Questions tagged [design]

The process of creating electronic products, including components and end-user devices.

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72 views

Going from prototyping to Commercial product without PCB design

I've noticed there's some similar questions here that got answered but they weren't quite specific to my question: Assuming I have a willing customer who's been sold off an RPi prototype; How can I ...
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35 views

Would an LM7805 need a heatsink stepping down two stacked LiR2032/CR2032 (3.6V X2) batteries?

Okay, I'm terrible at anything electronic, especially when it comes to building from boards (think rudimentary understanding). I've built a few PC's in my day, but piecemeal, not from scratch. Keep ...
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4answers
2k views

What is the methodology behind 555 timer design?

Small circuits in TTL and RTL we could do intuitively, without any methodology. But what about a complex circuit like 555 timer? If it was designed using logic gates, it could be easily deduced by ...
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51 views

Decoupling on PCB - Filled Zones or Traces

Which of the two following PCB layouts for the given schematics (7805 voltage regulator) is better? Do filled zones affect filter/decoupling capacitors negatively? Thanks! Update: Second layer is a ...
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1answer
35 views

Using analog comparators to get 2 different outputs depending on the input

I am trying to use analog comparators to get two different output voltages, 6V out when the input voltage is -8.5V <= Vin <= -2V and -3V out when the input voltage is -2V < Vin <= 9.5V. I ...
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5answers
3k views

Why are multimeter batteries awkward to replace? [closed]

I teach introductory physics labs, and inevitably when we do our labs on introductory circuits or mapping electrostatic potentials, there are one or more multimeters whose batteries die or fuses blow. ...
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1answer
339 views

Inductor design tips [closed]

I should design an inductor which has these features: 3F3 magnetic ferrite material Temperature is between 35-70 celcius Copper filling factor, kc = 0.5 Max 10A DC or 10A AC 50kHz U type inductor 12 ...
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1answer
73 views

Momentary switch on-off circuit

I am trying to create a circuit to allow me to switch a project on and off with the activation of a momentary switch (a momentary push button or reed switch, for example), but I'm coming up blank and ...
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2answers
76 views

What wire to minimize my wiring loss?

(Please be gentle, I am a total novice when it comes to EE...) I'm working on a design for an "off grid" setup. For... reasons (see comments and edit history, but those details are ...
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1answer
25 views

shape plan design

I am a beginner in routing, I have sensitive signals on my PCB. I did the following routing as a first provisional but they asked me to make plane shapes at the voltage regulator. but i cant figure ...
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18 views

How to define new component origin in EagleCad board view

I have been trying to rotate a component in my eagle pcb board mode but the centre of rotation has been defined upon one of the pins of said part. (potentiometer) This is what I have done so far: I ...
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1answer
25 views

Why does the Vs node always oscillate around the second harmonic in a VCO tail filter?

Why does the Vs node always oscillate in the second harmonic even if we detune the Cf, Lf tail filter? Is Acos(2wot) always valid for Vs? How is it explained?
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29 views

Rotate Eagle CAD component about its origin

Could someone help me redefine the center of rotation for a component please? When I open the component in Eagle library I can see there is a little cross on one of the pins and at the moment when I ...
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1answer
26 views

Implement boolean function with given components

I have to implement these functions using the following components only $$F_1(A,B,C) = AC + BC'$$ $$F_2(A,B,C) = AC + B'C'$$ $$F_3(A,B,C) = A'B + AB'$$ Components given: 1:4 DeMux with active high ...
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0answers
38 views

Will this circuit for two Wiegand card readers allow them to talk to one control board?

I'm working on designing a PCB to allow two Wiegand HID card readers to be connected to a single control board using digital isolation IC's and wanted to make sure the IC's and other components are ...
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1answer
163 views

What's wrong in my low pass filter design?

