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Questions tagged [distortion]

Distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of a signal representing an object, image, sound or waveform.

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Sideband Production

I am trying to understand exactly how sidebands are made. I've seen the math, but I'm looking for more of a component-level understanding of how they are made and what properties of the mixer ...
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Amplifying pulse signals causing pulse lengthening problems

I am currently trying to design a circuit that would sense a voltage change at its input, convert that change into rapid "on"/"off" change at output and amplify same switching voltage to high current (...
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128 views

Active (P), Reactive (Q, D) and Apparent (S) Power from Instantaneous Power (p)

I am having a difficultly with producing \$S, P, Q \$ and \$D\$ from Instantaneous Power \$p(t)\$. Let's say that both voltage and current are clear sine waves. Then: \$p(t) = Vsin(ωt+φ_V) \cdot ...
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111 views

Opamp output sinewave is distorted

I'm using an opamp to amplify a 3.5 Vpp (peak to peak) 10 kHz sinewave which seems fine apart from a tiny noise mostly visible at its' peaks which does not particularly concern me much. The blue ...
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32 views

Can high audio input level cause video loss or video distortion in camcorder?

Today I met with a vendor regarding the installation of a PA system at our facility. We currently record meetings with a handheld camcorder mounted on a tripod, and we're looking to add microphones in ...
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Calculating grounded emitter amplifer distortion (Art of Electronics 3rd Ed.)

Referring to section 2.3.4 A1 (pages 94-95) of the Art of Electronics 3rd Ed., I'm having difficulty understanding how to calculate distortion of a grounded emitter amplifier. The book says: ...
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321 views

Biasing Class AB power amplifier with MOSFETs

I am having trouble getting the resistor biasing to meet a minimum 1.25W at the output: Note, the distortion and watt meter. I was told the SPICE parameters for the FETs didn't really matter. (...
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194 views

Which is broken, the amp or the driver of this subwoofer?

My subwoofer (with an internal amp) is showing difficulty reproducing low frequency sounds (sine 30Hz ~ 70Hz). As I lower the frequency, around 70Hz, I start hearing very slight distortion (hint of ...
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36 views

Follower headroom question

I am designing a HiVoltage nmos source follower but I can't get the input headroom voltage I need. My supply is 300VDC I use an STF7N60M2 600V nmos. I would like to have my 200Vpp AC signal coming out ...
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2k views

Does non-matching impedance of amplifier and speaker distort the sound?

I'm about to buy a pair of headphones and an audio interface with built in amplifier. The specs say that the amp's impedance is "<30 Ohms". The headphone I'd like to buy is a Beyerdynamic DT 990, ...
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452 views

Why is this the maximum dynamic range in a spectrum analyzer?

In Keysight's popular AN 150 there is a plot of noise and harmonics amplitudes versus the level of the input signal at the mixer (page 57). It's stated there that the maximum n-th dynamic range is ...
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127 views

How do I calculate THD in proteus?

I know how to plot the Fourier transform, but is there a more precise way to measure the total harmonic distortion? I have this graph: As you see, there's only one distinguishable component at 1 kHz ...
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1answer
134 views

Odd distortion in op-amp circuit for audio amplification

I'm new to electronics, so I apologize if this is simple. I'm trying to create a simple amplifier mainly for a guitar input, but testing it with an output and input from my sound interface. The ...
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2answers
243 views

Calculating Phase/Time Delay induced by a 2-pole Bandpass filter? ie. Group Delay?

If you have a two-pole Butterworth bandpass filter described by a particular Q value (Q>0.5) and a resonant center frequency "f", is there any equation that will tell you the phase/time delay induced ...
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2answers
297 views

How to turn an LM741 op amp into a distorted portable guitar amplifier?

Here is my circuit (to the best of my recollection): simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab NOTE: The voltages and resistance values are not known to me and what you see in ...
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1answer
173 views

What causes amplitude clipping of single stage CE BJT amplifier with a bypass capacitor?

