Questions tagged [loop]

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how to calculate the phase noise contribution of an active loop filter in pll

I want to calculate the contribution of each phase-locked loop(pll) module to the total phase noise that has been done in ADIsimPLL. But I'm having trouble calculating the contribution of the loop ...
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1answer
66 views

How does a PLL PFD produce a high frequency?

I am going to work with a PLL and a VCO. I have read and understood the basic procedure in which the charge pump works. I understood that say, when the reference signal (or the divided signal) is up ...
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1answer
47 views

Delays and/or how to manually cycle clock in a loop when building Verilog testbench to test FSM for microcode/ROM conversion

I am working on a project wherein I need to convert a Finite State Machine coded in Verilog into a ROM. In order to do this I need to create a memory file for the ROM version of the FSM which stores ...
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2answers
95 views

Verilog for loop not iterating

The current for loop that I have coded below is getting stuck at its last iteration value. In other words, the value of i initially starts at 0 but once it reaches ...
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1answer
85 views

Defining a variable in bytes using Verilog

I am trying to implement a 16byte input (K) in Verilog which I have never done before. Also, I need to pull each byte from the index K using a for loop. In this case, b=16bytes, w=32bits, u=w/8. Here ...
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2answers
130 views

Grinding on PI/PID controller at specific PWM

I've modified a previous PI controller of a design team on that is working on high speed motor applications to include the D, which didn't solve this issue. The PID loop takes actual speed, and ...
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1answer
326 views

Difference between KVL and mesh analysis

Are KVL and mesh analysis, the same? I am confused. What is the characteristic difference between them?
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47 views

what is the open and closed loop function of this system?

i found this in the text book. i solved by: 1- found the closed loop function of just the part of B(p) and its "feedback", let's call it B'(p). 2- after that i did H(p) = A(p) / ( 1 + A(p) * ...
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1answer
44 views

How to guarantee the stability of a RF closed loop amplifier with inner loops?

I've a 3 stage closed loop amplifier with many loops inside of which some loops cannot be broken, to analyze the loop gain, as the parasitic capacitors are intrinsic to the device. What is the method ...
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0answers
740 views

STM32 - Using Timer as timebase source for HAL in FreeRTOS application

I am learning more about freertos by making a task based program. My problem comes when initializing and configuring the HAL time sources. I read that it is necessary to choose another HW timer as ...
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1answer
52 views

Can you help me to understand this thevenin circuit's mesh?

Why didn't we involve the 4 Ohm resistor while doing the mesh i2 ?
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54 views

How do you choose loops for the loop circuit method?

I need to understand how to choose loops for the loop current method of circuit analysis; ideally I'd like to be able to do it by means of an algorithm, so a vague intuition isn't sufficient. Can ...
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3answers
409 views

Gain-bandwidth product and open loop/closed loop gain

I'm reading the TI-precision lab of opamp. And I'm confused with the calculation of the BW_CL (bandwidth of th close-loop). I'm prettry sure the BW_CL= GBPW/GAIN_CL. This is very clear refer to enter ...
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2answers
407 views

Ground loops in a PCB with large hole in the middle

I'm designing a board for a client with some unusual constraints. My question is well illustrated with the following simplified example. Assume the positions of everything are fixed. Let's also ...
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0answers
38 views

Solving PLL Loop BW Transfer Function

𝑍(𝑠)= (1+𝑠.𝐢2.𝑅2)/(𝑠.(𝐴3.𝑠^3+𝐴2.𝑠^2+𝐴1.𝑠+𝐴0) C2 = 0.0000001F R2 = 1000 Ohm A0 = 0.000000106034 A1 = 1.27859848E-12 A2 = 4.5011166848E-18 A3 = 4.31278848E-24 G(𝑠)= (𝐾𝑝𝑑.πΎπ‘£π‘π‘œ.𝑍(𝑠...
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1answer
315 views

4mA-20mA loop behaviour when out of range

I have a temperature sensor that records temperatures from 10ΒΊC to 30ΒΊC, but in my project they only want temperatures to be read in the range of 15-25 with 4ma when 15 and 20ma when 25.My problem is ...
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2answers
77 views

4ma-20ma loop from 0.97V to 2.75V

I'm trying to develop a 4ma-20ma loop from an 0.97(4ma)-2.75(20ma) input. This input comes from the output of a low pass filter of a PWM module. I've searched the web quite thoroughly but all the ...
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2answers
83 views

Is it possible to pre calculate execution speed of micro controller for a given setup theoretically?

