Questions tagged [differential]

Differential refers to any kind of signaling where the signal information is carried by two or more paths and both are required to properly reconstruct the signal. For example, USB D+ and D-

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75 views

Circuit diagram of op amp

I am trying to understand the circuit diagram of a typical opamp I have 2 questions: 1)Can't we use a Darlinghton pair instead of the configuration of Q5 and Q6? 2)I dont understand how Q4 converts ...
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Differential pair on a PCB region without a reference plane

I was reading the datasheet for an Ethernet interface layout from NXP and I found they didn't use a reference plane in the region where they routed the differential pairs. I couldn't understand why ...
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Amplifier output goes haywire with load attached

I'm trying to create an op amp using FETs and BJTs. I need the gain to be over 500, currently without a load attached I have the gain about 1000. The input is a 0.05V sine wave, the output is ...
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LPF based Differential demodulator design

I am designing LPF based differential demodulator(LPF_DDM) to retrieve differentially modulated signals, which are on-chip capacitive isolated [shown]. LPF_DDM includes a differential amplifier, LPF, ...
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41 views

Balanced Audio Line Driver Off Single Supply

I am working on a device that needs a balanced audio line driver that can convert an unbalanced signal to balanced and drive a balanced cable run between devices. I am looking at schematics using ...
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47 views

LTC5599: why are these baseband inputs passed through 49.9 ohms and the capacitor + SPI

I'm designing a radar transceiver board using the LTC5599. In the datasheet for the part, there is a schematic that shows the circuit configuration for the evaluation board. Here is an image of the ...
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32 views

RF output matching using baluns: LTC6946

The datasheet that I refer to below can be found here: https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/6946fb.pdf I have a question about baluns. In the datasheet for LTC6946 ...
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Ground loops with balanced connections?

Different articles and tutorials provide somewhat contradictory information about ground loops. For a balanced (differential) connection, the return path is "the other wire" in the ...
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77 views

How does a twisted pair cable reduce inductive coupling compared to non twisted pair cable?

Can anyone explain this concept with figures for both non twisted pair cable and twisted pair cable?
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376 views

LIN to RS485 and back to LIN

I am currently communicating between two microcontrollers using a single pin and the LIN protocol over a short distance of 0.2m. Now I would like to extend the distance up to 5m by differentially ...
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815 views

Remove DC offset from differential output, rotary encoder

Op-amp in my circuit is accepting differential sinusoidal signal, that swings around 0 V with 1 Vpp. It is configured as a comparator - swings to upper rail when the signal is positive and swing to ...
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346 views

Advice for 90 Ohm traces of a USB 2.0 HUB

I am designing a USB-hub that has many USB traces. I followed some guidelines online and read forums. Based on my understanding of a 4-layer stack-up, one of the best set-up I chose is 8 mil trace ...
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In a differential pair BJT amplifier, the individual gain of the transistors should be equal. Why am I getting different gain for each transistor? [closed]

Here I have taken a differential BJT pair. Both the individual gains are different and the output differential gain is also different. Is there a problem with my circuit? Why is it happening?
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CW Doppler probe for fetal doppler and blood flow velocity

I am currently working on a microcontroller based project to measure the blood flow velocity using ultrasound doppler. I have purchased two Spengler 8 MHz continuous mode probes in order to measure ...
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What kind of amplifier do I need for differential to single-ended audio conversion?

This is a follow up to my previous question: For my Amazon Echo related project, I realized that the speakers in the Echo are being driven from a differential amplifier, and not a single ended one. ...
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76 views

Effect of large capacitor for differential channel in S-parameter simulation

I have created a differential channel with Transmission line and interconnects for simulation. In the real channel, there is 100nF capacitor in between 2 transmission lines. Now the problem is when I ...
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334 views

How to connect/terminate differential CML logic outputs to single ended ECL logic input?

