Questions tagged [hardware]

Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that constitute a computer system

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0answers
72 views

Can we reverse engineer or debug any OBD? [closed]

I am working on a project and have 3 OBD2 devices. As I opened it I found various chips. First OBD device contained a Qualcomm MDM9207 processor, network IC, and Winbond w71nw20gf3fw(Code Storage ...
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3answers
67 views

Hardware ID - Variant detection with 1 Digital MCU pin

I have a board, which is the host for several different sensors. All sensors have the same 4 pin plug with the following pin-out: Pin: VDD Pin: Signal Pin: Free Pin: VSS Means, I got 1 free pin, on ...
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29 views

Is there any specific application for an indirect band gap semiconductor?

I know that direct band gap semiconductors are very attractive for optical emission, and even though indirect band gap are used as well, I keep wondering: is there any technology that specifically ...
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2answers
36 views

ESP32/ESP8266 external programmer two way design question

When I design a PCB that has a ESP32/ESP8266, I usually integrate a USB-UART bridge in the design as well. However, I am now working on a board that will likely have more than just a few copies. The ...
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1answer
76 views

How to implement neural network using FPGA? [closed]

I want to design neural networks using FPGAs and make neuromorphic chip. Is there a tutorial or course to learn how to do that and to implement neural network using FPGA especially for evaluating the ...
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4answers
126 views

What is the difference between software and firmware? [duplicate]

I've started learning about embedded coding. The words 'firmware' and 'software' are a bit ambiguous to me still. My understanding is that software is high level language tailored for user interaction,...
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44 views

About the 32-bit divider

I am currently working on a hardware design, its function is to realize the Taylor series of cosh. In it, I need to use a multiplier and a divider. They are both 32-bit input and 64-bit output. I ...
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1answer
57 views

Are there smaller packages for Standard rcl (resistor, inductance, capacitor) than 0402mm

I need to miniaturize a PCB as much as possible. Are there packages available on mouser for standard components like resistors (100k) or inductance (Up to 30nH) or Cap (Up to 100pF)?
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1answer
81 views

New motor only rotates clockwise

I stared out with the 28byj-48 motor and got it to rotate one direction with one button and the other direction with the other button using Arduino pins 2 and 4, respectfully. When the new motor, ...
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2answers
107 views

How does this YouTube video's author identify pins with multimeter?

I was watching this video on JTAG. It is mostly too difficult for me to follow, and I will likely learn more about UART first before returning to this. At around 13:00 he uses a multi-meter to ...
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1answer
43 views

What's the component name/part number of a motherboard audio jack?

I've de-soldered a triple 3.5mm audio connector thing from a dead motherboard and would like to use it for a small project. However, I have no idea what it's called, there's no part number on it, and ...
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1answer
101 views

Are there fewer firmware chips in a mobile device compared with a laptop or a desktop?

For a conventional laptop or desktop computer, there appear to be many firmware chips in which malware might hide: internal drives network card graphics card sound card embedded controller BIOS ...
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3answers
66 views

Rewrite matlab code for hardware

I am working on implementation of PLL. The implementation in MATLAB is done. It should be simulated in a similar way in hardware. Honestly, I don’t understand what a simulation in hardware means. ...
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1answer
224 views

Differences between UART receiver STOP bit implementations

Some UART receivers require that the specified number of stop bits are present in the received data. For example, if the receiving UART is configured for 2 stop bits, the transmitting UART must also ...
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1answer
48 views

Flashing SPI flash using DediProg while having intersection with other device

In my design for PCIE to USB converter board. I use VL805 Host Controller to do the conversion. the chip needs a firmware that I flash it to SPI FLASH (U25) using DediProg. I added a special 6-pin ...
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3answers
152 views

Development board or Individual Microcontrollers? [closed]

I am an electrical engineering student and my planned career path is embedded systems. To get slightly ahead of my peers, but also for my own interests, I am learning embedded programming as well as ...
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1answer
60 views

Getting lower output voltage than expected in 5 level inverter

I am making a 5 level inverter using an Arduino Mega. I am using an IRFZ44N MOSFET for switching and also an MCT2E as a MOSFET driver. The problem I am facing is that I am a getting a lower output ...
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1answer
89 views