I need to work with 5x MPU9250 sensors, i2c 400kHz, Arduino nano 8MHz also, I have HC-05 Bluetooth device 115200 baud rate serial. is it possible to pre-calculate loop time to gather data from ...
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1answer
104 views

FM demodulation (not!) using PLL?

I have to demodulate a square wave FM+PWM modulated signal, so for the FM demod I'm using a PLL with a positive edge sensitive comparator to lock on frequency only (CD4046BE). Carrier frequency is ...
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1answer
114 views

Poles and Zeros of a Transfer Function

I am trying to understand the physical meaning of poles and zeros of a transfer function. Can someone help me how to understand the Figure 2b in the link below? What does the height of the cone ...
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1answer
934 views

Loop compensation of a Buck Converter

I have a buck converter. TPS54260 Vin = 7V-20V Vout = 5V Iload=600mA. I realise that there is a similar question in this forum but I was not able to get clarity. I want to understand what do you ...
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1answer
182 views

pH measurement in cascaded tanks -- Ground loop

I am doing a mini waste water plant with cascaded PVC tanks (and PVC fittings) for my university project. Each tank has a mixer (the motor is grounded). I made a pH amplification PCB which works with ...
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327 views

Shunt Shunt Feedback SImulations

I am trying to simulate the solution to an old text book example on a simple Shunt-Shunt feedback amplifier. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab The book only shows BF = ...
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0answers
96 views

Basic electrical circuit loops

Hi I have a basic electrical circuit and I am trying to make loops. Those things on IMG-2. I just don't understand how are they made. Why are the "one square loops" only in upper squares and not ...
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0answers
157 views

Calculating equivalent resistance using loop analysis with no applied voltage

I have a bridge circuit that I am supposed to find an equivalent resistance between points K and P for using loop analysis. I am aware that a delta Y transformation is the much more direct route, ...
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2answers
3k views

Two parallel wires with no resistance - why it's wrong?

I've built the scheme below in circuit simulator and it didn't work because of "wire loop" mistake. Why it's wrong? Why it's wrong physically? The simulator is falstad.com/circuit
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3answers
1k views

getting error from for loops in vhdl

Hi I am trying to use 2 nested for loops in vhdl but I get this error. [Synth 8-561] range expression could not be resolved to a constant [318] I do not understand why this code is not working since ...
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83 views

VHDL Transition Function - Loop Range [duplicate]

So I was tasked with creating a function "transitions" that takes as input a value of type std_logic of arbitrary length. The returned value should be an integer that records the number of transitions ...
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3answers
472 views

Why must current loop in a circuit? [duplicate]

This is a problem that's bothering me for a while, and I'm going off accepting other people's claims rather than figuring out the first principles of circuits. Consider this circuit right here. From ...
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1answer
67 views

Mesh Current Method.(Current assignment)

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I am trying to solve this using the mesh current method. I assigned the current direction as follows From this I used KVL for each ...
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1answer
17k views

Question about Synthesizable For loop and Generate

I am using the Verilog language and Zedboard as a target board. As far as I know, the for loop can be synthesized, and the synthesis tool translates the for loop as a sequence of duplicated ...
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1answer
265 views

Two Mesh Currents through One Source

I am trying to determine the mesh currents in the following circuit. I consider the mesh currents (from left mesh to right mesh) to be called I1 and I2. simulate this circuit – Schematic ...
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2answers
2k views

Does electricity always flow in a closed loop and why does current flow to ground?

