Questions tagged [ground-plane]

An area of copper on a PCB which is connected to the PCB's ground node in order to provide a return path for current from the various circuits on the board. The ground plane's area is typically made as large as possible (even occupying an entire board layer) in order to minimize its impedance, thus allowing it to conduct high return currents without a significant voltage drop from one part of the board to another. Use with related tags such as "pcb".

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Is it bad practice to connect a heatsink to my PCB's ground plane?

So, basically, I have this LED project which is going to dissipate lots of heat (I am assuming close to 50W) inside a case. The LEDs themselves are on a separate aluminum board which will be attached ...
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Point-to-point building of medium- frequency circuits, ground plane implementation

I build audio projects and small logic control circuits using point-to-point on perfboard (see pic of a recent build). As you can see this allows me to select wire gauge in accordance to the currents ...
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How can I step down 24V to 5.5V and 3.3V with separate grounds?

I have a 24VDC 4A input that I need to step down to both 5VDC and 3.3VDC, but I need the 24V ground plane to be separate (isolated) from the 5V and 3.3V plane (these can have a shared ground). What ...
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KiCad: Ground plane won't connect to pads

I am currently running into a problem in KiCad where the ground plane won't connect to some pads. KiCad even tells me to connect them but doesn't seem to make the connection automatically.
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What is the name of this antenna?

I compared RSSI of several antennas including this one I found laying around: It performed from all angles about 10 dB better than for example the quarter wave ANT-433-CW-HD-SMA (Mouser Link). Tests ...
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PCB ground planes with isolated voltage

I have designed a PCB that I need to work in which a microcontroller drives a 24 V brushed motor. The input power to the board is 24 V, this is then lowered to 5 V by a step down converter, and this 5 ...
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EAGLE 7.7 do not fill GND polygon

Adding a polygon GND, but it not going to fill at all. Ratsnest - not helping. Orhans also not helping. Any idea?
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ESP32 Pad 39 - Where do I add vias?

I am building my first PCB ever with an ESP32. I want the PCB to be built by JLCPCB (or similar) and I am not sure what to do with the Pad39 I read these opinions: Do not add vias in pad, and if you ...
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Questions about LED strip PCB and ground return currents

This question is about the PCB part of a double LED strip 'controller' circuit. See the circuit at: Questions about LED strip circuit and current. The arrow shows now the 5V GND pin (JST XH) pin in ...
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Mesh ground advantage over single rod ground

In high voltage laboratories, how do mesh grounds perform better than that of single rods? Does frequency play a role here ? Which one is more beneficial, using multiple single rods in lab for ...
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Where is the ground in this circuit?

I am designing a simple digital circuit on a PCB that includes a power supply that provides +24V and -24V, but there is no ground. I am assuming that the negative voltage (-24V) is ground? What about ...
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KiCad ground plane error or DRC glitch?

I have a PCB that when I run a design rule check in KiCad I am getting an error that an IC's earth pins are unconnected to a via which is also connected to earth. I don't get these errors a lot so I ...
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Form all your ground nets properly vs Ground Plane

I developed my project one more step and moved to the PCB stage.I will make a PCB for the first time with a microprocessor and SMD components. I did my PCB design. Only the ground connections left. I ...
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VCC and GND islands on TOP layer

I was checking Intel Tiger Lake UP3 reference board layout and I noticed that they made core VCC islands on top layer and through vias they connected to a layer that has the bigger/continuous plane of ...
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Bluetooth antenna on top of large metal object and other RF questions

I've been doing some research on RF antenna design considerations but haven't really found anything close to the situation my device will be in. I am designing a wireless sensor for my FSAE team that ...
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Should there be ground vias on a TVS diode GND if positioned right next to a DC jack?

Say you have a TVS diode which is right next to the DC jack, would you want to have ground vias around the GND pad of the TVS diode, or would you want to avoid vias here because the current would just ...
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On a two-layer PCB, should I have a plane for both grounds, or for only one ground and the 3V3 power?

