# Questions tagged [fm]

For questions relating to frequency modulation (FM). This is a scheme where a carrier is modulated by varying its frequency to carry information.

200 questions
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### FM Demodulation

I'm using a demodulation fm circuit in multisim. it takes 1 minute on the oscilloscope to complete a full waveform, and every waveform the amplitude is decreasing. I want to know why is the amplitude ...
4k views

### FM Transmitter Modulation

I am designing an FM transmitter as a learning experience and for fun, but I am having some difficulty with FM modulation. I am using a VCO with a Colpitts topology and common emitter configuration. ...
60 views

### How frequency is modulated in FM transmitter circuit [duplicate]

I am new to looking at FM transmitter and have a few questions regarding the FM Transmitter circuit below. Please break down your answers as simple as possible as I am not as well versed in circuits ...
412 views

### Is it true that frequency deviation over 2*pi is the phase deviation of an FM/PM signal?

for ∆f frequency deviation if for FM only and PM has Phase deviation. and Kf= ∆f (Hz) of FM? Kf = ∆f (rad/s) for PM? and for th rules: ∆f=(kfmp)/(2p) for FM where mp = mp max-mp min ∆f=(kfmp)/(2p) ...
149 views

### Why can't we divide the electromagnetic spectrum into arbitrarily many radio frequency bands?

I understand there is concern over the limited amount of wireless spectrum available for allocation but am somewhat confused as to why. Couldn't we just divide the electromagnetic spectrum into as ...
1k views

### Improve output quality of FM receiver TEA5767

I have connected a TEA5767 to my Arduino board using I2C and can tune it fine (see instructable.com). As antenna a ~70cm long simple cable is connected. I've connected a cheap 5V amplifier. ...
52 views

### Why there is $sin {( 4 \pi f_p)}$ in FM's stereo equation instead of $cos {(w_m + w_c )t}+cos{ (w_m-w_c) t}$? It's a DSB-SC modulation?

equation here: Equation DSB-SC here: DSB-SC
294 views

### What is the current status of RDS 2.0?

Radio data system is the standard used for embedding small digital information in FM radio. I am excited for the release of the new RDS 2.0 standard. But I am not really sure if the technical standard ...
85 views

### Audio transmitter - frequency customization from a simple FM transmitter

I am referring the following circuit diagram. Circuit Can I simply change the value of C2 and L1 to transmit at a frequency below commercial FM band say as low as 40 Mhz? I know, I need to make a ...
28 views

### Frequency Modulator with sinusoidal output

I am creating a frequency modulator, all the circuits that I have looked so far on the internet are generating a Pulse wave or a Triangular wave output, so if you guys can help me to create a circuit ...
54 views

### understanding AFSK and FSK

I’d like to understand 1200Hz/2200Hz AFSK in commonly used APRS/Packet/AX.25 applications. When I look at the datasheets for some of the chips existing projects use (e.g the Si446x transceiver-on-a-...
98 views

### In this Foster Seeley discriminator, what is the purpose of capacitor C3?

I understand the whole circuit, except for the use of capacitor 3. What's its purpose in here?
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### How does this simple FM slope detector work?

I understand what happens from the diode onwards, it's a rectifying amp and a low pass filter that filters any unwanted frequencies from the carrier, but what is going on in terms of voltage between ...
71 views

### High SNR FM demodulation

So I need to demodulate the FM signal from a sensor with highest SNR possible, at least 70-75 dB. IF is 10.7 MHz, max. deviation is 200 kHz but I can change those values if needed. Baseband signal ...
220 views

### Why does a foster seeley circuit need transformer coupling?

Having read most of the online references to this circuit and performed some simulations, I still don't have a firm grasp on how this circuit functions. Here's a schematic to refresh (possibly ...
35 views

### Connecting an FM radio receiver circuit to a speaker via 3.5 mm audio jack?

As an experiment and for educational purposes, I wanted to build and connect an FM receiver to some old computer speakers via a 3.5 mm audio jack. So I tried building a circuit like this on a bread ...
167 views

