Questions tagged [measurement]

Measurement is the assignment of numbers to objects or events. All measurements consist of three parts: magnitude, dimensions (units) and uncertainty.

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Derivation of resultant standard deviation from individual standard deviation of an expression

Consider a problem: The total current \$ I=I_1 + I_2 \$ in a circuit is measured as \$ I_1=(150 \pm 1 ) A, I_2=(150 \pm 2 ) A \$ , where the limits of error are given as standard deviations , ...
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34 views

Analog input like in a PLC: Thermistor or 0-10V

Depending on the configuration, PLCs can often measure 0-10V, resistance or 0-20mA on the same set of screws. How to use the same screw terminal to measure resistance of an NTC element, voltages in ...
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33 views

What is meant by the term “baseline noise” in this context?

I came across this article about oscilloscopes. Under the figures and scope screenshots there is a term called "baseline noise". I googled but it turned out this baseline noise is used at different ...
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38 views

How to measure VSWR of a single connector?

With a 2-port VNA, I would like to characterize the performance of a single coax connector, specifically to obtain VSWR. The specific situation is an SMA connector at the end of a short section of ...
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72 views

Measuring wow and flutter of a phonographic turntable with digital equipment

Old school way to measure: 3000 or 3150 Khz test tone from test record played back through phono cartridge/preamp into wow/flutter/drift meter and for turntable that has an electronic adjustment to ...
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56 views

How to use a pressure sensor (transducer)?

I have this pair of pressure sensors that are addressable transducers. I want to use them for a project but I don´t really get how to get them to work. I´m used to the type of sensor that has 3 cables(...
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1answer
28 views

How to route current for ATE?

I have many test points on a board, a small DAQ, and an SMU that I can program with LabView. Depending on the test, I need to change which test point the SMU is sending/measuring voltage or current. ...
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37 views

How to measure S11 of antenna using VNA for one port S-parameter measurement?

I have an antenna. I want to measure S-parameters of it using a network analyzer. I am not clear how to do it. Please explain. Thank you
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37 views

Contribution of solder parasitic to S parameter measurement

I have an antenna. I want to measure S-parameters of it using a network analyzer. The antenna has to be soldered to SMA cable for the measurement of S-parameters. After the calibration, will the ...
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1answer
32 views

What is the difference between residual phase noise and absolute phase noise?

Studying the characteristics of an oscillator with a phase noise analyzer, but I don't quite understand the difference between absolute and residual noise. Any help would be greatly appreciated
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28 views

How can I safely measure the output power of an RFID reader?

I want to measure the output power of a UHF RFID reader. I connected the antenna cable to one of the antenna ports of the RFID reader and to a spectrum analyzer (Hewlett Packard 8568B). There is a 10 ...
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71 views

Can I connect Analog and Digital Voltage Source together?

Is it bad if I connect the A_VDD and D_VDD Pins together if I want to use the same voltage? Or maybe I should ask: Why can I hook up different voltages other than galvanic decoupling? This is the IC I ...
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63 views

Ultracapacitor, capacitance higher than rated?

Broadening my knowledge and experience about ultracapacitors I've made a test bench that was described in here. I've used an IEC methodology to calculate the capacitance: $$ C = (I_d*t_d) / (\Delta U) ...
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25 views

Pressure sensor for breathing

Could anyone suggest the type of pressure sensor I need to measure human breath? When someone blows into the device I want to measure them blowing in and also sucking out. Could this be done with ...
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43 views

Is it possible to measure impact force using Flexible PVDF Piezoelectric Film?

If it is possible , should i use integrator circuit first to hold the signal then follow it by other signal processing signals (amplification and noise filtering ) ? , knowing that i tried to connect ...
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32 views

Measure precisely a resistance value [duplicate]

Basically, I'm tasked to study the electrical properties of different screws (all in an unspecified titanium alloy, some fully anodized, others only the head) based on previous measurements that ...
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43 views

What is a suitable hysteresis value and averaging period for a residential thermostat?

I've built a microcontroller based thermostat that I am using to control my home HVAC system. The actual programming and physical assembly has been straightforward. I'm using DS18B20 sensors, so I ...
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66 views

Higher precision with less digits?

Consider an ideal digital milliammeter (zero resistance, zero uncertainty on AD converter input) with realistic (noisy, hysteresic, etc.) AD converter output and a \$3½\$ -digit display. Often when we ...
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130 views

How do digital multimeters measure capacitance?

How do digital mulitimeters (DMM) measure capacitance through their typical 10M Ohm input/output impedance? Providing a logic level of 3.3V, attempting to measure 1F would mean a time constant of ...
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81 views

How can I get FROM and TO times of trig on measure statement of LTSPICE?

