Questions tagged [measurement]

Measurement is the assignment of numbers to objects or events. All measurements consist of three parts: magnitude, dimensions (units) and uncertainty.

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Usage of peak-to-peak voltage and RMS voltage

Why are RMS values and peak-to-peak voltages common in use? For example RMS voltages in the context of noise. I see especially for peak-to-peak voltage no practical usage. Why should I need more ...
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Testing an audio amplifier using a signal generator?

How do I test an audio amplifier using a signal generator? For example, I would like to input a 440 Hz sine wave and listen to the speaker output at various configurations of volume, etc. watch the ...
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Number of data points needed for INL DNL estimation

In this article where ADC of pico pi is characterized, I found a part that I have never encountered in my study of mixed signals design: I don't understand how we number of data points needed is ...
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How to find frequency of a signal in matlab simulink

I have to find the frequency of the output signal from the inverter at AC+ port line as shown in the figure, But there is no direct simulink tool to measure the frequency directly.
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Multimeter resistance measurement

I was doing a short and resistance test in my circuit on testpoints. I was testing the output of a voltage regulator. When I place the + probe on the power and - probe to ground the meter takes time ...
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PCap04 initialisation sequence

I'm developing SPI interface with so complex and badly documented PCap04 device. I've already implemented and tested all commands but always the results are very unstable. Even charge/discharge of ...
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How could you determine the point in time a Radar antenna is directly facing a stationary RF receiver station?

I am currently doing experiments involving Software Defined Radio and Radar systems. Since I am new in this field and currently try to refresh my physics/math skills, I encountered some problems along ...
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Type of transformer needed to measure 4-20mA process current?

I occasionally work with 4-20mA process signals and need to read the current value flowing through the wire. I now use a standard Fluke 17B+ and must disconnect the loop and add the meter in series ...
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AWG and metric markings on wire differ notably

I have been looking at "Tri-rated wire". This is wire that ostensibly meets the British BS6231 Type CK, US UL 758 Style 1015, and Canadian CSA 22.2. I have noticed that the metric wire size (...
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Measure a lithium-ion battery internal resistance curve over time [closed]

I am making a battery tester for lithium ion batteries. I want to measure the internal resistance, voltage and current. I am skeptical of my results. On batteryuniversity, I read that the internal ...
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LTspice: conditions values measurement in error log automatically

I am trying to measure automatically values according to another value on the schematic (.meas values in the log error). Here you can see what I would like : In this case I want in the spice error ...
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Calibrating the current (uA) of a TI by using a 34465A DMM as a std and a suitable load

When calibrating a test instrument (TI) on its current generation using the DMM 34465A as the standard and a suitable load in series, I think the uncertainty budget should not include the accuracy and ...
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Measuring voltages with different ground reference

Background I am working on a project where I have a solar panel connected to two battery chargers. One battery charger looks after an old car battery which powers some lights in my garage and a small ...
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Is it safe to connect an oscilloscope to a Power over Ethernet line?

I have found that PoE uses isolated power delivery. If I splice into my ethernet cable, will I be able to hook up a scope to one of the 8 lines inside safely without frying anything? The scope and the ...
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How to calculate frequency of an AC source with variable frequency using Arduino

I have an AC current source. Its properties are Maximum Vrms=15v Maximum Frequency 125 Hz Minimum Frequency 5 Hz The current source is pickup coil of a motorcycle... Vrms range is approximately 0.7v-...
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How to measure output impedance of this circuit?

I have the following circuit with an operational frequency range of 100 - 10kHz, always square waves. How do I measure the output impedance? I have access to an LCR meter (BK Precision 891.) Do I ...
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Where To Connect Wires on Pin Out

I am very inexperienced in wiring. Where do I connect the wires from my trans-impedance amplifier to my DAQ to measure the voltage out and also to apply a voltage. I don't understand why there are ...
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CD4051 noise measurement

I am using a CD4051B for multiplexing 8 inputs into one according to 3 control bit A, B, C. Below is my schematic: My problem is : The input of the MUX (in_mux) is quiet disturbed on my PCB board ...
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4 answers
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How to measure distance between two pads' solder-mask clearance in Altium

I'm new to Altium and want to measure distance between two pads' solder-mask clearance using Reports-->Measure. I tried activating solder-mask layer only and then tried to measure like regular ...
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Current measurements - shunt switching

I have been designing a current measuring device, and since it requires high wide-range accuracy, I decided to use two shunt resistors of different sizes. The schematic is shown below: The design ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Accuracy Class and Full Scale

I am using this formula to calculate the class of an instrument: \$\text{Accuracy Class} = \frac{\max{\text{(Absolute Error in Range of Measurement)}}}{\text{Full Scale Value}}\$ The question is, FSV ...
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AC bidirectional current measurement

I would like to measure the AC line phase current and it seems harder to do than I tought first. I don't want an isolated measurement (like hall / transformer etc.), since it is more expensive and the ...
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1 answer
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Help needed in understanding the lab observation regarding a diode

I was trying to understand the connections in a power supply board. It was found that anode of below diode is connected to GND and -ve terminal of bulk capacitor. Cathode of diode is connected to +ve ...
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How to measure the consolidated power of two electric motors, operating on separate axles of a 4x4 vehicle?

There may be two scenarios: 1- motors are identical 2- motors are not identical I wish to know about the consolidated power for: 1- maximum power 2- continuous power.
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Doing digital IoT and some analog circuits without an oscilloscope

In my free time, I do electronic stuff as a hobby (at least for now.) I don't own an oscilloscope or a fancy multimeter due to the terrible financial state of my country. I am in Iran. In some ...
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1 answer
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Large signal current measurements of a loudspeaker

I'm trying to work out a method of measuring electrical current through a loudspeaker load for voltages in excess of +-20 V to be read by an audio interface - I need to scale down both voltage and ...
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3 answers
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Quantifying signal loss - should we use power gain or voltage gain?