I use the magnitude of the transfer fuction |H(ω)|=1/sqrt(1+(ωRC)^2) to calculate the wanted output/input ratio at 0.1. I use R=1kohms, C=0.5uF for a 20kHz noise input. Why do I get nearly nothing for ...
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52 views

Generic tablets and single board computers

I've been pondering the idea for a while now in regards to a project I've had in mind. Essentially, I was wondering how I would go about obtaining generic tablet/phone motherboard designs? Would I be ...
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1answer
18 views

Altium: Hierarchical Design not connecting properly?

So I've been meaning to design a board that has many repeated components; basically making the user of the board able to create a state machine with discretely implemented ands for next state logic, ...
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50 views

Communication failure using PCA9615 Differential I2C Bus Extender

I have used PCA9615 differential I2C bus driver in one design to extend the I2C bus over CAT5 cable. (datasheet https://www.nxp.com/docs/en/data-sheet/PCA9615.pdf) The design has been done according ...
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0answers
178 views

SIM7600SA 4g module to ESP32

I am in a middle of getting the required components for my project. I will be using ESP32 microcontroller and SIM7600SA module for 4g/lte.. Since, I am a beginner in this field, can someone suggest if ...
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0answers
25 views

How to connect a ENC28J60 or ENC424J600 to a KSZ8091 PHY and from PHY to an unmanged strapped configuration to a KSZ8863 or other switch

How would one go about connecting MAC chip to a PHY and then to a switch for dual ports for daisy chaining? Rather be a strapped configuration for use in unmanaged mode so no need for MCU software ...
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0answers
44 views

DDR3 Routing Guidelines

I'm trying to design a PCB including DDR3 rams, I don't have much experience and knowledge working with DDR3. What are the most important guidelines to help ensure good signaling for the DDR3 chip? I ...
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0answers
29 views

Altium parameter set

I'm trying to assign Parameter set for one of the DDR3 SDRAM chip pins. For some reason I can't assign parameter to the group of pins. For example, if I do this way, then the program cannot assign ...
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4answers
748 views

Design a class AB audio amplifier

I am required to design a class AB audio amplifier to deliver 10W to an 8Ω speaker as shown, but I don't know where to start. The bandwidth is to cover the range from 20Hz to 18kHz. Input voltage is ...
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0answers
118 views

How dangerous are magnets to common electronics? [closed]

I'm working on a fun little personal project, an electronics knickknack I'm hoping to fiddle with, like a fidget spinner. I want to use reasonably-strong magnets in the design, capable of holding ...
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1answer
58 views

How to create a circuit which is sensitive to inputs change and results to output change? [closed]

Suppose that we need a circuit with 4 inputs A0-A3 and 1 output out. when one of the inputs changes (for example ...
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3answers
452 views

Why is an analog circuit more susceptible to noise than a digital one?

I have read a lot of information on the internet, but did not find a straight easily understandable answer. Could someone just explain it clearly for me, please?
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52 views

PCB layout, pitch width

What is the standard maximum copper thickness for minimum pitch size of a SMD component in a PCB? For example, what will be the maximum copper thickness for a pitch of 0.65 mm? Or is there any ...
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0answers
49 views

Getting parameter from hierarchical block LTSpice

I know how to pass parameters into a block, but I can't figure out how to get parameters back out. For example, I'm passing params into a block with: Within the block, these parameters are used to ...
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3answers
132 views

Designing a filter: does the order i which we cascade the sections matter?

So I am designing a 4th order lowpass filter using two biquadratic sections. I decided to split the gain evenly between both sections. After some calculations, one of the sections has a quality factor ...
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1answer
33 views

Designing of a stereo camera concerns

I'm planning to design a depth camera. I'm considering to use the following Camera with the following specs: https://www.waveshare.com/wiki/IMX219-83_Stereo_Camera ...
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4answers
47 views

Transformer Design Calculation

What does "For secondary 4 wires of 24SWG in parallel" means? Does it mean I take 4 wires and wound them 47 times in the primary side?
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1answer
66 views

How to lay out Gerber files for flex-rigid pcbs

I want to move to flex-rigid PCB design for our product, to eliminate need for the FFC cables we currently use. I have found vendors providing this service but I cannot find any information on how to ...
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1answer
32 views

Wide Range Input DC DC Buck Convetrer Design

Im having trouble understanding how i can achieve a constant output voltage with a varied input voltage. I know how to design a buck converter with a constant output when the input voltage is fixed ...
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1answer
45 views

Are the AND-OR and OR-AND forms of combinations exactly sum-of-products and product-of-sums?