If I want to use a CML differential gate's (Ex: SY58051AU) output as the enable ECL input for an ECL counter(EX: MC100EP016A), whats the best way to connect the output to input? I think I need to use ...
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Differential Pair Routing PCB

First at all, thank you so much for all the answers I have received on all the threads. Well, I'm working on PCB Raspberry Compute Module 4 Carrier including USB 3.0 Controller (TUSB7320) using PCIE ...
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289 views

Differential probe input impedance 1Meg, but 50ohm oscilloscope mode recommended

I will be experimenting with the Keysight company's N2792A differential probe. Looking at the datasheet of the probe, the input impedance is 1Meg, but it is said to be used with the 50ohm impedance ...
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1answer
1k views

Balun single-ended 50 Ohm to LVDS 100 ohm conversion

I have an LVDS differential 100OHM signal which I want to convert to a single-ended 50 OHM signal. I want to use a BALUN for this conversion. What kind of BALUN should I use here? Some BALUNs have 1:...
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Laplace transform rotational mechanical system

I have a system with an input torque Te and output angular velocities w1 and w2. I have defined the outputs relative to the system however cannot seem to work out how to find GM(s). omega2 is the ...
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223 views

Finding Vout and Gain of a differential amplifier

I am given this figure below: And I am trying to find Vout and the gain. From looking at this source: https://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/opamp/opamp_5.html I have determined the gain to be 10k/1k ...
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Why does the output of the mosfet differential pair connect to the gate of the pmos of a common source amplifier?

I'm told that a simple operational amplifier made from MOSFETs can be shown in the picture below. M1 M2 M6 and M7 make a differential amplifier. M3 is used as the reference mosfet to create a current ...
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124 views

How do non-flowing common mode or bias currents cause common mode range to exceed/float?

Below is a very simplistic view of differential ended inputs of a data-acquisition channel's inAmp which measures a floating battery voltage V. To make concepts and explanations simpler I use two ...
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169 views

Homemade EEG Circuit Common mode feedback

https://sites.google.com/site/chipstein/home-page/eeg-with-an-arduino/assembling-the-arduino-eeg-circult Hi, I am currently building a DIY EEG circuit using the guide above. This guide is for when ...
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1answer
41 views

How do cheap Raspberry CSI-2 cables get around differential impedance matching

I am trying to design a circuit on (double sided) flex PCB that happens to have CSI-2 signals on it. I would like to find out what is wrong with my deductions presented below, or what part of ...
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58 views

LVDS/differential driver source impedance matching

A very basic/stupid question.. I'm designing some LVDS multipoint pcbs, and I'm a bit confused about the source termination on the driver end. my colleague said that ideally there should be a 100ohm ...
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1answer
173 views

Passive probe vs diffential probe

In the image: Channel 1: Drain to source voltage Channel 2: gate to source voltage Channel 3: Switch current Channel 4: Load current The image shows Vds of low side MOSFET at turn on measured with a ...
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1answer
61 views

Why is input resistance parallel with the base of BJT?

I'm solving for the third stage. The resistance looking into the base of Q7 is taken between its base terminal and ground as follows during small signal analysis for single end gain of Second Stage ...
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1answer
24 views

MCP2551 sending with 4V differential voltage

I'm working on a CAN Bus Module with ATMEGA328P, MCP2515 and MCP2551. In my test setup, I have the module connected to a Raspberry Pi with a CAN hat. The communication works in general - both nodes ...
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1answer
75 views

Can USB 3.0 tracks be closer together than 5W if they're quite short?

I am currently laying out a space constrained PCB which contains some USB 3.0 Superspeed differential pairs. These USB signals are confined to the PCB, going from a Cypress CX3 chip to a USB 3.0 Hub ...
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606 views

Amplify difference between two photodiodes

I have two adjacent photodiodes in photovoltaic mode, with two transimpedance amplifiers. Unfortunately, my MCU (nRF52840) is one meter away, and I expect a fair amount of noise to enter the system. ...
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USB differential data lines pulled up to 5 V

My design uses the compute module 3+ board from the raspberry pi foundation. I used the FSUSB42MUX schematic from the CMIO board to have a slave/host USB port. My problem is the D+ and D- lines are ...
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39 views

Is there software with CAS to solve drawn electrical circuit in form of differential equations which describes that electrical circuit?