How does the hardware realize adding 8 values in 1 clock cycle? [closed]

For example: result= a1+a2+a3+a4+a5+a6+a7+a8 How many adders are needed to perform this in 1 clock cycle? What does the design look in terms of hardware?
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3answers
110 views

Has there been any deliberate implementation of combinational logic soft error correction in any consumer-level product, like a CPU/microcontroller? [closed]

Prologue It is well known that many error detection, mitigation, and correction methods, such as parity or ECC, have been available in large memory banks, like for RAM, for decades now, and even in ...
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47 views

How to set SPI clock speed for MT7623N

first I must say, I am new to the HW programming, but I really enjoy it. My first project is writing a library for MT7623N (BananaPi R2) that handles GPIO pins. I got the GPIO part done and I can set ...
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1answer
131 views

What spacing to use between microstrip trace and ground plane on same layer?

I am designing a 4 layer board (1 - signal, 2 - GND, 3 - power, 4 - signal) and I have some microstrip lines on top and bottom layers. Should I fill the top and bottom layer with ground? What do you ...
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1answer
66 views

Hardware for Generating Low Frequency Vibrations

I am interested in having a small device generate low frequency vibrations in the range of 1Hz - 10Hz which can be adjustable. Doing my research, I came across small coin shaped motors which are ideal ...
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1answer
32 views

KiCAD - Errors when designing shield schematic

I finally finished my first schematic and everything looked great. I went ahead to perform Electrical Rules Check. There were many errors. Most of them were: ...
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0answers
24 views

VHDL structural vs Behavioural implementation vs data flow

I was wondering what would be the benefits of structural vs behavioural vs data flow implementation of a code. I know behavioural is easy since its close to C++ and it doesn't have hardware concerns, ...
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1answer
87 views

Confused about the meaning of hardware specification

This question is not directly about design but meaning of a concept used in electronics design. Basically, I cannot find the clear explanation regarding the following use of "specification" ...
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58 views

How to sync time between two devices (<30m apart) with a sub milisecond accuracy? (think PTP)

So my task is to detect the source of banging in a metal tube (picture radiator pipe). The idea is to put two mics to the ends of the tube and measure time differences when they hear banging. The tube ...
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2answers
94 views

Is it safe to apply voltage to buffer output?

I want to design a SDI-12 interface and I am using this schematic as a starting point. In receive mode, the 5V SDI-12 data signal will reach UART RX via the transistor Q1, but will also reach the ...
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1answer
57 views

How to decide the DDR3 routing topology?

I am designing board which has got 4 DDR3 Die on it, 64 bit SDRAM interface. DDR3 Memory controller will be xilinx FPGA. I have some confusion in the signal routing from the DDR3 interface to DDR3 ...
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2answers
121 views

Why are most of the RESET signals in embedded systems active low?

I am hardware design engineer. I had seen lot of board designs since 2015. In my career I have seen that most of the RESET signals are of active low signals. Is there any logical reason behind that? ...
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1answer
243 views

Power a circuit with power supply and USB port, my solution

I want to power a circuit I have from a dedicated power supply. But at the same time, I have a USB port that can also supply power but only when I decide to upload new firmware to a atmega32u2. Here ...
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0answers
19 views

cjmcu-3221 i2c problem - doesn't show on search

I have big problem and strange problem with the device, I have connected it into Arduino VS - 3.3V GND - GND SCL - A5 SDA - A4 didn't connect anything to ch1-3 ...
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22 views

NC (non controllable) fault on primary input

I am using TestMAX (synopsys) to debug problems of coverage in DC (stuck @) simulations. I encountered a NC (non controllable) fault in the primary input, why do I get that? is that a bad fault or ...
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0answers
43 views

Would this silary battery shield work? [duplicate]

I am making an open source solar battery shield for the Arduino Uno, would this circuit work? It's pretty basic but I think it would do the trick. Also,the power from the solar cell will come into the ...
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1answer
18 views

how can i make compile stage shorter in VCS (synopsys) after logic changed?

if I changed few lines from a specific Verilog of design and now I want to recompile, can I compile just the related files or I need to compile the whole design again? i'm using VCS tool by Synopsys.
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24 views

