# Questions tagged [linear]

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### 2 linear actuators getting start stop signal from the same switch. is that possible?

Hello all and thanks in advance for your time. I'm a total newbie. I want to build an automated procedure without doing complex programming. Ideally I would like to have: 1 linear actuator (LA1), a ...
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134 views

### Is it true that a sine wave is the only signal that does not change shape in a linear circuit?

This is from Microelectronic Circuits by Adel Sedra and Kenneth Smith. The book says, In fact, the sine wave is the only signal that does not change shape as it passes through a linear circuit. Is ...
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### Can we solve all linear circuits using only KVL and constitutive relations?

Can We Solve for Node Voltages and Branch Currents in Any Linear Circuit Using Only KVL and Constitutive Relations? In circuits with a single loop, it's trivial to solve using only Kirchhoff's Voltage ...
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1 vote
51 views

### Changing the Limits of the Graph When Trying to Model the Shockley Equation in MatLab Shifts the Position of the Curve [closed]

I have been trying to create a piecewise linear model of a diode through curve fitting. While trying to implement the code below, I ran into a strange bug that is causing my output curve to shift to ...
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89 views

### How to analyze and simplify a voltage divider with a second voltage source?

How do I simplify the circuit below? simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I know that R2 and R3 form a voltage divider, but I can't figure out the input impedance that In ...
• 1,307
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### How to predict the efficiency of a very low speed Railgun Actuator/Lorentz Force Actuator?

Well, I read somewhere that the slower the railgun is, the higher its efficiency, so I started trying to find out what would be the efficiency of a railgun actuator to move a heavy object (3000kg) at ...
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### How do I relate input and output signals and find the output for other input signals in LTI system?

I am studying about signals and systems. I came across a few practice problems. For the below question, I was able to mimic the input and output waves shown in ...
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1 vote
73 views

### How to convert the winding of a radial electric motor to a linear tubular electric motor?

There are winding scheme/calculators and tutorials online for conventional electric motors, but I can't find any clear method of wind linear tubular electric motors. For example, this is the winding ...
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1 vote
160 views

### Find R, L and C in RLC series circuit given voltage over capacitor and current through inductor

I have a couple of exercises in my textbook (Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 6th edition) that look like the following: To solve this problem, my first idea was to transform it into the laplace ...
147 views

### Superpostion problem, why are resistors shortcircuited?

We are asked to compute the voltage between points $A$ and $B$ in the following circuit directly i.e. without using Thevenin's or Norton's Theorem: The teacher's solution is divided into three ...
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### Equivalence in circuits

I'm studying circuit theory, with only linear elements and no capacitors or inductors or mutual inductances, so no differential equations. All the sources (current and voltages) are constant. To be ...
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348 views

### Resistor parallel to diode

How can a circuit where a diode is put in parallel to a resistor be described mathematically? Yes a solution would be to linearize the diode function in a specific point but in my case I need a ...
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### 0-12V square wave to linear 12V

Can anyone help me with the design of circuit? I need to use a zero to 12V square wave input and output a linear or straight 12V to carry 2 amperes. I think a collection of capacitors and an inductor ...
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83 views

### Repurpose adjustable standing desk linear actuator for a project on my truck [closed]

Disclaimer: fairly limited experience with electrical engineering. I'm currently making a deck for my snowmobile that will sit in my truck bed - a 'Sled deck'. Nice sled decks have telescopic sides so ...
142 views

### Active low pass filter is there any virtual ground point? If yes how can I derive?

I'm learning this MFB active LPF. My questions regarding this as follows: How to derive transfer function for this configuration? Is there concept of virtual ground exist? If yes can you explain ...
39 views

### Power method for approximation of eigenvector representing steady state

I've been testing a method of circuit simulation where I assign an initial voltage to each node, set the current across each wire according to Ohm's law, and then adjust the voltage of each node ...
124 views

