Questions tagged [electron]

Anything related to the behavior and properties of electrons, i.e. the elementary subatomic particles accounting for electrical conduction in most solid materials, especially metals.

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79 views

Can current flow from positive to positive in real life

How to implement a circuit diagram where there are 2 batteries and negative to negative have load and postive to positive have some load. How to implement, like build in real life this ...
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Is there a mnemonic to remember direction of current flow?

I have always stumbled when remembering which current flow notation to use. In my mind, it's by default conventional current flow. But, I also have in mind electron flow notation. Do you know of a ...
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How many newtons are there in one coulomb of charge?

Or, I should have said, how many newtons of force does one coulomb of charge exert? At a distance, presumably, of one meter? Since N/C is supposedly equivalent to V/m? P.S. What are the values for a ...
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Removing collected charges in a IC CMOS circuit exposed under a 30keV electron beam source

I would like to know if there is any mechanism (for example UV light exposition) to remove charges collected in an IC CMOS circuit that was exposed under a 30keV electron beam source. Presumably, ...
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Can a floating capacitor terminal be used to collect electrons?

I want to collect charge from an electron beam source. For that, I'm proposing to put a floating capacitor with its bottom terminal floating and directly exposed to the electron beam gun. The top ...
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4answers
110 views

Why does current continue flowing in a circuit?

Sorry for the amateur question, but I'm having trouble understanding this phenomenon. In a closed circuit, electron current flows from the negative terminal of a battery to the positive terminal. But ...
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4answers
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Signal interference in receiving antenna?

I’ve been scouring the interweebs for some insight into how electrical signals travel in a wire. More specifically, I cannot wrap my head around how a receiving antenna works with hundreds if not ...
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In which direction do electric signals flow?

We know that electrons move from the negative to positive terminal, and that holes flow in the conventional direction of current - from the positive to negative terminal. I've always assumed that this ...
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2answers
130 views

Electrons flow in Li-ion Battery

I’m new to electricity, and I’ve got a question about electrons flow inside a Li-on battery. A lot of articles and videos show us only Li+ ion flows from anode to cathode through electrolyte during ...
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1answer
70 views

How do I make a “directed” spark gap?

(Originally asked on engineering StackExchange, I was directed to ask it here) For a project, I need to create a spark gap that only triggers when there is a conducting material between the 2 contacts....
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1answer
174 views

How does a single phase shared neutral circuit actually work, physically?

Okay so this is a two part question. First Question is probably more of an ELI5 question. But I am a fairly experienced electrician (NOT AN ENGINEER mind you.) but I have a generally good working ...
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How can electrons in a tungsten filament release infrared light photons?

I have a question regarding electric circuits, specifically when it comes to converting electromagnetic energy into light in a light bulb (tungsten)filament. How can an electron in a tungsten atom of ...
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0answers
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Mobility of electrons vs holes in semiconductors (intrinsic vs extrinsic)

I was reading my class notes and it was written that electrons are more mobile than holes because the effective mass of electrons are lower than that of holes. (μ=eτ/m*) I checked online to find the ...
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What does the fermi-level increase in reverse-bias?

Fermi-level tells us the probability of finding an electron at 50%. When you look at an energy band diagram in reverse-bias you can see the Fermi-level increases in the p-type semi-conductor. Why does ...
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In an energy band diagram why is the valance band in the p-type have more energy then n-type?

I am having trouble understanding energy band diagrams. In an energy band diagram of a semi-conductor during equilibrium the valence band of the p-type is higher then n-type meaning electrons in the ...
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3answers
525 views

Why does a p-type conduction band have higher energy then n-type conduction band in a p-n junction?

In an energy band diagram that represents the p-n junction (during equilibrium) the p-type conduction band has greater energy then an n-type conduction band. Why does the p-type have greater energy ...
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4answers
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Geometric information within 1D streams of electrons/photons

How is light—or actually any frequency in the EM spectrum—self-encoding and self-modulating 3D info in its 1D self, so that it “knows,” once it strikes a surface, to discharge all the data perfectly ...
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60 GHz radiation

I have always gotten great answers on this site so I thought I'd give this one a shot. In looking into 5G technology, I found that it radiates at 60 GHz, which apparently is in the oxygen absorption ...
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Why Protons travel through the membrance but electrons travel through the wire?

In the case of having two electrodes (anode and cathode). I will always hear that positive ions will jump from one electrode to the other causing the electricity to flow the wire. How come only ...
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4answers
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What actually happens to electrons in a circuit when work is done at a component?

As the title. Between when voltage is higher; before the electrons reach the component, and afterwards.
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1answer
93 views

What are the typical paths of holes and electrons in an unbiased PN junction?

Can anyone tell me the typical paths of holes and electrons in an unbiased PN junction at equilibrium? In terms of diffusion currents, is that only holes (majority carriers in the the P-Type) ...
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3answers
144 views

logic gates. What makes it what it is? [closed]

Does anyone know what it is about each logic gate that makes it "and, or not xand, etc." like, is it a different shape, therefore causing electrons to go different places when a charge is ...
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1answer
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Does hole concentration fall below the intrinsic concentration, if Si is doped with pentavalent impurities?

If we increase N type doping in a pure Silicon then according to the equation $$P_n=\frac{n_i^2}{N_D}\text.$$ Then mathematically, hole concentration is less than \$n_i\$, if \$N_D>n_i\$. Why does ...
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4answers
281 views

How do capacitors in series work?