The microprocessor on my board can switch off all the other components via an NPN transistor. This means that I have the 3V3 line going from the processor to everything, a ground going from all the ...
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Aluminium foil as a ground plane for 900 MHz antenna

I have designed and manufactured an antenna that works around 900 MHz. The design includes a ground plane and metallic enclosure that are not strictly necessary, but do affect the performance of the ...
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Does vias along the edge of the board help for 2 layer boards? (EMC)

I know that ground vias along the edge of the PCB can help for the PCB to radiate less (from a EMC perspective). But does it help only for with 4 or more layers PCBs? Or does this also help alot for 2 ...
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Multiple ground

In my design I have four different ground: Ground: from USB for step up and battery charger IC. Ground1: for a split supply (virtual ground). Ground2: for the input signal reference. Ground3: for the ...
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Digital inputs for analog switches (analog or digital ground?)

I'm using an analog switch, ADG1434 to switch some filter components in a circuit. My question is about general best practice for the digital signals going to analog switches. The switch is dual ...
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Any advantage to isolate digital ground of an ADC from the rest of the top ground plane?

What if you have the traces which run to a very sensitive sensor right next to the digital ground of an ADC, would it be an advantage at all to isolate the ground exit by cutting off the connection to ...
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PCB via array for "better" heat dissipation

My two PCB mount power supplies are getting quite hot (temp 60 to 70 degrees). Max temp of the power supply is 90 degrees. I cannot use external heatsinks due to space constraints. Input voltage is ...
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General approach to routing with copper fill

I don't have much experience with designing PCBs and when doing so I had to make a surprising number of decisions concerning the copper fill. Assume a simple analog or digital circuit, 2-layer PCB. No ...
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Properly grounding an SMA connector (bottom ground plane only)

I’m currently designing my own breakout board for the RFM95W (LoRa module). I’ll be operating at ~900 MHz. The board has two layers. The top layer contains all the signal tracks (no ground pour). The ...
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PCB antenna: ground plane layers and dimensions (2)?

This question - sequel of PCB antenna: ground plane layers and dimensions?, talking about an IFA: The only dimension that really matters is the length/width of the ground plane, or parallel to the ...
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PCB design guidance. Is AC in a power plane a bad idea?

I have a 4 layer PCB board that I am working on a new revision for with the following general layer setup: Top=signal = signal layer middle1 = 5V power plane (with 24VAC subdivisions) middle2 = gnd ...
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Multiple copper pours in ground plane of a 2 layer board

I am an amateur PCB designer.Trying to design my first PCB. I am using a two-layered power supply board. I am using a 72V battery pack as the input to get +15V,+5V, and -15V as outputs. The pic shows ...
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splitting ground plane

I have a 4 layer board, where I have a 3.3V STM32 and some 3.3V components, and also a 24V H bridge to drive a 24V DC motor. The board is supplied with a 24V DC power supply, the 3.3V is created by a ...
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How parallel plates are buried in the soil in real life?

From this site: The most common reference is Earth itself. Power systems are usually “earthed” at some point to provide a reference for the system voltages. The earth symbol represents the parallel ...
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Vias versus ground plane entirety

I am facing a kind of dilemma with my PCB design. I am designing a two-layer PCB with the ground plane (GP) on the 2nd layer. I have many tracks that run from one side to the other of the board, hence,...
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2 answers
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Questions about RF ground plane and low frequency reflections

Why do RF signals on a microstrip/stripline require a ground plane to propagate within a circuit? When studying DC and low frequency AC circuits in school, it appears that ground is a particular point ...
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Proteus 8.11 - Ground plane disappearing when I try to route or move a component

I have a two-layers thru-hole PCB in Proteus 8.11, and I am trying to put a ground plane on the bottom layer. But, every time I move a component or try to route, the ground plane just disappears. I ...
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Designing a DC stage for a mixed signal board

