Questions tagged [hardware]

Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that constitute a computer system

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2
votes
2answers
66 views

How to appropriately test Ethernet hardware?

How should I appropriately test the Ethernet of my device? I have some ideas: Measure signal integrity between the MCU and the PHY or Switch devices (like RMII) Measure the signal integrity of the ...
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0answers
42 views

camera to scan image for a pic microcontroller [closed]

I want to make an AR game in unity. In the game a certain image is scanned and then a 3d model will show up. I don't want to hover my phone/computer over the image to see the 3d model, so (for the ...
35
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5answers
12k views

When Intel / AMD choose their Nanometer Processes, why were the specific numbers, 5, 7, 10, 14, 22, 32, 45, etc chosen?

When looking at the roadmaps for the CPU manufacturing process https://wccftech.com/intel-expects-launch-10nm-2017/ 10 µm – 1971 6 µm – 1974 3 µm – 1977 1.5 µm – 1981 1 µm – 1984 800 nm – 1987 600 nm ...
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1answer
66 views

Need help identifying components! Hardware

So recently I have come across a schematic diagram with pictures, but some of the parts in the build (A quadruped robot, more information in the hackaday link below) are not in the schematic, and I ...
0
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2answers
41 views

SOP vs SOIC test clips [closed]

I'm mostly a software person, so this might be a super basic question. I wanna connect to an SOP8 flash chip. I see many recommendations for the Pomona clips, but that one is labeled SOIC8. I can't ...
0
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1answer
45 views

How to adjust trim potentiometer

I bought some DC-DC buck converters which are supposedly adjustable. They have a tiny trim potentiometer on them, but how are those adjusted? I tried my tinyest screwdriver, but it simply won't turn. ...
1
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1answer
46 views

Meaning of certain symbols and labels in Circuit board PCB schematic design (v2)

I have a schematic design for a printed/ electronic circuit board. I want to know the meaning of certain symbols/ labels in the schematic design. I have highlighted in the below picture, the relevant ...
2
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4answers
301 views

Hardware to run a fixed neural network

Suppose I have a feedforward neural network and I already have decided what its directed graph, weights and activation function should be. I want a device than runs this neural network as quickly as ...
3
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3answers
7k views

Meaning of certain symbols and labels in Circuit board PCB

I have a schematic of an electronic circuit board or PCB. I want to know the meaning of certain symbols and labels in the diagram. I have highlighted the diagram below with green, yellow and grey ...
2
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0answers
76 views

ATX power supply doesn't cut the current after being turned off

I made a power supply for my electronic projects using a ATX power supply of a older computer and used a button connecting the black and green wires to turn it on/off. I noticed that sometimes when I ...
2
votes
3answers
165 views

getting interrupt from ignition circuit

This transistor ignition circuit for a model petrol engine is built from a proprietary kit. I have made it up and it works. Now I want to take a signal from it as an external interrupt to an Arduino ...
0
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0answers
39 views

microSD card voltage level- reverse engineering design

Goal: Adding (back) a microSD socket to a camera that does not have one. The microSD pads are laid out and appear to be fully connected. Ground is to the ground plane, the data lines are with ...
0
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3answers
78 views

Making complex boolean circuits that give true as output only for a specific combination of boolean inputs

This is my first question on a stack exchange website so please bear with me. I am making challenges for a jeopardy style capture the flag event in my college and I had come across the minetest ...
0
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0answers
30 views

Development kit for learning USB device driver development

I want to learn writing device drivers for USB devices (on linux kernel or microcontrollers, if that matters). Hence, I am looking for sample USB development kit. e.g. when I wanted to learn I2C, I ...
1
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2answers
43 views

What board should I use to control my 3D printer

I'm trying to build a simple experimental FDM 3D printer as a hobby. As I said it's a simple printer with only basic functionalities such as receiving the slicer file to print from a slicer software ...
0
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1answer
51 views

How to find RPM from the square wave of a MSD box

I am trying to make a tachometer for my car. I am using a MSD6Al-2. The box outputs a 12 volt square wave at a 20 % duty cycle I talked to someone at MSD and they said you'll get a signal every time ...
0
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1answer
32 views

Can I use WP(Write Protect) pin of a USB flash memory controller to prevent tampering with its firmware/stored data?

