Questions tagged [cpu]

The CPU, known as the Central Processing Unit, is known as the heart of the computer. It is responsible for carrying out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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RAM keeps giving incompatible widths error in Logisim [closed]

Im using Logisim, and I have to transfer bits from RAM into a universal shift register. Then from there back into RAM from a serial adder. However, the RAM output is showing up blue meaning its not ...
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Intel Tiger Lake UP3 motherboard bring up - PLTRST# gets asserted during boot-up

I'm in the middle of doing bring up to my tiger lake processor motherboard, during boot, the system reading from bios SPI flash reaches 0x00214A7D address. I understood that 0x00214A7D address has to ...
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What "thing" enables Speculative Execution to actually work?

I have been learning recently about the inner workings of a CPU, how machine code is executed and how data moves around between registers using the bus. Now I'm reading about Speculative Execution ...
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x86 Motherboard Bring Up - Intel Tiger Lake UP3 CPU

For those who has experience with Intel x86 motherboard design and bring up. I'm in the middle of motherboard bring-up that has Intel Tiger Lake UP3 CPU. Seems like I had a good run so far at power-up ...
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Could a CPU execute the fetch-execute cycle without a microsequencer/microcode?

VERY SPECIFIC QUESTION, PLEASE READ THROUGH ALL OF IT From wikipedia: "The sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer ...
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How much energy does it take to schedule versus execute a CPU instruction?

One of the justifications for vector instructions is that in a modern CPU, it takes more work to decode an instruction and do all the administrative work around it – scheduling, register renaming and ...
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Why didn't cpu clock frequency plateau at two orders of magnitude higher Hz?

Here is a back of the envelope estimate for an upper bound of clock frequency for modern CPU's: The speed of light is 3·10⁸ m/s which is 3·10¹¹ mm/s, and I assume the speed of electricity is about 50% ...
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For a mathematical operation in CPU, could power consumption depend on the operands?

Obviously, the number of operations affect a CPU's power consumption, but does it solely depend on the operations themselves? For example, adding 0 and 1 involves setting one single bit, but adding ...
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Would it be possible for a surface mounted capacitor (decoupling) to power on a CPU core? [closed]

My question is simple: could a decoupling capacitor be designed in such a way that it could in theory power on a CPU core? Do these types of capacitors have sufficient power to power on a core without ...
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Can a memory controller keep track of which OS application a memory location belongs to? [closed]

I've included a photo of a die belonging to a modern day Intel desktop CPU. It depicts several sections, one of which is described as the memory and IO controller. What I would like to know about the ...
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How can I implement selectable VCC and ground

I want to make a retro computer around a 6809E and a CPLD. It occurs to me that the physical layout/design of this board would be nearly identical for all the 40 pin, 8 bit CPUs except for power and ...
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CPU(MCU) freezing mechanism due to control voltage dip

I used to develop CPU boards before. I have been wondering why CPU is stop when there are noise on the DC control power line. I thought about the mechanism. when voltage is droped. Internal register ...
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Transmission gate vs Tristate Buffer

I am wondering about the practical difference between transmission gates and tristate buffers. As far as I can tell, they both do the same thing. They effectively disconnect themselves from part of ...
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What does it mean when it is said that an Intel CPU is assembled in Country X?

I was reading a same question posted on Quora but wanted to ask the same question here on this forum. So if the CPU states that it is assembled in some country X what does that mean exactly ? What ...
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How do computer memories interact with each other (registers, cache, RAM, ROM)?

After Googling around for some time, I have managed to get a good understanding what makes these components different, but I've yet to find any clear computer architecture-focused article/thread on ...
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Does Intel/AMD publish the role (purpose) of every SMD (Surface Mounted Cap) that is traced to the die?

Would someone be able to tell me if Intel/AMD publishes a data-sheet (or other documentation) that explains the role (or purpose) of every SMC (Surface Mounted Cap) which connects to the die ? I've ...
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Do modern day desktop CPU's (such as the Skylake) still have a Northbridge Southbridge IC on die?

