Questions tagged [electron]

Anything related to the behavior and properties of electrons, i.e. the elementary subatomic particles accounting for electrical conduction in most solid materials, especially metals.

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42 views

What does the fermi-level increase in reverse-bias?

Fermi-level tells us the probability of finding an electron at 50%. When you look at an energy band diagram in reverse-bias you can see the Fermi-level increases in the p-type semi-conductor. Why does ...
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In an energy band diagram why is the valance band in the p-type have more energy then n-type?

I am having trouble understanding energy band diagrams. In an energy band diagram of a semi-conductor during equilibrium the valence band of the p-type is higher then n-type meaning electrons in the ...
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2answers
55 views

Why does a p-type conduction band have higher energy then n-type conduction band in a p-n junction?

In an energy band diagram that represents the p-n junction (during equilibrium) the p-type conduction band has greater energy then an n-type conduction band. Why does the p-type have greater energy ...
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4answers
109 views

Geometric information within 1D streams of electrons/photons

How is light—or actually any frequency in the EM spectrum—self-encoding and self-modulating 3D info in its 1D self, so that it “knows,” once it strikes a surface, to discharge all the data perfectly ...
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1answer
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60 GHz radiation

I have always gotten great answers on this site so I thought I'd give this one a shot. In looking into 5G technology, I found that it radiates at 60 GHz, which apparently is in the oxygen absorption ...
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60 views

Why Protons travel through the membrance but electrons travel through the wire?

In the case of having two electrodes (anode and cathode). I will always hear that positive ions will jump from one electrode to the other causing the electricity to flow the wire. How come only ...
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4answers
1k views

What actually happens to electrons in a circuit when work is done at a component?

As the title. Between when voltage is higher; before the electrons reach the component, and afterwards.
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1answer
88 views

What are the typical paths of holes and electrons in an unbiased PN junction?

Can anyone tell me the typical paths of holes and electrons in an unbiased PN junction at equilibrium? In terms of diffusion currents, is that only holes (majority carriers in the the P-Type) ...
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3answers
137 views

logic gates. What makes it what it is? [closed]

Does anyone know what it is about each logic gate that makes it "and, or not xand, etc." like, is it a different shape, therefore causing electrons to go different places when a charge is ...
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1answer
26 views

Does hole concentration fall below the intrinsic concentration, if Si is doped with pentavalent impurities?

If we increase N type doping in a pure Silicon then according to the equation $$P_n=\frac{n_i^2}{N_D}\text.$$ Then mathematically, hole concentration is less than \$n_i\$, if \$N_D>n_i\$. Why does ...
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4answers
123 views

How do capacitors in series work?

If capacitors are connected in series with a vltg source, then how would each plates get the polarity? For a single capacitor, the electrons from one plate are pumped by the source towards the other ...
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1answer
45 views

Metal semiconductor Junction

As we know in normal p-n junctions is formed by doping on a single semiconductor so that material continuity is maintained which facilitates the movement of charge carriers between two regions. But in ...
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4answers
43 views

Movement of electron in ac current

Movement of electron direction in ac current is continuously changing which leads to more collision of electrons then dc current.From this can we conclude that ac current heated the wire more than dc ...
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Antenna Theory and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

Hi I am trying to understand why and how Antenna Theory works as it does. I can only link Antenna Theory to Electron Paramagnetic Resonance @ 2.8Ghz but I do not know how I can link the resonant ...
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2answers
75 views

Flyback and electron flow

sorry in advance as english is not my mother tongue. I have been using electron flow point of view for ages for analyzing and designing circuits (disclaimer: I have a background in computing - not ...
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2answers
116 views

Diode AND gate electron flow [closed]

In a two input diode AND gate, when both inputs are low, both diodes conduct and pull the output down to a low voltage. How can the electrons flow to the input of the AND gate, when the input is ...
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1answer
106 views

What happens to an electron when he returns home after doing his job?

When an electron turns on a LED, a lamp or moves an engine, I guess the electron is not lost, what happens is that it loses energy What really happens, "returns home" in an orbit lower than he had ...
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1answer
74 views

Finding free electron concentration to check authors' calculations for electron drift velocity

I am currently studying Practical Electronics for Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk. Chapter 2.5.1 How the Shape of a Conductor Affects Resistance presents the following image: I ...
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2answers
88 views

In what pattern does the electrons get emitted from cathode in thermionic emission?

We have structure with an cathode and filament at the center. A cylindrical shaped anode with cavities surrounds the cathode (fig 1). When the cathode get heated the electrons are emitted from cathode ...
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2answers
172 views

Calculation for the distance between maximum swings in the drift distance of electrons

I am currently studying the textbook Practical Electronics for Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk. In section 2.4.1 Applying a Voltage, the authors have written the following: In the case ...
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1answer
47 views

Voltage drop in a conductor

My textbook, Practical Electronics for Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk, says the following in section 2.3.1 The Mechanisms of Voltage: In regard to potential energies of free ...
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6answers
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How can electricity be positive when electrons are negative?

I don't understand how can a for example a battery be positive charged when the electrons are negative charged? I've read that protons are positive but they can't move so are all electricity negative?
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7answers
948 views

How many Electrons make a bit? [closed]

A bit, correct me if i'm wrong, is a digital signal which can be 0 or 1. To determine its value, a processor awaits an X amount of time. My question is: is there any way to determine how many ...
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3answers
64 views

Ground attached to negative terminal - where do the electrons come from?