Where is a single stage CE BJT amplifier with a bypass capacitor supposed to clip with a normal 4-resistor biasing circuit? Like I seem to be able to get the upper peak of the output voltage all the ...
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149 views

Crossover distortion returns when load is applied

I built a small audio amplifier using a OPA2134PA as a pre-amp to drive a complementary pair of Mosfets (IRF9540NPBF and IRF540NPBF). I've biased my Mosfets using two 10k resistors and 6 diodes. I've ...
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104 views

GaN & SiC piezoelectricity problematic?

I read that galium nitride and silicon carbide are piezo materials.Does this cause some problems? I can imagine that unwanted piezoelectricity directly in the circuit path would cause some kind of ...
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1answer
123 views

Emitter Follower Power Stage of an Amplifier with Switch-off capacitor

I know exactly how emitter follower (EF) arrangement of transistors works (when used as power current amplifying stage). But according to my book (G. Randy Slone: High Power Audio Amplifier ...
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1answer
101 views

Amplifier Causing Problems When Observed at DC

INTRO: Hello everyone! I am experimenting with audio amplifiers for a while now. I learned how to do an operational amplifier with discrete components and understand all its section and sub-circuits, ...
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2answers
198 views

Creative T3100 speakers input mod

I have made an input mod to increase the input impedance of my Creative T3100 speakers. But now even if the potentiometer is at the lowest level some sound from the input is coming off from the ...
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3answers
336 views

op-amp oscillators weird output

I am trying to build a sine wave oscillator using opamp, but i am getting weird output. Need help getting pure sine wave output. Circuit Schematic: Circuit Description: The circuit is similar to ...
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2answers
229 views

Can any type of op amp output stage be forced into Class A operation?

I'm trying to choose a good op amp for a Class A small signal audio amplifier circuit. I've done my research and understand the use pull up or pull down resistors externally to force Class A ...
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1answer
315 views

Unkown distortion in low power push-pull amplifier

I'm trying to make a small headphone amplifier, and I started out simple: I'm using a LM358 opamp to drive a push-pull stage with a pair of BD transistors. I started by trying a single channel (only ...
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3answers
671 views

low noise, low distortion analog multiplexing

I'm trying to design a low noise, low distortion, low cost op-amp circuit for multiplexing analog (audio) signals. Experience, research and some experimenting already led me to the following ...
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5answers
189 views

Actual reason why I have distortion in lower part of this Square wave amplifier (level translator application)

I am designing a simple Level translator using 2 transistors connected in series in LTSPICE simulator. I tried with one transistor but the output from the collector pin is 180 degree out of phase, as ...
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3answers
212 views

What is residual distortion in a THD analyzer?

Im a bit confused about the concept of residual distortion in audio THD analyzers, for example I have a Keithley 2015 analyzer, the data sheet shows that it has a minimum resolution to measure ...
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1answer
93 views

What is this strange artifcact on my inductive element?

I was looking at the Voltage/Current on an old inductive element, without any other components in the loop, and I got this weird artifact. Sadly, the xml file I saved was corrupted, so i had to ...
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1answer
168 views

filter between amplification stages of a distortion pedal

I'm currently building this distortion circuit for a guitar pedal. I didn't have any 2N5089 transistors so I decided to try using 2N3904s instead. The result has been an extremely harshly clipping ...
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3answers
397 views

Highly Distorted Output of Class B Power Amplifier

This is the circuit I made: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab This simple circuit incorporates differential stage - VA (Voltage-amplification) stage - OPS (Output ...
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3answers
290 views

Distortion Elimination with Differential Transistor Pair

Most of you know that incorporation of negative feedback within amplifier is one of major considerations when designing a hi-fi amplifier. Till now, I have only dealt with differential transistor pair ...
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2answers
235 views

Another Failed Differential Amplifier

This is the circuit I made - designed it, calculated it, built it: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab Q1's and Q2's collector current was 5mA, while Q3's was 1mA. Sine ...
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110 views