### What antenna is this?

I just disassembled an external FM antenna designed for an old Asus laptop. I expected to find some circuitry and a monopole or some other simple antenna. However, what I found was the antenna shown ...
179 views

### Direct FM generation using varactor diode

I am trying to generate a constant 1 MHz FM carrier wave. I have achieved it via LC parallel resonance circuit. Initially I let the switch B open and switch A closed, in order to charge the capacitor. ...
46 views

### Finding required BW with Bessel table

The FM signal (see image 1) is applied to a 50 Ohms antenna, and I am seeking the required bandwith with the Bessel table (image 2). From the FM signal, I deduced that the information frequency is ...
386 views

### RC transmitter and receiver for Raspberry Pi possible? [closed]

I've got a pet project in which I'm trying to write/build a self learning autopilot for my rc plane. I've got a Raspberry Pi with an IMU and a pitot tube in the plane and it can now control the servos ...
199 views

### FM Transmitter (Modulator) Circuit Simulation Problem [duplicate]

I've asked my question before, and I am writing this new question with some edits based on my previous problem. I am building a small FM Modulator ( Transmitting ) simulation on (Multisim). I've used ...
321 views

### FM Transmitter Circuit (range 3 km) on Multisim

I am new to the telecom simulations system specially multisim, which I am having a project that I want to simulate. My project in (Analog Communications) is consisting to have FM Transmitter (...
149 views

### Need help understanding simple FM transmitter

I made a simple FM transmitter following https://maker.pro/custom/tutorial/how-to-make-an-fm-transmitter and it worked! Now I need some help to understand how. My coil is made of 1 mm copper wire has ...
93 views

### How do I figure out the ohms of an antenna?

I'm looking at the CZE-05B FM transmitter and in the manual it states the output load is 50 ohm and I need an 50 ohm antenna. So my questions are is this antenna 50 ohms? https://www.ebay.com.au/itm/...
139 views

### What happens if the frequency of the receiver osc does not match (exactly) the carrier frequency?

I thinking about FM and AM. Theoretically the carrier frequency is perfectly match the demodulation frequency. But what happens if there is a mismatch? I think using AM the frequency of the base-band ...
288 views

### Is it possible to broadcast FM radio up to 500 metres? [closed]

I'm buying FM transmitter 0.2 watt at Lazada to broadcast for my village community at my area. Not a normal small FM transmitter for car or portable low watt (about 10mW-100mW) which broadcast up to ...
10k views

### Are audio cassettes FM or AM?

I know that cassettes store an analog signal, but is the signal Amplitude-Modulated (AM) or Frequency Modulated (FM)?
7k views

### How exactly does AM/FM carry both pitch and loudness of voice?

Almost every tutorial on AM/FM modulation shows the modulating signal as something like a simple tone or continuous sine wave. Now that's easy, and for AM you just superimpose the modulating signal ...
105 views

### Using audio instrument cable for 1MHz transmission

I'd like to transmit digital data together with an audio signal along an instrument cable. In more detail, I'd like to send MIDI data and the audio signal of a guitar on a single cable. The rationale ...
238 views

### Matlab Phase Locked Loop Design : FM Demodulation

EDIT: It seems I've asked too much at once here. I'll do some more studying and come back if I have more specific questions. I'm trying to design an analog phase locked loop in Matlab. I've read ...
2k views

### Which one of these transistors is equivalent to 2N918 NPN?

This is an FM radio receiver. Q1 is 2N918 NPN transistor but it is not available for me. Which one of the following transistors is more equivalent to Q1 ? BC547 TL431 s8550 s9014 2n5401 2n5551 ...
335 views

I have seen previous similar answers about radio transmission, but looking at the following scheme I am not sure about the role C3 plays in the circuit. I guess it is needed to remove the DC signal ...
9k views