Are "the AND-OR forms of combinations" and "sum-of-products" exactly the same? Are "the OR-AND forms of combinations" and "product-of-sums" exactly the same? ...
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1answer
57 views

Balancing a stick using two different designs and comparing both

I want to understand which feedback systems are in general preferred over another model (that I'm going to show in image),so first we take a example of a particular system (here stick at 90degree from ...
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3answers
162 views

Four Layer PCB Design

I'm new designing printed circuit. I designed some 2 layers PCBs (not too complex). I would like to know maybe a list of concepts that I need to check in my PCBs, or to know. I would like to jump to 4 ...
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27 views

Designing 125 KHz RFID Rectangular Spiral Antenna for FPC

Am trying to design a rectangular loop antenna similar to this paper from Melexis for an HF antenna design, however i want to implement something similar but for 125 KHz rectangular antenna. Now using ...
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2answers
94 views

Effect of parameters on feedback system and some confusion regarding it

I am confused in some basic terminologies of feedback system and its requirements 1.what is difference between actual input ,reference input and disturbance input ? 2.is reference input setup by ...
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0answers
47 views

Building a 2 bit comparator tips and tricks with truth table

Build a 2-bit comparator using either two 74151 8-to-1 MUXs or two 3 to 8 binary decoders. Additional gates such as AND, NAND, OR, NOR, inverters can be used. So I got this question while coming ...
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0answers
96 views

What is the benefit of a male output connector on a powersupply?

I saw several power supplies which use a male output connector. For example the Meanwell OWA 90E series uses a XLR 4P or ...
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1answer
66 views

Is transformation from one state representation to other state representation changes the transfer function of the system

I was reading about designing of controller by state state model from book by Norman S. Nise And author suggested that if state space representations given in problem are of form other than phase ...
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0answers
47 views

Controller design

I was reading controller design using State space model from book by Norman S. In that topic, the author suggested to design controller by converting given state space represention into phase variable ...
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1answer
90 views

PCB Layout: Variant A, B or C

I've just started dabbling with hardware design and I'm a little confused. Which one of the following variants for the battery protection circuit is the most optimal one? I've been trying to follow ...
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1answer
77 views

Overlapping GND and PGND on different layers of a PCB

I have a 6 layer PCB that is populated on both sides. The PCB mainly consists of power supplies (PoE, battery charger, buck converter) and a uC and a controller. The Layer stackup is: TOP Signal - GND ...
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1answer
88 views

How to remove an inductor after getting signal from it?

In the circuit that I've designed, I get 3 different signals and I process them via a microcontroller. 2 of them are from different inductors and 1 of them is from kind of a button. So, my question is ...
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2answers
111 views

Why doesn't this phase shift oscillator work?

I have to achieve 100 MHz oscillation frequency. To startup the oscillation, V2 is modeled as a step voltage source with 10V final value. But I am not getting any oscillation when I try to simulate ...
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0answers
56 views

Polygon pour in polygon cutout?

I'm designing a 4 layer board in Altium Designer 20.0.1 with an STM32F103RBT6 and am doing the 8MHz and 32kHz crystal layouts. According to the recommended layout each crystal is supposed to have a ...
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2answers
96 views

High frequency PCB layout

I am designing a printed circuit board with Sigfox IC ATA8520 from Microchip. The max frequency I have worked with is 20 MHz for PIC microcontrollers. I have been searching for design considerations ...
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1answer
75 views

Reading data from PCB using LED light

I have a PCB that controls some doors and gates at a facility. I need to determine the status of said doors/gates. There are no I/O ports at the PCB to read from, and soldering some probes to it is ...

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