I am working on a board that contains a DC stage, an SBC module, mechanical relays (smd) and communication modules. The power supply is a cheap 24v AC-DC converter. It is a COTS product. The DC stage ...
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Choosing the correct Ground or Power net for internal copper planes in a 4-layered design

I am a chemistry student trying to replicate a PCB circuit as part of an extra-curricular challenge. I am in over my head, but I am learning a lot and don't want to give up. I tried to route the ...
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Analog and digital ground plan with isolated DC-DC converter

I use two isolated DC-DC converter in parallel from 24V One TDN 3-2411WISM (single output) to create 5V for the "digital world" followed by LDO to create 3V3 and GND for the VDD (+Vout) and ...
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4 Layer PCB Local Pours on Signal Layers

I'm in the middle of placing components on my first 4-Layer PCB. Layers are Sig-GND-Vcc-Sig. I2C/SPI/UART, up to 20MHz MCU, nothing exceptionally fancy. I have decided to check with the community ...
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4 Layer PCB Standard Stackup Grounding

I'm about to start placing components on my very first 4-Layer PCB (wrapping up schematic and MCU software tested on 2-layer pre-prototype, all runs surprisingly ok, but still 2 layer meh). I've ...
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4 layer stackup, inner layers GND & PWR

To "somewhat" quote Rick Hartley, "the energy isn't in the traces & planes but in between", I'm now wondering, when I use the following stackup: Sig GND PWR Sig You would ...
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Differential ADC reference plane - ground or midpoint?

The Microchip (ex-Atmel) ATSAMD10 has a 12-bit SAR ADC with the option to use differential input. I'm generating a virtual ground (\$V_\mathrm{mid}\$) at the midpoint (512 mV) of the reference voltage ...
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PCB antenna track and SMA connector controlled impedance

I designed a pcb for GSM module, using all the specifications given by the manufacturer, to have a controlled impedance. But there is a small detail that escapes me and that is not documented. When ...
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EMI shielding ground and isolated DC/DC

Given an isolated DC/DC converter, such as Traco TMR4. The GND fill, and internal GND layer(s) would be referenced to the -Vout pin. The TMR4 has an application note showing a fairly typical EMI ...
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Regarding PCB IFA microstrip antenna mirror image on ground plane hole areas

This is regarding the adjacent mirror image formed over the ground plane by a PCB antenna during operation. Take the first image of the IFA with the ground plane highlighted in yellow on layer 2, the ...
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Removing high impedance ground pours parallel to signal traces in Altium

whenever I route parallel traces on Altium, I get those narrow ground pours between my signal traces when I fill my ground planes. A collegue told me: since these pours are narrow and thus high ...
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GNSS module direct grounding to ESP32 increase sensitivity

I have a simple cirquit that composes of the following : ESP32-DevKit-LiPo (ESP32-WROOM) GNSS Module Beitian BN-357P with ufl connector for external antenna GNSS Active Patch Antenna My simple is ...
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Polygon not pouring over net tie pads in Altium

I am working with net ties in altium to link different ground signals. My net ties seem to work, no drc error, and I can link traces between them and objects of the same net. If I try to pour a ...
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Avoiding ground noise in analog circuit pcb design

Below single layer PCB is a constant current sink circuit (electronic load), it's pure analog supplied with ±12 V and consumes very low current (~50 mA) except the transistor control part (which ...
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Does putting solder mask over a ground plane influences its heat exchange with the air?

If you want the best thermal exchange with the air, is it preferable to leave a thermal/ground plane raw or to cover it with solder mask? And how important is the difference? (Dave from EEVblog is ...
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Need feedback for a PCB design (digital/analog synth)

Ok so I'm designing a synth using the NES sound chip (AY-3-8910). After poorly designing a PCB for it and testing it, I realized there is noise from the MIDI input bleeding to the audio output. I read ...
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How to calculate temperature rise of PCB polygon?

I'm designing a PCB where I have a polygon that carries current from one terminal to two pads, each pad should pull 33 Amperes, so a total of 66 Amperes running through that polygon. How can I ...
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