### Why did my FM transmitter mysteriously die?

I made a little FM transmitter project a few months ago. I used an Arduino, a litle 4-digit serial LED display, a couple of buttons and an FM transmitter component with breakout board I had this put ...
580 views

### Identifying an old RF circuit

I got an old RF circuit (I guess), probably used for pedagogical purposes. Here's the schematic: I chose the positive and ground rails as it seems right to me, looking at transistors and resistor ...
126 views

### Understanding PLL performance: PFD output bandwidth

For an application I need to FM modulate a signal with a 10 MHz bandwidth. Due to constraints I have no control over, I have to do it in an analog way (so I can't just digitize the signal, IQ modulate,...
44 views

### Amplitude Spectrum of FM wave from Bessel First order

given the values for $\beta=5$, for the Bessel of the first order: $J_{0}(5)=-0.26, J_{1}(5)=0.34, J_{2}(5)=0.49...$ in order to plot the amplitude spectrum of the FM wave, do you treat the ...
68 views

### how to calculate the maximum radiated power for the FM broadcasting?

I am trying to experiment a fm transmitter project of Raspberry Pi - with a frequency of 88.1 MHz. http://icrobotics.co.uk/wiki/index.php/Turning_the_Raspberry_Pi_Into_an_FM_Transmitter However, I ...
98 views

### Phase Locked Loop Gain Design- FM Demodulation

Say I am trying to demodulate a message up to 25kHz in frequency, with a peak frequency deviation of 75kHz and a carrier of 1MHz, implying a 200kHz bandwidth using carsons rule. Would I design the ...
207 views

### Select Phase Detector Cutoff Frequency? Phase Locked Loop FM Demodulation

I'm studying a Phase Locked Loop used for FM demodulation, obviously a phase detector is used in the system. A basic implementation of a phase detector is a multiplier followed by a lowpass filter. I ...
85 views

### Does the remote car door keyfob in today's automobiles change its code with every use?

I am just wondering why other keyfobs do not open my car door and thought every signal would have to be unique. So I did some research and they use a rolling code so in fact the code changes with ...
527 views

### FM transmitter circuit working?

I am trying to understand FM transmitter circuit working basically on how a signal is imposed on to the carrier signal. I would like to get an acknowledgement on whether my understanding is correct or ...
885 views

### Generating 19kHz and 38kHz phase-locked sine waves

As a personal project, I'm designing a stereo FM transmitter from scratch. Part of this entails design of a stereo multiplexer. Using this description, I've worked out how I'm going to implement most ...
316 views

### Best mixer for quadrature FM demodulator

I need to demodulate an FM signal and I want to use a quadrature demodulator for this. The signal is 16±0.15 MHz, 3.3V output from CMOS oscillator. I know that Gilbert cell mixers are most commonly ...
1k views

### Video Home System (VHS) bandwidth

Standard play VHS video cassette recorders offered only about 3 MHz luminance bandwidth by recording the signal on an FM carrier. What is that carrier frequency? Is it possible to confirm the carrier ...
1k views

### FM Quadrature detector - is it the best choice

My input is an FM carrier of 80.00MHz. It is FM modulated with 625kbpsec data. The deviation from carrier is about +/-700kHz. The data never spends more than about 38us in a low state or high state i....
233 views

### Choosing the best FM demodulation technique

I have an FM signal: 200 mVpp, 11.5 MHz carrier, max deviation - 500 kHz, modulating signal frequency range is 40-10000 Hz. And I need to demodulate it with highest SNR possible. The circuit has to ...
121 views

### Keeping constant bandwidth in tunable quadrature FM demodulator

I need to demodulate an FM signal (4 MHz max deviation) with a strong center frequency drift (550-800 MHz). I've built an AFC circuit to track the drift and now I need to build a tunable quadrature ...
45 views

### Operation of simple FM transmitter circuit [duplicate]

I found the following little FM transmitter circuit among some old papers and it works pretty well, but I have a tough time understanding how the circuit operates: I understand the trimcap and ...