Simple Class A Output Power Stage of Amplifier

I made this circuit and the output signal wasn't really what I was expecting to be. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab This is class A amplifier (both Q1 and Q2 ...
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2answers
467 views

Differential Amplifier Transistor Pair

I have been dealing with these differential amplifiers for weeks now and still don't understand the basic principles of its operation and how should it be used inside an audio amplifier. I understand ...
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4answers
2k views

Adding a resistor to reduce crossover distortion in an LM324/LM358

I was watching a video of the legendary Bob Pease, in which he says that the regular LM324/LM358 is not a low distortion amplifier, however, if you add a 10K resistor from the output of the opamp to ...
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2answers
103 views

Why is DC voltage biasing applied to a capacitor in distortion pedals

I've been looking at some distortion pedal schematics and many of them are a variation of the same circuit, such as these two: and I know that most of these pedals are used with 9V batteries or ...
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53 views

irritation in LTspice

I have written some measurement commands in LTSpice to calculate the weighted harmonic distortion (PWHD) .meas a1n INTEG (I(Lgra)*cos(2*n*180*fg*time)) .meas an PARAM a1n*2*fg .... (if somebody ...
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105 views

Inexplicably Amplifier Distortion

I was just experimenting with some different combinations of transistor stages and got this: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab Q1 and Q2 represent cascode, where ...
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1answer
262 views

common emitter amplifier output distortion

why the output of the Amplifier is distorted? the input from the function generator is 1 Vp the amplifier is baised at collector voltage of 4.5 V the frequency of the input signal is 1 khz the ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the best preamplifier circuit for electret condenser microphone?

I have one old German directional dynamic microphone "SEL BST 205-1" and I remove everything inside it and pack 2 condenser microphones from mobile phones "Nokia 5130". Like preamp I use this ...
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2answers
494 views

Multiple Staged BJT Amplifier

Here is shown the design of simple multi-staged amplifier. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I tried to put together all three NPN transistor configurations and this ...
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3answers
660 views

Class A amplifier asymmetric distortion mystery

I have an amplifier that went bad on the left channel a couple of days ago. I'm kinda intrigued by the failure and symptoms, which is also why I'm posting here and not just counting my losses. I was ...
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2answers
224 views

Why does this JFET attenuator distort the signal this way?

I have been trying to build a simple VGA using an op-amp and JFET for gain control. I get good results over a small range of voltages (like factor of 10) but as soon as I try to improve this, the ...
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2answers
194 views

Crossover Distortion

The most common Audio Amplifier uses a NPN and a PNP BJT as an emitter follower to drive a low impedance speaker .This has been true for about 40 years.Some idle current is set up by a biasing circuit ...
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873 views

FET Push-Pull Amplifier

I'm curious about JFET/MOSFET circuit B class amplifier. When BJT is used we only have those (+/-)0.7V limiting the transistors and causing crossover distortion. But with adding FETs or MOSFETs to the ...
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65 views

Mains Voltage Distortion Question

I am studying the effect of a diode rectifier on the mains. When I started to increase the inductance, the current had less distortion but the input voltage became more distorted. When I looked at the ...
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3answers
390 views

Reason for Distortion in Amplifier for Speech Signals

I've been working on an at home project recently that requires the use of a speech amplifier. My ultimate goal is to perform signal processing via a dsPIC on speech signals to identify key words or at ...
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2answers
891 views

AM Demodulation of Square wave

Good day Guys, I am working on an AM Modulator and Demodulator circuit using the diode method. My modulation signal is a 10kHz Square Wave and I have a carrier frequency of 850 kHz. My modulation ...
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2answers
135 views

Modulation signal getting distored when connecting demodulator

Good day Guys, I have a question regarding output signals of a specific stage getting distorted when connecting the next stage. In my scenario, I am working on an AM modulator and demodulator of a ...
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2answers
403 views

IP2 1dB compression point representation and formula

I'm trying to calculate the 1dB compression point in a second order interception. I did find many examples using third order, however, for a second order, I couldn't find much. In Matlab I could ...