Questions tagged [electron]

Anything related to the behavior and properties of electrons, i.e. the elementary subatomic particles accounting for electrical conduction in most solid materials, especially metals.

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24 views

Does hole concentration fall below the intrinsic concentration, if Si is doped with pentavalent impurities?

If we increase N type doping in a pure Silicon then according to the equation $$P_n=\frac{n_i^2}{N_D}\text.$$ Then mathematically, hole concentration is less than \$n_i\$, if \$N_D>n_i\$. Why does ...
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How do capacitors in series work?

If capacitors are connected in series with a vltg source, then how would each plates get the polarity? For a single capacitor, the electrons from one plate are pumped by the source towards the other ...
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39 views

Metal semiconductor Junction

As we know in normal p-n junctions is formed by doping on a single semiconductor so that material continuity is maintained which facilitates the movement of charge carriers between two regions. But in ...
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42 views

Movement of electron in ac current

Movement of electron direction in ac current is continuously changing which leads to more collision of electrons then dc current.From this can we conclude that ac current heated the wire more than dc ...
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15 views

Antenna Theory and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

Hi I am trying to understand why and how Antenna Theory works as it does. I can only link Antenna Theory to Electron Paramagnetic Resonance @ 2.8Ghz but I do not know how I can link the resonant ...
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72 views

Flyback and electron flow

sorry in advance as english is not my mother tongue. I have been using electron flow point of view for ages for analyzing and designing circuits (disclaimer: I have a background in computing - not ...
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96 views

Diode AND gate electron flow [closed]

In a two input diode AND gate, when both inputs are low, both diodes conduct and pull the output down to a low voltage. How can the electrons flow to the input of the AND gate, when the input is ...
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1answer
105 views

What happens to an electron when he returns home after doing his job?

When an electron turns on a LED, a lamp or moves an engine, I guess the electron is not lost, what happens is that it loses energy What really happens, "returns home" in an orbit lower than he had ...
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71 views

Finding free electron concentration to check authors' calculations for electron drift velocity

I am currently studying Practical Electronics for Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk. Chapter 2.5.1 How the Shape of a Conductor Affects Resistance presents the following image: I ...
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2answers
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In what pattern does the electrons get emitted from cathode in thermionic emission?

We have structure with an cathode and filament at the center. A cylindrical shaped anode with cavities surrounds the cathode (fig 1). When the cathode get heated the electrons are emitted from cathode ...
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153 views

Calculation for the distance between maximum swings in the drift distance of electrons

I am currently studying the textbook Practical Electronics for Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk. In section 2.4.1 Applying a Voltage, the authors have written the following: In the case ...
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1answer
46 views

Voltage drop in a conductor

My textbook, Practical Electronics for Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk, says the following in section 2.3.1 The Mechanisms of Voltage: In regard to potential energies of free ...
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How can electricity be positive when electrons are negative?

I don't understand how can a for example a battery be positive charged when the electrons are negative charged? I've read that protons are positive but they can't move so are all electricity negative?
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How many Electrons make a bit? [closed]

A bit, correct me if i'm wrong, is a digital signal which can be 0 or 1. To determine its value, a processor awaits an X amount of time. My question is: is there any way to determine how many ...
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3answers
62 views

Ground attached to negative terminal - where do the electrons come from?

My question pertains to this circuit: Not considering conventional current direction, but rather considering actual electron flow: if the negative terminal is connected to the ground, where do the ...
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1answer
40 views

Thermal generation of electron-hole couples and reverse biasing

I'm studying the PN junction and I have some problems figuring out thermal generation of couples electron-hole in reverse biasing. The analysis is the standard one (for example, one can find it in the ...
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2answers
821 views

What happens when switch is open [duplicate]

In a simple circuit, composed only of a lamp, a generator and a switch that connects the generator to the lamp. What happens with electric current when the switch is open? Electrons turn around? They ...
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3answers
254 views

How can an electron have 0 electric potential after exiting a resistor but have current?

Unfortunately, I am not able to respond and ask a question on this specific post so I am going to ask a question based on the answers of the user "Transistor" in this post because I am still confused. ...
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806 views

How do electrons carry thermal energy in Peltier coolers?

I've read that when electrons enter from metal to semiconductor type N, they gain thermal energy and make that side cooler and the reverse happens when they leave semiconductor to the conductor. Why ...
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75 views

current speed/flow [closed]

Note my questions are in form of explaining. its because I've scattered information (or assumptions) and it want to link them. that's probably why you can see me explaining to much? Question part: ...
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2answers
446 views

A question about electrons, charges and current

Let's talk about DC, a very simple circuit: a light bulb and a battery. Some authors say that electrons move from negative to positive and current from positive from negative. I always thought ...
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292 views

How is it that two electric currents can travel in opposite directions on the same wire, at the same time, without interfering with each other? [duplicate]

An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise, by John R. Pierce, says the following: While linearity is a truly astonishing property of nature, it is by no means a rare one. All ...
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122 views

How do electrons flow?

I have been told that the movement of electrons is like a chain on a bicycle, however on videos for batteries i see that there is a charge seperation and when a wire is connected, these electrons flow ...
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143 views

Will electrons be taken from a metal plate if a positive charge is applied to it?

If I have a single metal plate, a battery, and one wire. If I connect the wire to the positive on the battery to the metal plate, does that remove electrons from the metal plate? I am attempting to ...
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3answers
280 views

Why the earth attracts charge and where does the charge go when it goes into ground?