I have been taught that current flows in a closed loop back to the source. And with electrical distribution, current flows to ground because the whole grid is effectively grounded back to the source. ...
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1answer
230 views

End of loop resistor or "terminator resistor"

In fire alarm control panel, I saw that at the end of the fire loop a 4.7kΞ© resistor is used. My question is why we use the value 4.7kΞ©? Is their any law for this choice?
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1answer
101 views

Loop Analysis - Resistor always a drop?

I feel really dumb asking this, but why is a resistor always a drop in loop analysis? For instance, in the picture the KVL #2 equations are the correct ones, but why? Shouldn't the resistors keep the ...
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1answer
40 views

Variable does not bounce back as desired (LED's)

I am changing a variable with a predetermined rate. When my variable gets too large, I cap it back to the largest value I want to make it, and change the sign on the rate to make the change go the ...
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1answer
192 views

Closing the loop and creating the current in antennas

I remember Feynman explained that raid waves are emitted by accelerated charged particles. So, the only the things that antenna transmitters do is just up-down oscillation of the current simulate ...
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3answers
521 views

Baffling combinatorial feedback loop message in VHDL with ISE Design Suite

When I try to synthesize my VHDL design (using Xilinx ISE Design Suite), I get the message: ...
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3answers
278 views

Shouldnt the magnetic field at a certain angle be minimum in center of current loop?

Magnetic field is strongest at the center of current loop. But if it is calculated along a single magnetic field line like this: A and B are magnetic lines. Shouldnt it minimum in the center since ...
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1answer
73 views

Phase lock loop frequency of reference signal

I am writing a Matlab code for phase locked loop and up to now I assumed that frequency of input signal is given (known) and I choose frequency of my VCO close or exactly the same as reference signal. ...
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1answer
614 views

Loop for two binary values in VHDL

I'm trying to write a loop for two binary values that repeat periodically at a specific amount of time that goes indefinitely or until a certain condition is met. Here is what I have wrote (below), ...
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1answer
195 views

Find test current in Thevenin circuit

I deactivated all the independent sources and removed the load resistance across terminals a and b, then applied test voltage Vt=1V across 1V. I have to find It. My calculations: It=i2-i1 Mesh 1: -1 ...
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1answer
741 views

for Loop Through String in VHDL

I'm trying to write a loop in VHDL that will print a certain message on an LCD screen. I have predefined the following: ...
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2answers
558 views

Loop current of the loop containing a current source

I am currently studying circuit analysis methods and there is one thing regarding the Loop Current Method I do not fully understand. Let us take a look on the loop current sketched below: As far as ...
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1answer
3k views

AVR asm wait loop explain

Can someone please explain me this code (it is from wait loop calculator), I cannot clearly understand calculation. ; Delay 1 600 000 cycles ; 100ms at 16 MHz ...
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2answers
2k views

ModelSim VHDL - Nested 'for' loops behaviour

I've now been a couple years working with VHDL in college and I've been using ModelSim to simulate my designs. Today, however, I noticed something I couldn't understand about for loops, so I thought I'...
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3answers
2k views

main program run like an infinite while loop [duplicate]

I'm working in PIC24F microcontroller. My main program doesn't have infinite loop, but it is run like an infinite loop. Before I test the code with infinite while loop (while (1)), but when I remove ...
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1answer
300 views

Insertion Resistance of Current Transformers

Given a current transformer like this: there is an insertion resistance that appears as a very small equivalent series resistance on the measured circuit. Since it is usually small (say, 0.0001 \$\...
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1answer
375 views

SPICE how to assign a variable voltage generator for receiving antenna

I would like to do an AC analysis, noise analysis and signal to noise simulations using TINA TI - LT spice is OK How do I assign a variable voltage with parameters to an AC voltage source in SPICE? ...
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2answers
2k views

Help! Verilog loop! The following signal(s) form a combinatorial loop

I'm trying to complete an assignment using Verilog, the details aren't too important, except that it must be a combinatorial design. Unfortunately I'm running into what I assume is the hardware ...