Would it be integrated into the "Memory & I/O Interface section of the die or has it been phased out and all functionality is now part of this IC? I've included a die photo of the Intel "...
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What happens if clock cycle is replaced with constant high voltage in a processor?

Would the data in registers change at light speed and maybe become unstable/undefined, or would the processor stop changing state altogether? This post says: To give all the gates time to change ...
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Designing baseboard for Intel processor

We are studying the feasibility of designing a minimal board for a high end CPU such as Intel's 8th Gen Core i7/9 alongside some FPGA. We have experience with DDR3/PCIe designs and know about high ...
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AMD 5600x microprocessor substrate damage

I hope this question lies within the guidelines. I have acquired this AMD 5600x microprocessor for a very low price. It was dropped on the corner (see picture) where we can see some delamination. The ...
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Does the memory bus span multiple layers on die?

My question is if you take any model desktop CPU such as the ones manufactured by Intel would the design of the memory bus span multiple layers of a single die or would it be contained on a single ...
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CPU (core) all located in close proximity. A coincidence or by design?

I've noticed pictures of decaped IC chips and noticed that CPU (cores) found on die are all located close together. Is there a reason for this or is it just a coincidence? If it is not a coincidence ...
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What can negatively impact a motherboard's / CPU's clock generator / oscillator?

Is it possible for a clock generator / oscillator to be skewed by something from the electrical grid (e.g. to work perfectly fine at place A, and have issues at place B - all reproducible)? What would ...
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How important is a PCIE_PEG_TXN pin on a motherboard?

I managed to break the PCIE_PEG_TXN 2 pin on my motherboard according to this pin layout: https://sector.biz.ua/docs/lga-775-1150-1151-1156-1155-1366-2011-pinouts/s1200_1.png I am curious if it is ...
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Chip/Manufacturer ID - Possible ":C" logo

Does anyone recognize this chip or manufacturer logo? This chip is believed to be a circa 1990 25 MHz 386DX but the markings are a mystery. The marking at the corner looks familiar (...
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Why do modern processors use few advanced cores instead of many simple ones or some hybrid combination of the two?

I understand that memory is a big bottleneck in modern computer systems, but can't a system with many simple cores be more efficient than one with single digit number of advanced cores for some tasks? ...
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Are there any digital walkie talkies or radios with CPUs on them? [closed]

That's it! Are there any modern radios (not smartphones. More like walkie talkies or ham sets or those used in cars) that contain CPUs on them and somehow interact with the analog radio signals?
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Are coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures a subset of dataflow architecture?

By definition, dataflow architectures consist of large modules in the dataflow path, such as adders and multipliers for integer, floating-point, or fixed-point computation. Hence, are coarse-grained ...
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What is the cost of increasing the number of register names?

Increasing the number of registers in a CPU, has the upside that more values can be kept in registers instead of having to spill to stack. It has some downsides, one of which is that more instruction ...
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How does programmed IO vs interrupt driven IO work? [closed]

I know how programmed IO and interrupt driven IO work but I am confused if I am right about their working or not: This is the flowchart given in this site: https://slideplayer.com/slide/265620/ I used ...
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Confirm if Dell PowerEdge R720 Power port mixes pin layout/wiring of PCIE and keying/shape of CPU port

This cable 1 works fine to power a PCIE accelerator device (Intel N3000-N FGPA PAC) on Dell PowerEdge R720. The power connector that plugs into the riser seems to break power cable/port standards/...
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Why do old ICs especially CPUs have golden caps and bottom lids?

What was the advantage of having a golden heat spreader and bottom lid ? Contacts make sense because of the electrical properties. This is still done today. But what were the effects of using gold ...
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CPU die: does it have in-die wires on single side of both?

Internet search finds single vs double sided memory, here discussions are about Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) for singe vs double sided. I'm interested to know if e.g. Intel processors, as they are ...
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How to trigger CPU burst operation?