I want to have an USB stick that I can make it read-only and insert it in any untrusted PC without risking a silent BadUSB infection. I was thinking about finding an USB stick that has this WP pin in ...
0
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2answers
71 views

ESP8266 / ESP32 - Health issues

I am doing a pretty specific project, where I plan to connect up to 150 devices, mostly depending on ESP32 and a few ESP8266 devices. All of them will be located in a tiny space of around 5-8 square ...
-1
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2answers
54 views

How Serial Port Loopback Test work internally/underneath? [closed]

Actually I've asked my question on StackOverflow, but I really think it belongs here. Here it is anyway: When doing a Serial Loopback Test on a USB Port (assume COM1) using Hyperterminal or any other ...
4
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6answers
1k views

How do computers output a signal without an input? [closed]

I'm curious about how an output pin gets turned on at a low level when there is no input like pressing a button to complete a circuit. If you program a raspberry pi to turn on and off an LED how does ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Can a micro operation pass multiple pipeline stages with a single clock cycle?

I'm learning a CPU architecture and currently found some high-level description of Intel x86_64 CPUs architecture. By the high level description I mean something like the following micro-op flow (...
11
votes
9answers
13k views

Which method or component is best to regulate 42 to 3.3 V?

I am using a 36 V battey pack (10s 2.5 A each cell 3.6V.) Its maximum voltage is 42 V. I am using a STM32 microcontroller whose input is 3.3 V. I am designing a PCB in which the power supply is drawn ...
1
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0answers
51 views

Connect DC/DC Conv Isolated Ground

I'm developing a modular equipment device aimed for industry, very similar to a PLC in terms of electronics. For all field interfaces I am using isolators and ESD protection for robustness and to pass ...
0
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3answers
86 views

How to amplify 3.3V to 10V by using an NPN transistor? How to select resistor based on current, how does the amplification happen?

I have basic knowledge about NPN transistors and I know how they work: for current gain based on the small input current in the base we are able to drive large amount of current in between collector ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

What is the use of V ref pin in a differential amplifier?

What is the use of Vref in a differential amplifier? Will it keep the output below V+=5V (from 0 to 5V) or will it keep the output below reference voltage (Vref) =3V (from 0 to 3V?) What does ...
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0answers
49 views

E-bike battery-related questions

I am a beginner and I am learning to design and develop a Battery Management System for low voltage applications like E-Bike. I would like to build a 36 V, 10s, 2500 mAh battery pack. The knowledge ...
0
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1answer
68 views

PNP led on when it should be off

I am using a CTHSCIC06 capacitive touch button and have connected as per the datasheet (the motor side of the circuit is not needed) however I am still having trouble around the pnp side of the ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

How to select shunt resistor value of the below circuit? We can use Ohm's law but I am still a bit confused

I am very new to hardware development. I am learning all the basics to design a battery management system for electric vehicles in the future. I would like to know how to select a shunt resistor for ...
0
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1answer
121 views

How to protect a microcontroller analog pin from continuous overvoltage?

I have one design requirement where I have to acquire an Analog signal and read the same via a micro-controller. I am using a normal resistor based voltage divider with values of 47K & 10K ...
0
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2answers
418 views

12v to 3.3 v logic level shifter?

For my application I have to read 12V pulses from a optical encoder into a GPIO pin of a Raspberry Pi. What could be the best solution to convert 12v HTL signals to 3.3V for RPi GPIO input? Is a level ...
0
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1answer
33 views

How do BIOS controls/settings affect hardware?

What exactly happens when you change the configuration settings in BIOS? Does it change some register value in the subsystem's register set directly?
0
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0answers
73 views

Programmable UART interface

I’m trying to design programmable UART controller. Its features are as below. Microcontroller (MCU) has UART port with TTL level output. Now based on requirement MCU should be able to select ...
2
votes
1answer
133 views

digital input levels based on another circuit (using a transistor switch?)