My question pertains to this circuit: Not considering conventional current direction, but rather considering actual electron flow: if the negative terminal is connected to the ground, where do the ...
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1answer
40 views

Thermal generation of electron-hole couples and reverse biasing

I'm studying the PN junction and I have some problems figuring out thermal generation of couples electron-hole in reverse biasing. The analysis is the standard one (for example, one can find it in the ...
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2answers
1k views

What happens when switch is open [duplicate]

In a simple circuit, composed only of a lamp, a generator and a switch that connects the generator to the lamp. What happens with electric current when the switch is open? Electrons turn around? They ...
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3answers
279 views

How can an electron have 0 electric potential after exiting a resistor but have current?

Unfortunately, I am not able to respond and ask a question on this specific post so I am going to ask a question based on the answers of the user "Transistor" in this post because I am still confused. ...
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3answers
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How do electrons carry thermal energy in Peltier coolers?

I've read that when electrons enter from metal to semiconductor type N, they gain thermal energy and make that side cooler and the reverse happens when they leave semiconductor to the conductor. Why ...
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2answers
75 views

current speed/flow [closed]

Note my questions are in form of explaining. its because I've scattered information (or assumptions) and it want to link them. that's probably why you can see me explaining to much? Question part: ...
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2answers
453 views

A question about electrons, charges and current

Let's talk about DC, a very simple circuit: a light bulb and a battery. Some authors say that electrons move from negative to positive and current from positive from negative. I always thought ...
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0answers
292 views

How is it that two electric currents can travel in opposite directions on the same wire, at the same time, without interfering with each other? [duplicate]

An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise, by John R. Pierce, says the following: While linearity is a truly astonishing property of nature, it is by no means a rare one. All ...
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2answers
126 views

How do electrons flow?

I have been told that the movement of electrons is like a chain on a bicycle, however on videos for batteries i see that there is a charge seperation and when a wire is connected, these electrons flow ...
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2answers
160 views

Will electrons be taken from a metal plate if a positive charge is applied to it?

If I have a single metal plate, a battery, and one wire. If I connect the wire to the positive on the battery to the metal plate, does that remove electrons from the metal plate? I am attempting to ...
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3answers
313 views

Why the earth attracts charge and where does the charge go when it goes into ground?

Self-explanatory question but to add what I know, by this I will also know if I am right or wrong. I read somewhere that Earth is positively charged, but is not the state (whether positive/negative) ...
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2answers
69 views

Effect of electron discrete nature on current density

Coulomb’s law states that the current that flows through a wire is proportional to the applied voltage. For sure there are many physical effects (linear and non-linear) that participates in the ...
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1answer
948 views

Relation between Amps and Thickness of wires

I have some questions that have been bugging me for the past few days, and I am here in hope of some help. My Understanding of how battery works: "The battery (say 9V DC) does not store charge, it ...
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3answers
2k views

Why does current have to return to its source in a circuit?

As far as I know there should be a current when a high potential point is connected to a low potential point, but apparently that is not true. I understand that a circuit must be closed in order for ...
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3answers
213 views

How does current turn to heat/light? [duplicate]

When resistors are serially connected, the current is the same through the whole circuit. To my knowledge, the electric current is electrons traveling. Also, the power of the generator equals the ...
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3answers
4k views

So which direction do electrons really flow?

As I understand it, electrons (which are negatively charged) flow towards positive. As a convention, we say that current flows from positive to negative. Is this to say that what you connect the ...
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2answers
219 views

Why do electrons move as if on conveyor belt in a circuit?

For example sometimes people will ask whether it matters what side of a component you place a resistor on. Surprisingly, it doesn't matter because electrons behave as if they're all connected together ...
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1answer
117 views

Electrons and Holes in a semiconductor

In an exercise I have an un-doped silicon I find that p=1.80e+11 ,n=6.60e+10 , should the numbers be more close to each other? (for example in GaAs I find 1.10e+14 and 1.60e+14)?? (also p number of ...
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2answers
223 views

Why is conventional current still taught in school when it is unreal, given that real current flow is electron flow? [duplicate]

Conventional current as a concept is easily understood until the professor says what actually takes place is electron flow. Electron flow moves in the opposite direction as conventional current. Why ...
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2answers
139 views

Why don't electrons in parallel battery circuits repel?

Here is a short snecdote, which will give a good explanation into my question. I was in a science class, and we were doing a circuit with a very small filament light bulb, and some AAA batteries. I ...
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2answers
183 views

Conductor interaction with single battery terminal

What really is happening inside a wire and inside battery when I connect one end of wire to the one terminal of battery but not the other (open circuit )? Questions: If I connect to the '+' ...
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94 views

Theory : High voltage but low current

I read that : A generator products electrons that it sends into wire The electron motion is due to the repulsive behavior between electrons So to increase the voltage (speed of electrons?), ...
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2answers
2k views

Number of electron with a current of 1A

i'm reading a book that it says : If a current of 1A flows through a copper wire, the number of electrons flowing by a cross section of the wire in 1s is equal to : 1A=(1C/1s)(electron/-1.602*...
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2answers
160 views

Where do electrons go after reaching GND in this Arduino Mega design?

When examining the EAGLE file for the Arduino Mega that I downloaded from their official website, I noticed that the ground (GND) is not connected to anything other than the C4 component, which means ...
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1answer
160 views

Why does high voltage imply a high “pushing force” on electrons?

Another word for potential difference, is apparently, "voltage drop", although I've heard potential difference be interchangeable with just voltage, as well, a bit confusingly. However, if I ...
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1answer
341 views

conventional current flow and ground plane

I'm a student. I cant understand why we design ground planes to have a easy (low resistance) path for return current..... If the real flow of electrons is from battery (-) to battery (+) we should ...
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6answers
10k views

Why do electrons flow from a lower potential energy to a higher potential energy?

So I understand that the term "voltage" refers to the potential energy difference between two points. So, in a 5v battery, there is a 5v difference between the positive and negative ends. When these ...