I am working on a piece of hardware design verification, which includes CPU(ARC), Design( containing AHB), and SRAM connecting to the AHB bus. I want to know if CPU can do burst write on the SRAM via ...
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Attach heat sink to cpu cooler in order to decrease CPU temperature

The best SMALL FACTOR cpu cooler that I have found so far is this one: I am building a portable PC; therefore, the smaller the better. I have already checked the specifications and that cpu Noctua ...
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How can an instruction be fetched every cycle?

From what I understand, in a pipelined CPU, every stage takes 1 cycle. But instructions are fetched from memory which takes up to ~150 cycles. The CPU fetches most instructions from the L1-cache, but ...
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Transistors collector input output of other transistor?

I'm new to computer science and trying to learn the basics. Have learnt how to create logical gates using simple components like relays, thanks to nandgame.com. This was easy, boolean functions, have ...
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2 votes
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Internal differences between CPUs of the same architecture

What is the difference between, for example an Intel i3-4005U (1.7 GHz) and an Intel i3-4025U (1.9 GHz)? These CPUs are from the same generation, have the same amount of cores, cache, iGPU, and ...
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What is the difference between stalling and flushing in a microprocessor?

As the title suggests, I want to understand the difference. Attaching the reference.
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Are ARM instructions directly sent to the decoder or first stored in a register?

As far as I understood, the fetched "data"(not instruction) is first loaded to one of the CPU registers. But in case of a single "instruction"(not data) fetched from the memory, is ...
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Is it true that CISC architectures generally consume more power than RISC architectures?

I keep hearing CISC architectures consume more power than RISC architectures. This is said to be the reason for using RISC architectures for low-power applications. I am a skeptic, I think it could be ...
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How does an operating system or program detect the CPU model name? [closed]

What kind of binary compatibility is present for 2 processors sharing an Instruction Set?. I had asked a question on Computer Science Stack Exchange, to which I got an answer which said: As a trivial ...
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Where is the RAM stored on a RISC-V CPU? [closed]

Does RISC-V have any opinion on whether the RAM is stored on the same chip as the CPU (like on ARM devices) or on a separate chip somewhere on the motherboard (like on an x86 desktop)? I assume that ...
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What is the lowest level of CPU programming above transistors?

In my CS program, my professor has claimed that NAND gates are the most basic gate to engineer, and so every other gate and higher-level circuits found in CPUs are made from NAND gates (no source ...
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Which approach is mostly used to create an electronic device? [closed]

I am very new to electronics, what I know so far (which may be wrong) is that there are two approaches to create an electronic device (examples of electronic device: pocket calculator, TV remote ...
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How does the current processor technology with low clock rates (<10 GHz) deals with mmWave (>10 GHz) technology used in 5G?

What I mean is that most abundant computing processors in market have the clock frequencies in the range of 2-4 GHz and from wikipedia: As of 2012, the CPU-Z record for the highest CPU clock rate is ...
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2 votes
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Why can't an Asynchronous CPU use a simple "completion bit" to signal completion?

I've been reading about how asynchronous CPUs work, but they always seem to involve some complicated way of communication. Wikipedia talks about a two-way and four-way handshake. I found a pdf from ...
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Size of a memory cache

Assuming we have a virtual address issued by a model CPU that contains a total of 32 bits and 20 bits of this address are reserved for the tag + the cache comprises a total of 1024 cache lines. Should ...
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How prevalent is adoption of IEC and/or IPC standards among the major electronics manufacturers, especially CPU makers like Intel & AMD?

I spent part of the weekend learning about the history of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and IPC (originally an abbreviation for Institute of Printed Circuits) and their standards....
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Logisim: Implementing a control unit for "Addition", "Logic bitwise AND" and "right logic shift" in ALU [closed]

I'm very new to circuit design. I've built an ALU and now I only need a control unit for three operations, "Addition", "Logic bitwise AND" and "right logic shift". What ...
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