Is there any software with Computer Algebra System to solve drawn electrical circuit in the form of differential equations which describe that electrical circuit? Or to write symbolic solution (...
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91 views

creating a differential amplifier for low voltages (current shunt)

I'm trying to create a "precision" fully differential amplification stage, to measure uA on a 10R shunt, and mA on a 0.01R shunt. shunt resistance values are set at those values for burden ...
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Differential pair length matching considering phase

According to Microchip's document Implementation Guidelines for Microchip’s USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 Gen 1 and Gen 2 Hub and Hub-Combo Devices, the Superspeed differential pairs should be length matched ...
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Op amp differential amplifier output level too high

I'm trying to implement a current limiter for a buck converter charging a 2.7 V super capacitor. The design uses an op amp differential circuit that then feeds a comparator: I have simulated the ...
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Inaccurate differential voltage measurement

I tested 3-level PFC voltage initialization event in practice using 1 x single ended probe to measure the output voltage as well as 3 x differential probes to measure the precharge voltage levels of ...
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1answer
55 views

Understanding specifications

I have a differential signal which I want to measure with a differential probe. While reading the specification of the probe, I got confused with a few terms. Can someone what the highlighted terms ...
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1answer
59 views

How to make sense of the math behind differential opamp

My first question here! So, I'm designing a simple fully differential amplifier. The final target will be to implement a low pass filter (but I'm not there yet). Although all seems perfectly fine in ...
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49 views

What are these on the probes

I am having a Lecroy differential probe and trying to measure a LVDS signal. This is the Reference Manual which I am referring to as a guide. My differential probe tip/lead model number : DX20 - SP/SI/...
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What kind of PLL is used to recover the clock from E.G. USB 2.0 data stream

I would like to create a communication protocol to connect two FPGAs. I would like it to be fairly fast, (a couple of 100s of Mbps) but only use a single differential pair. This kind of thing is ...
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75 views

Using a power plane as signal reference

I am going to route Ethernet differential par in a four layer PCB which contains Top, PWR planes, GND plane and Bottom stackup. These diff pair are going to be routed in the top layer. In order to ...
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70 views

Current transformers, voltage output vs current output

I'm designing a energy monitoring system that is using split-core clamp current sensors to measure multiple high power lines(40+ lines at 300A each) in a MCB room of a building. I'm currently sourcing ...
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Design Problem in differential Amp

It's my first attempt to design CMOS Differential amplifier in 0.35um technology using a cadence tool. I will explain my approach in deriving dimensions of MOSFET's used in it. Moreover, I have also ...
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1answer
73 views

Difference in signal speed for a high speed signal when it is driven as single ended and differential?

This is a thought experiment. I would like know and what will be the bit-rate in differential channel when signal is driven differentially and in single ended mode? Lets there is differential trace ...
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29 views

Differential Signal Measurement best practice

I have 4 differential signal pairs (LVDS Data lines and Clock) running between my Microcontroller and TFT. There are no test points over the lines. Can someone tell me what is the best practice and ...
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1answer
25 views

LvPECL TX and LVDS RX

I have a quick sanity check question because it seems too good to be true. If I have a LvPECL signal that I want to receive, I can just use a LVDS receiver (422/485 specifically) right? From reading ...
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275 views

input resistance of differential amplifier

i have a question about the differential amplifier i know that the input resistance for the common mode is Rin = rpi + 2 Beta Ree / 2 but my question is what is the input resistance for the ...
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636 views

Why do differential signals need an inverse wave?

At the moment, I'm working on converting a single ended audio signal to a differential one (source is a CS42L55, need a differential input for a CSR8670. The latter's datasheet is indecisive about how ...

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