \text{DIV} &...
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what is the relationship between horizontal frequency and CPU power? [closed]

I'm building a device that will read video input, encode it and save it to disk. I read about horizontal frequency as a measure for video capacity, in khz. is that the same hz as in CPU power? what is ...
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Is it possible to remove the write back stage in 5-stage pipeline?

In this graph, can we simply remove the write back stage since the mux is pushed back into the memory access stage and there is no logic in the write back stage. Is it because of the register file ...
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T460P Whining when not connected to charger

I have a Thinkpad T460P that whines when performing tasks. This happens mostly when it is not connected to the charger. Has anyone else had this problem, and fixed it (e.g. desolder coils/capacitors ...
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Can an FPGA/ASIC have an Operating System?

I know FPGA/ASIC are for a specific task and they are not microprocessors and an OS is needed mainly if multiple processes(tasks) need to be run concurrently. Just wondering if an FPGA/ASIC can have ...
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Which type of registers is used in CPU: serial or parallel? And how to implement them in VHDL?

I'm making a CPU in which the memory is represented as a two-dimensional array, using FPGA. I've come to the implementation of registers, and I need the answer to this question. I'm new to electronics,...
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Configuring the unused pin in CPU

I have just started designing the embedded systems. While designing the CPU and thinking from the reliability point of view I actually had few curiosities For the unused pins which are tied up to Vcc ...
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How do I read the value of registers in Logism?

I am designing a CPU in logism. One of the components of the CPU is a register circuit (RegFile), which stores the registers data. The register circuit (RegFile) is shown below: I am able to write ...
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How to choose between PCIE and USB3 in a CPU pin?

While looking at Validation Reference Platform for 11th Gen Intel CPU (Tiger Lake UP3), I noticed that some pins for the MCP (Multi Chip Package, which is a package that includes PCH+CPU on the same ...
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Parallel execution in a single ALU

I read that in theory, it is possible to use the circuits in an ALU in parallel. Now I am wondering whether there is any way to leverage this in practice on commodity CPUs? Specifically, I want to ...
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Explain Idle, Sleep, Stop and Standby modes of power consumption in a microcontroller with examples

It is given in a website that "In Idle Mode, the CPU and Flash are stopped. The rest of the chip continues to operate in this mode. If you do not need to execute code, but are taking a sensor ...

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