We're researching communication with electrical signals through the human body (also called body coupled communication). We want to quantify the signal loss between a transmitter and receiver attached ...
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2 votes
3 answers
157 views

How is frequency measured in a power grid?

I know that voltage and current are measured with voltmeter and ammeter, but how is the frequenc measured in power grid applications? I know that a phase locked loop (PLL) can be used, but is this ...
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4 votes
1 answer
217 views

Measuring latency on photodiode

Attempting to measure latency on a photodiode. This is the circuit I've put together: Source TS7805 to give my 5V (from a 12V rail) 1.2kHz square wave into first T1 D1 is a BPW41 scope on source and ...
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Measure capacitors in parallel and series to increase precision?

I measure a capacitor \$C_1\$ with an instrument that has a tolerance of measurement \$\pm 5\%.\$ I do the same with another cap \$C_2\$. Then I put \$C_1\$ and \$C_2\$ in parallel (values add up) and ...
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2 answers
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Using a multimeter to measure the VPP directly from an AWG output, how to?

tomorrow I'll have a lab class and we were told what we'll do in advance. So, since I don't want to be unprepared I started thinking about how to "solve" the problems, and I'm hardstuck at ...
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Uncertainty of output current in voltage-current converter

I have a problem comprehending some things about uncertainty in electrical measurements. Here is illustrative example from my textbook. We use voltage-current converter for measurement. simulate this ...
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How to measure voltage of a system with a different GND reference?

I want to measure and log the voltage of a "closed" system shown in the following schematic on the left side. This system has its own reference to GND which is not connected to the ...
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0 answers
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50 Hz noise from mains plug even though it isn't connected to a power source

I am developing a front-end for a smart meter and I'm trying to measure the mains by using a power lead with the other end spliced to connect it to the front-end. I firstly powered the setup with a ...
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1 answer
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How do clamp multimeter sense presences of AC voltage?

If a clamp meter is taken near a AC supply line, it's AC voltage sense LED starts to glow. The same coil that is used for current measurement is used to sense the presence of voltage. As far as I know ...
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Why is the op-amp not regulating voltage in this circuit?

I'm a first timer here, I hope I can explain my problem as clearly as possible. I need to apply a current source to measure the voltage on a load for a given current. Since I don't really have many ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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How to determine LS, CS, RS, and CO of a piezo transducer for simulation?

I have a 24mm piezo transducer with the marking SSE2425TAL from overseas. There are no detailed specs nor graphs to get LS, CS, RS, and CO at various frequencies (but just 25 kHz is fine). I'd like to ...
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32 kHz oscillator measurement

Thanks in advance for your help. I have the following circuit which is working fine. A 32 kHz oscillator NX3215SA (QUARZ SMD 32.768 kHz 3.2 x 1.5 mm) is simply connected to my MSP430F5438A on P7.0 and ...
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Measuring Ethernet Waveform on a scope

I measured the following waveform on a scope. It is a 100MBps Ethernet signal and I am measuring the TX+ and Tx- signals between the magnetics and RJ45 connector. I see what looks like a double ...
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1 answer
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VNA Characterization of a non 75Ohm system

I'm trying to characterize a 75ohm cable using a VNA. As it differs from 50Ohm I need to do some adjustments with how I'm measuring but I'm not sure what is considered best practice for that. I was ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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What is the meaning of numbers at bottom of electrical gauges? [duplicate]

I work in a power generation plant and I noticed that all the gauges have some kind of standard description at the bottom. Some of them are easy to understand (I strongly suspect "~" means ...
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Difference in noise performance between UK system and US installation

We have a piece of high-gain measurement equipment that we tested extensively in the UK and the found to perform adequately. This is a mains powered device, with the electronics powered through a ...
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1 vote
4 answers
131 views

Experimental material impedance measurement

Imagine we have a square-shaped conductive material to which we connect 3 electrodes E1, E2, and E3. Suppose we assume for this material a 'pi' two-port network model with impedances Za, Zb, and Zc (...
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2 votes
1 answer
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How to make an accurate strain gauge conditioner

I need to measure tensile strains between 0 and 0.01%, with an accuracy between 1 to 10% within that range. It seems like all systems that read strain gauges rely on a Wheatstone bridge to amplify ...
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1 answer
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Efficient Switching of I/O

Reaching out as I am in the initial stages (read: crude block diagram) of circuit design for a project aiming to automate resistance checks between various connectors. We'll call these connections A ...
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2 answers
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Two-port network parameter measurement using an LCR meter

I was wondering if it's possible to find the admittance parameters of a pi two-port network experimentally using an LCR meter. For the network shown below, we have $$ \begin{bmatrix} I1\\ I2 \end{...
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Recommended Fixture for a 10 MHz to 40 GHz S-Parameter Collection

I would like to characterize a range of SMD and TH components in order to show how different components have different parasitic elements that must be accounted for as frequency increases. I would ...
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HX711 zero factor

I have three load cells (YZC-1B). These load cells' capacity is 50 kg. I guess I use Bogde's HX711 library. In monitor, the zero factor for the first two load cells is 8,000,000, but for the last load ...
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Acceptable SNR for a Sound Level Meter

I'm designing a low power (<150mW) sound level meter (SLM) using a 24bit ADC (preliminarily using the LTC2512-24). This is for audible frequency range signals only (20Hz - 20kHz). I'm focused on ...
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Ripple and noise measurement of DC-DC converter

I am using the TEP 75-2412WI-CMF. One of the output specifications of this is 100mVp-p ripple and noise. They have mentioned 20MHz bandwidth. Right now I am measuring the 5V output of this on an ...
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