If capacitors are connected in series with a vltg source, then how would each plates get the polarity? For a single capacitor, the electrons from one plate are pumped by the source towards the other ...
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1answer
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Metal semiconductor Junction

As we know in normal p-n junctions is formed by doping on a single semiconductor so that material continuity is maintained which facilitates the movement of charge carriers between two regions. But in ...
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Movement of electron in ac current

Movement of electron direction in ac current is continuously changing which leads to more collision of electrons then dc current.From this can we conclude that ac current heated the wire more than dc ...
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Antenna Theory and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

Hi I am trying to understand why and how Antenna Theory works as it does. I can only link Antenna Theory to Electron Paramagnetic Resonance @ 2.8Ghz but I do not know how I can link the resonant ...
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2answers
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Flyback and electron flow

sorry in advance as english is not my mother tongue. I have been using electron flow point of view for ages for analyzing and designing circuits (disclaimer: I have a background in computing - not ...
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157 views

Diode AND gate electron flow [closed]

In a two input diode AND gate, when both inputs are low, both diodes conduct and pull the output down to a low voltage. How can the electrons flow to the input of the AND gate, when the input is ...
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1answer
107 views

What happens to an electron when he returns home after doing his job?

When an electron turns on a LED, a lamp or moves an engine, I guess the electron is not lost, what happens is that it loses energy What really happens, "returns home" in an orbit lower than he had ...
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1answer
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Finding free electron concentration to check authors' calculations for electron drift velocity

I am currently studying Practical Electronics for Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk. Chapter 2.5.1 How the Shape of a Conductor Affects Resistance presents the following image: I ...
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185 views

In what pattern does the electrons get emitted from cathode in thermionic emission?

We have structure with an cathode and filament at the center. A cylindrical shaped anode with cavities surrounds the cathode (fig 1). When the cathode get heated the electrons are emitted from cathode ...
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2answers
208 views

Calculation for the distance between maximum swings in the drift distance of electrons

I am currently studying the textbook Practical Electronics for Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk. In section 2.4.1 Applying a Voltage, the authors have written the following: In the case ...
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1answer
63 views

Voltage drop in a conductor

My textbook, Practical Electronics for Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk, says the following in section 2.3.1 The Mechanisms of Voltage: In regard to potential energies of free ...
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How can electricity be positive when electrons are negative?

I don't understand how can a for example a battery be positive charged when the electrons are negative charged? I've read that protons are positive but they can't move so are all electricity negative?
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How many Electrons make a bit? [closed]

A bit, correct me if i'm wrong, is a digital signal which can be 0 or 1. To determine its value, a processor awaits an X amount of time. My question is: is there any way to determine how many ...
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3answers
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Ground attached to negative terminal - where do the electrons come from?

My question pertains to this circuit: Not considering conventional current direction, but rather considering actual electron flow: if the negative terminal is connected to the ground, where do the ...
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1answer
53 views

Thermal generation of electron-hole couples and reverse biasing

I'm studying the PN junction and I have some problems figuring out thermal generation of couples electron-hole in reverse biasing. The analysis is the standard one (for example, one can find it in the ...
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2answers
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What happens when switch is open [duplicate]

In a simple circuit, composed only of a lamp, a generator and a switch that connects the generator to the lamp. What happens with electric current when the switch is open? Electrons turn around? They ...
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3answers
523 views

How can an electron have 0 electric potential after exiting a resistor but have current?

Unfortunately, I am not able to respond and ask a question on this specific post so I am going to ask a question based on the answers of the user "Transistor" in this post because I am still confused. ...
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874 views

How do electrons carry thermal energy in Peltier coolers?

I've read that when electrons enter from metal to semiconductor type N, they gain thermal energy and make that side cooler and the reverse happens when they leave semiconductor to the conductor. Why ...
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2answers
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current speed/flow [closed]

Note my questions are in form of explaining. its because I've scattered information (or assumptions) and it want to link them. that's probably why you can see me explaining to much? Question part: ...
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2answers
480 views

A question about electrons, charges and current

Let's talk about DC, a very simple circuit: a light bulb and a battery. Some authors say that electrons move from negative to positive and current from positive from negative. I always thought ...
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0answers
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How is it that two electric currents can travel in opposite directions on the same wire, at the same time, without interfering with each other? [duplicate]

An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise, by John R. Pierce, says the following: While linearity is a truly astonishing property of nature, it is by no means a rare one. All ...
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160 views

How do electrons flow?

I have been told that the movement of electrons is like a chain on a bicycle, however on videos for batteries i see that there is a charge seperation and when a wire is connected, these electrons flow ...
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278 views

Will electrons be taken from a metal plate if a positive charge is applied to it?

If I have a single metal plate, a battery, and one wire. If I connect the wire to the positive on the battery to the metal plate, does that remove electrons from the metal plate? I am attempting to ...
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3answers
521 views

Why the earth attracts charge and where does the charge go when it goes into ground?

Self-explanatory question but to add what I know, by this I will also know if I am right or wrong. I read somewhere that Earth is positively charged, but is not the state (whether positive/negative) ...
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Effect of electron discrete nature on current density

Coulomb’s law states that the current that flows through a wire is proportional to the applied voltage. For sure there are many physical effects (linear and non-linear) that participates in the ...
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1answer
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Relation between Amps and Thickness of wires

I have some questions that have been bugging me for the past few days, and I am here in hope of some help. My Understanding of how battery works: "The battery (say 9V DC) does not store charge, it ...
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Why does current have to return to its source in a circuit?

As far as I know there should be a current when a high potential point is connected to a low potential point, but apparently that is not true. I understand that a circuit must be closed in order for ...