Self-explanatory question but to add what I know, by this I will also know if I am right or wrong. I read somewhere that Earth is positively charged, but is not the state (whether positive/negative) ...
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68 views

Effect of electron discrete nature on current density

Coulomb’s law states that the current that flows through a wire is proportional to the applied voltage. For sure there are many physical effects (linear and non-linear) that participates in the ...
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1answer
510 views

Relation between Amps and Thickness of wires

I have some questions that have been bugging me for the past few days, and I am here in hope of some help. My Understanding of how battery works: "The battery (say 9V DC) does not store charge, it ...
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1k views

Why does current have to return to its source in a circuit?

As far as I know there should be a current when a high potential point is connected to a low potential point, but apparently that is not true. I understand that a circuit must be closed in order for ...
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3answers
208 views

How does current turn to heat/light? [duplicate]

When resistors are serially connected, the current is the same through the whole circuit. To my knowledge, the electric current is electrons traveling. Also, the power of the generator equals the ...
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3answers
3k views

So which direction do electrons really flow?

As I understand it, electrons (which are negatively charged) flow towards positive. As a convention, we say that current flows from positive to negative. Is this to say that what you connect the ...
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2answers
215 views

Why do electrons move as if on conveyor belt in a circuit?

For example sometimes people will ask whether it matters what side of a component you place a resistor on. Surprisingly, it doesn't matter because electrons behave as if they're all connected together ...
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1answer
115 views

Electrons and Holes in a semiconductor

In an exercise I have an un-doped silicon I find that p=1.80e+11 ,n=6.60e+10 , should the numbers be more close to each other? (for example in GaAs I find 1.10e+14 and 1.60e+14)?? (also p number of ...
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Why is conventional current still taught in school when it is unreal, given that real current flow is electron flow? [duplicate]

Conventional current as a concept is easily understood until the professor says what actually takes place is electron flow. Electron flow moves in the opposite direction as conventional current. Why ...
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136 views

Why don't electrons in parallel battery circuits repel?

Here is a short snecdote, which will give a good explanation into my question. I was in a science class, and we were doing a circuit with a very small filament light bulb, and some AAA batteries. I ...
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177 views

Conductor interaction with single battery terminal

What really is happening inside a wire and inside battery when I connect one end of wire to the one terminal of battery but not the other (open circuit )? Questions: If I connect to the '+' ...
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94 views

Theory : High voltage but low current

I read that : A generator products electrons that it sends into wire The electron motion is due to the repulsive behavior between electrons So to increase the voltage (speed of electrons?), ...
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2answers
2k views

Number of electron with a current of 1A

i'm reading a book that it says : If a current of 1A flows through a copper wire, the number of electrons flowing by a cross section of the wire in 1s is equal to : 1A=(1C/1s)(electron/-1.602*...
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159 views

Where do electrons go after reaching GND in this Arduino Mega design?

When examining the EAGLE file for the Arduino Mega that I downloaded from their official website, I noticed that the ground (GND) is not connected to anything other than the C4 component, which means ...
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1answer
157 views

Why does high voltage imply a high “pushing force” on electrons?

Another word for potential difference, is apparently, "voltage drop", although I've heard potential difference be interchangeable with just voltage, as well, a bit confusingly. However, if I ...
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322 views

conventional current flow and ground plane

I'm a student. I cant understand why we design ground planes to have a easy (low resistance) path for return current..... If the real flow of electrons is from battery (-) to battery (+) we should ...
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6answers
8k views

Why do electrons flow from a lower potential energy to a higher potential energy?

So I understand that the term "voltage" refers to the potential energy difference between two points. So, in a 5v battery, there is a 5v difference between the positive and negative ends. When these ...
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1answer
142 views

How to spot different electronic devices? [closed]

Recently my university has changed traditional counter meters into intelligent ones where they cut the power for illegal devices. At first as the rules say, the illegal ones are those with power usage ...
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1answer
4k views

Wiring an On-Off-On-Off pushbutton

I am new to electricity & electronics, and I'm interested in using this "On-Off-On-Off" pushbutton in a project. I want to just make sure that I understand how its intended to be wired: In that ...
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2answers
63 views

What is the energy in “electron-volts” of an electron that has risen though a potential of 3V?

I came across this question when reading about semiconductors, and found out I didn't really get the concept of electron volt with respect to voltage and electric field applied to an electron. So the ...
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1answer
505 views

Why is the positive side said to have a higher voltage than the negative side? [closed]

My question is, are textbooks just saying the positive side of a battery has a higher voltage because mathematically + is higher than - even when, in reality, there is nothing to come out of the ...
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2answers
165 views

Is there any different on the same amount of amps with different voltages?

Have two different loads on two circuits, the first circuit is running at 3.3V, second is 5V. Those two loads draw exactly 100mA on each. The question is, does those two circuits have the same amount ...
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3answers
328 views

Electromagnetic waves [closed]

I have a problem to understand how electromagnetic waves works. Why do transistors create EM waves when they're switching? And difference between antenna and transformer with secondary coil. When I ...
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2answers
93 views

Why would electrons cross a cross section when there is no potential difference?

There is a cross section , it's said that electrons move from left to right and vice versa, and the total sum of the electrons crossing this section from left to right is equal to the ones crossing ...
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1answer
104 views

Confused about current flow

I am starting to learn about electronics and I am still confused about current flow. Initially the book would try to be clear about the distinction between conventional and actual flow but then ...
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0answers
390 views

Semiconductor physics, effective mass calculations, band edge. vs. DOS vs cyclotron resonance

I am trying to understand effective mass for electron carriers in the conduction band as found in experiments. I am using the equations in a simulator. The simulator models power mosfets from -85C to ...