I would like to control some microcontroller¹ code based on the status of a push-button switch in an external 3.3V circuit via a digital input. The external circuit has a little under 3.3VDC going ...
1
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3answers
157 views

Developing a Hardware Test Plan for a Microcontroller - Past Experience

I am using this Microcontroller using 3.3V for power. Using GPIO pins to drive some LEDs and send some ports for sending UART, LIN signals. I'm using a 16MHz crystal. Can someone tell me what the ...
0
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1answer
89 views

WAVGAT Pro Mini, no serial output

I ordered some Pro Minis however get some WAVGAT clone thingies. The first problem was it is running too slow (4x slower) when compiling with default "Pro or Pro Mini" board profile. Serial however ...
0
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1answer
53 views

Processor-in-the-loop for the design of a diagnosis system

I'm studying the development and implementation of a diagnosis system. I would like to understand what is the processor-in-the-loop, but there isn't any Wikipedia page (while there are for hardware-in-...
0
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1answer
47 views

ICL3232 and SN75C3232 difference

I'm using ICL3232EIV-16Z-T in one of my projects for UART communication. As per the datasheet, the max speed is 500Kbps. But I've tested this IC for baud rate up to 921600 and there is no data loss. ...
1
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1answer
96 views

Strategy against Side Channel Attack

I am newbie to Hardware Security. While studying Side Channel Attack, I realized that power consumption profile of electronic control unit is a key to encrypt what algorithm runs on it. I thought ...
0
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1answer
161 views

How to implement 32-bit adder logic using two 16-bit adders?

I've been trying to implement a 32-bit adder by instantiating two 16-bit adders. The code is compiling but failing some test cases. I don't know what is going wrong in this. verilog code ...
0
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1answer
29 views

Pull up resistor selection for LIN bus

What exactly will happen if I use 1.2K ohms at LIN master node pull-up? Why does the LIN protocol spec recommend to use 1K typically?
1
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3answers
184 views

circuit for hot-pluggable device

I have a scenario, where device A provides 24V, device B converts 24V to 3.3V and feeds it back to ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Can hardware damage cause a computer (or a smartphone) to make miscalculations or logical errors?

I want to put an example. If I have a motherboard, some elements dropped (such as capacitance or resistance). When I install it into a computer, it can pass Power on Self Test and successfully launch ...
0
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0answers
26 views

Will USB 3.0 still work in Super Speed Mode(SS) if I disconnect D+ and D- Lines? [duplicate]

As I understand D+ and D- Lines are for backward compatibility to USB 2.0 modes. So if I don't require backward compatibility to my USB 3.0 Device, Can I disconnect D+ and D- Lines or use those lines ...
1
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0answers
72 views

JTAG scan chain interrogation fails

I am currently trying to get my Bus Blaster v4.1a to work. I want to use openocd to communicate with a device over JTAG. The device that I want to communicate with is a Qualcomm_qca4531. First of all ...
0
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2answers
63 views

Hard disk erase data

How do hard disk erase data?As far as I know, the hard disk stores data like this: The write head contains a coil of wire with a core of iron.When current passes through, depending on the direction ...
0
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0answers
47 views

Optical Isolation of BNC trigger?

I am wondering if there is a more practical way to provide optical isolation for a BNC trigger. I am currently using the following: https://www.eagleharbortech.com/product-categories/fiber-optic-...
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1answer
69 views

Why must a block in NAND SSDs be erased before it can be reprogammed? [closed]

Before programming a NAND based SSD in page-level we have to always erase by block-level which increases write amplification. why is it so and how do we mitigate it? what is the necessity of erasing ...
0
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3answers
195 views

Power Supply Earth for Bench Testing

I work in a typical electronics lab, with resistive earth mats, ESD straps and isolated DC power supplies to test prototype PCBs. I prefer not to use the power supply earth-ground, and to leave the ...
3
votes
3answers
339 views

VHDL process' sensitivity list

I do not understand the precise role of the sensitivity list in a process in VHDL. For instance, consider an architecture with 3 input signals: a, b, c. I read that if we write: PROCESS (a, b) we ...
0
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1answer
59 views

Smart vs Intelligent vs Adaptive vs Advance (etc) Embedded Devices [closed]

I hope my question is not off-topic here. I am asking it here because it is directly related to the hardware devices which are primarily based on MCU's. These Embedded System devices are used every ...

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