Flyback converter Transformer calculation verification

Kindly verify the transformer design for this wide input power supply using LM5022 i am designing the power supply for my solar inverter in which output of solar panel (750Vdc to 800Vdc) directly fed ...
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0answers
27 views

Logic to pull signal low on power loss until signals next rising edge

I have the circuit below using the MCP23018 I/O controller which is always powered. The issue I'm having is that the signal USBC_RST_N controls the reset line of a PCIE-USB IC which has the ability to ...
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0answers
125 views

N-Channel MOSFET Circuit

a friend of mine developed this Schematic and Circuit. The Problem is, on LIN_BUS (please ignore the Name) should be KL15 Volage (13.8V) if the FET switches. But if FET1_CNTRL is LOW (0.0V) the ...
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2answers
75 views

Decoupling of STM32F072CBT6

just a short question while reading the Datasheet. What is the meaning of the Capacitors in the second line (marked red). Do I need both (100nF AND 4.7uF) connected each of the Supply? Datasheet Link
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56 views

EMC tests requirements

I have designed many boards since graduation in my position as Hardware Engineer, but none of these boards tested its electromagnetic compatibility with the standards. However in all my designs I have ...
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1answer
77 views

Hardware that can generate chirp audio signal

Basically I would like to generate chirp audio signal that sweeps from 16 kHz to 18 kHz, the signal lasts about 100 ms, no restrict requirements on the sound volume. I am able to generate such chirp ...
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4answers
2k views

Polarised capacitor vs. unpolarised capacitor. Which to use when?

Polarised capacitor has polarity (+ and -). Is it also called electrolytic capacitor? (Question 1) Unpolarised capacitor does not have polarity (there is no + and -). Unpolarised capacitor can be ...
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5answers
150 views

What does 32 mean in QFN 32? Term is related to IC chip specification

ESP8285 IC QFN32 is a chip. https://robu.in/product/esp8285-ic-qfn32-original/ What does 32 mean in QFN 32? If I have a part/ footprint having the name as QFN50P500X500X90-33N-D. Will it be different ...
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1answer
176 views

PCB designing of GSM module

I want to design PCB of a GSM module. Inside a GSM module there is a place to put a (mobile cellular ) SIM card. And then this GSM module can send SMS text messages to different phone numbers. ...
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2answers
72 views

How to appropriately test Ethernet hardware?

How should I appropriately test the Ethernet of my device? I have some ideas: Measure signal integrity between the MCU and the PHY or Switch devices (like RMII) Measure the signal integrity of the ...
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5answers
13k views

When Intel / AMD choose their Nanometer Processes, why were the specific numbers, 5, 7, 10, 14, 22, 32, 45, etc chosen?

When looking at the roadmaps for the CPU manufacturing process https://wccftech.com/intel-expects-launch-10nm-2017/ 10 µm – 1971 6 µm – 1974 3 µm – 1977 1.5 µm – 1981 1 µm – 1984 800 nm – 1987 600 nm ...
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1answer
77 views

Need help identifying components! Hardware

So recently I have come across a schematic diagram with pictures, but some of the parts in the build (A quadruped robot, more information in the hackaday link below) are not in the schematic, and I ...
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2answers
185 views

SOP vs SOIC test clips [closed]

I'm mostly a software person, so this might be a super basic question. I wanna connect to an SOP8 flash chip. I see many recommendations for the Pomona clips, but that one is labeled SOIC8. I can't ...
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1answer
138 views

How to adjust trim potentiometer

I bought some DC-DC buck converters which are supposedly adjustable. They have a tiny trim potentiometer on them, but how are those adjusted? I tried my tinyest screwdriver, but it simply won't turn. ...
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1answer
147 views

Meaning of certain symbols and labels in Circuit board PCB schematic design (v2)

I have a schematic design for a printed/ electronic circuit board. I want to know the meaning of certain symbols/ labels in the schematic design. I have highlighted in the below picture, the relevant ...
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4answers
327 views

Hardware to run a fixed neural network

Suppose I have a feedforward neural network and I already have decided what its directed graph, weights and activation function should be. I want a device than runs this neural network as quickly as ...

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