### Trying to fix a linear power supply of an old video door phone system

I'm a novice electronics engineer and I am currently trying to fix an old linear power supply of a video door phone system. This power supply works as intended with some of its features (12 VDC and 12 ...
155 views

### Is a system composed of LTI causal systems is also causal?

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I have a question which for which I could not find answer. Let us say we have A and B which are LTI and causal systems. Can I say that ...
728 views

### What happens when Vdrain is greater than Vsource in PMOS Transistor?

So as I understand, if Vsd = 0 in a pmos transistor, then the current flow should be zero, and the same goes for if Vs<Vd, now my question is, in what state will be the transistor i.e. cut-off, ...
43 views

### Digimess dual linear PSU

Digimess (UK) seem to have gone to the wall, broken links on their website and phone line unobtainable. I wanted try and get the circuit diagram for my LM3002 Dual 30V 1A supply because the +ve side ...
1 vote
118 views

### Transistor biasing arrangement

I am trying to learn about transistor biasing, and can’t seem to wrap my head around it. First of all I’ll explain what I’m trying to accomplish. I’m trying to build a linear 0-100 V power supply ...
167 views

### How to find a linear RLC circuit from its transfer function?

I have a transfer function, for example: $$H(s)= P\frac{10}{s(s+5)(s+9)}$$ See the figure below. How do I make a linear RLC circuit from this transfer function, without using an op-amp, but a linear ...
83 views

### LTI system Bode curve

Given an RLC circuit, I needed to find the transfer function, which I did. Now I need to find R and L so that the next two conditions are met: The overshoot is 25% The first peak time is t = 3 The ...
2k views

### Linear PSU design problem

I am trying to develop my own PSU for learning purposes, but would also like to be able to use it once built. The requirements are as follows: The PSU must deliver 1 A at 35 to 40 V (max.) ...
137 views

### How is the transfer function block in simulink labelled as linear ? especially for the cases where variable 's' has power greater than 1

https://www.mathworks.com/help/simulink/slref/transferfcn.html Above weblink gives description about the transfer function block in simulink. I am confused why it is written in the description at top ...
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57 views

### Linear or logarithmic LED bar for speaker overload protection

I have built a 2.1 home cinema audio system. The amplifier modules are severely overpowered for the mid/high speakers I use. Main reason for this is that the amplifier modules (TDA8954) produce an ...
92 views

### What is meant by the shifting property of the companion form?

I am going through the book "Linear System Theory and Design" by Chi-Tsong Chen, where they talk about the controllable canonical form and how it is a realization of a transfer matrix. In ...
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1 vote
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### Phone battery charges linearly [closed]

I think this is probably a bit basic, but I've tried googling and have posted elsewhere. The question is vey simple. I've recently bought a new smartphone, with a standard lithium battery. Every other ...
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4k views

### Why do we need nonlinear electronics for computing?

When I read about photonics, I always see that they can be used for linear transformations (just matrix multiplications), and that this is a limitation that makes them unsuitable for building a ...
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1 vote
85 views

### Linear model of diodes for mesh current and nodal voltage analysis?

If we use the piecewise linear model for diodes, can we apply mesh current and nodal voltage analysis to a circuit containing a diode?
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1 vote
117 views

### Folded Overload Protection in Linear regulator

Can someone please explain how Q1 is able to protect from overload this linear circuit? Please see below for a simpler schematic of the above:
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### How can I limit the DC input voltage from an AC rectified source to keep it within limits for 7805?

I have an AC power source that when rectified with 470 µF capacitor gives 38 V DC with no load. I have a 7805 (TO-220) which the data sheet says has a maximum input of 35 VDC. I'm trying to power an ...
39 views

### Quick state feedback controller question

If two estimators where used in a state feedback system, one with error dynamics poles at -10 and -9 and another one at -80 and -90. Which system will give you a better overall performance?
2k views

### Linearization of thermistor

Thermistors are highly nonlinear devices . This linearization circuit of a NTC produces a linear response (temperature/resistance).But what should be the values of $R_{s}$ and $R_{p}$? Image from: ...
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771 views

### Relationship between Vin and Vout of a linear voltage regulator in saturation region

Suppose we have a linear voltage regulator: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab If Vin is above Vth Vout is costant for all values Vin may take.However if Vin is below ...
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1 vote
482 views

### Signals and systems - Does y(n-1) affects when I check the system for linearity?

I have the following system: $$y[n] = \frac{x[n]}{3}+ 2x[n-1] -y[n-1]$$ And I have to check its linearity, but I don't know if i'm supposed to evaluate y[n-1] as if it was a x[n-1], or if I have to ...
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1 vote
392 views

### Derivation of zero state response for LTI system with convolution

Consider this derivation of the zero-state response $y_{zs}$ for an LTI system caused by an input $x(t)$: - \begin{smallmatrix}\begin{array}{r|cc} \text{Input} & \text{Output} & \text{...
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2k views

### How to calculate resistance from points using linear regression?

I have a lists of current and voltage of one device and I would like to calculate the resistance. There are some errors with the ...
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1 vote
223 views

### What is this linear encoder from a old inkjet printer using a thin metal rod and a metallized glass plate?

What is the working principle of this sensor ? It was found in a canon inkjet printer from around 2000-2005. Not a fancy model, though. The metal rod broke, as it is surprisingly fragile. It doesn't ...
1k views

### Constant ramp not behaving as expected in SPICE simulation [closed]

Looking for some advice on creating a constant (linear) ramp which meets a certain specification, I've designed this example which works well in ideal simulation but I cannot get it to work in SPICE. ...
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1 vote
2k views

### Linear (LM317 based?) high current / voltage regulator ( 30 amps at 0 - ~35 volts)

I'm looking to make a linear (LM317 based?) high current / voltage regulator (30 amps at 0 - ~35 volts). I looked at some desings online but still have some problems with it. Maybe you can guide me ...
1k views

### Capacitance multiplier or parallel capacitors for ultralow noise power supply

For a linear power supply after the bridge rectifier stage, what is the best way to filter the output power? Is it possible to use typical capacitance multiplier circuit with a power BJT or MOSFET, ...
1 vote
490 views

### What is the maximum input voltage for the external voltage regulator of the stm32 bluepill?

I am referring to the regulator connected to the USB 5V ( the 5V pin), can it handle a voltage of 12v and step it down to 3.3V for the chip? If not, then what is the upper voltage limit for that ...
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### Proof that RLC networks are linear?

I've been learning about RLC networks, superposition, two-port circuits etc. and a lot of derivations and equations implicitly assume the fact that the circuits in question are linear, no matter the ...
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### Simplyfing a circuit by replacing two nodes with a voltage source and removing a connection between resistors

I am given the first circuit (A) and I have to find the voltage across R4. Since the potential at node C is independent (V2), I was thinking about a possible transformation to circuit B. However, I am ...
1k views

### KHN active filter design

I have some design equations from a text book which are designed to realised a KHN filter. However, when implemented and simulated, the values shown do not realise the design. A gain of 20 dB should ...
104 views

### How to linearly boost the output of a Gaussian shaping amplifier?

I have a pulse detection set up that takes in analog pulses (with relatively long tails, gamma spectroscopy). This pulse is sent into a shaping amplifier, that removes the tail, and shapes the pulse ...
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### Linear thumbwheel potentiometer obsolete?

I am trying to find a possibly obsolete linear thumbwheel potentiometer, like the type used in old radios. There seem to be plenty of logarithmic pots around. I can find linear but they are marked as &...
1 vote
532 views

### Possibly unstable output of linear power supply due to very large current amplfication

I'm designing a linear power supply with an op-amp as error amp and a Sziklai pair as output stage as a hobby project (see schematic below). I'm worried, that the output Vo will be unstable/...
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