I need to measure the voltage on two signals which have a difference of phase, so in order to do the measure that I need I have to get V1 (t) and V2 (t + delay_between_signals). One way to that is by ...
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111 views

How and when does the kelvin measurament actually works?

I know that 4 - wires method uses 2 wires for driving current throught ammeter and measure current values. So, resistivity wires will be removed from the equation. Ammeter wires resistance has no ...
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55 views

Task Execution time measurement on Keil for STM32F103

Is there any builtin feature available in Keil uVision to measure execution time of a function or task for STM32F103?
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1answer
49 views

Discrepancy between EMF measures

Why, using a EMF tester on a smartphone in airplane mode, do I get a very low measure (\$< 1 mG\$), whereas using some applications which exploit the phone magnetometer, I get a very high value, ...
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84 views

Vector Voltmeters vs Oscilloscopes?

I have come across some electronic engineering papers from the mid 1970's where they were testing tunable phase shifters. To measure the phase shift they used a vector voltmeter. As this is not a bit ...
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51 views

uncertainty estimation for a DMM voltage measurement

My DMM has a accuracy of 0.0030% of reading + 0.0030% of range, when the voltage range is set to 100mV. If a measurement with this DMM gives 0.1mV, then is the true input voltage between 0.1mV - 3....
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41 views

How I can simply measure interwinding capacitance in a transformer with electrostatic shield

I want to measure which is the effect of the connection of the electrostatic shield (between primary and secondary) to ground (or to neutral) in reducing the interwinding capacitance in my transformer....
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3answers
64 views

RMS power and phase angle control

We have a piece of industrial equipment using a phase angle controller (PAC), and are having some issues calculating the RMS power used by the load. Personally I am of the opinion that you measure ...
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1answer
42 views

Measure Power Consumption of Battery Charger?

I want to ask how to measure power consumption of battery (Li-On 18650) charger module (TP4056 and USB Boost) and the total power consumption, if i have this circuit: I have already know the power ...
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1answer
31 views

Current mode operation of a Source Measurement Unit (SMU)

I'm studying semiconductor parameter analyzers. In particular, I have difficulties in fully understanding the circuit in the following slide, which represents an SMU operating in I-mode (i.e., it ...
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74 views

How can I measure the actual magnetic strength of my electromagnet to compare against my calculations?

I am interested in building small scale electromagnets and I wanted to measure their actual magnetic strengths to compare against my calculations. What are possible ways to measure the difference?
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33 views

Best method to determine current in ESR meter

I've recently found the need for a ESR meter(My daughter and her boyfriend brought me 8 broken LED/LCD TVs and 6 have power problems). I also decided to go all out and build a full blown ESR meter. ...
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30 views

What test points to do for a switching system measurements?

I am working on a high-performance switching system. I the old ones there was no big issue in just touching a gate with an oscilloscope probe, but this time I have high voltage and very short (5nsec) ...
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1k views

Why are oscilloscope input impedances so low?

My question is two-fold: Where does the input impedance come from? I'm wondering where the input impedance of your average multimeter or oscilloscope comes from? Is it just the input impedance to ...
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1answer
50 views

differential measurement vs ground

I am looking to measure an incoming V vs ground with an ADC (MCP3424 or equal). The Vin vs Gnd can be anywhere from -1.5V to +2.0VDC. I looked at using an op amp with level shift, when I came across ...
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55 views

Can CMRR of a data acquisition input be measured this way?

I want to check a data acquisition input or overall CMRR of a signal chain roughly by a simple method. Normally for a daq input CMRR is defined as: CMRR = 20×log10(Vin/Vout) where Vin is the common ...
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58 views

Interchangeable resistor

I have a PCB board where I am measuring the voltage drop across a resistor which is placed on the Vdd path of a small micro-controller. I would like to have a method for easily interchange the ...
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4answers
898 views

Is it possible to measure lightning discharges as Nikola Tesla? [closed]

Nikola Tesla stated in his patent, Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through Natural Medium, that he used sensitive instruments to measure lightning discharges: In the course of certain ...
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63 views

Finding Wilson Current Mirror Output impedance

I am trying to confirm my output resistance calculations with my simulation. How can I measure the output resistance seen by Q4 in order to confirm my calculations? How I measured \$r_{o2}\$ (image ...
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95 views

Why do long cables measured with a VNA show a “drop” in their attenuation curve?

I'm measuring the attenuation of several cables with a VNA (Keysight N5234A). When I measure the attenuation of long cables (10 m, 30 m, 40 m or 50 m) I realize that a "drop" appears at 500MHz (see ...
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35 views

How can I detect that a ZVD-style 'backpower protection circuit' is operating correctly?

I'm designing a circuit that needs a 'backpower protection circuit', similar to what the Raspberry Pi HATs use. This is meant to block voltage from the secondary board when the primary board is ...
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45 views

Correcting DC offset in op-amp based controlled current source

In an attempt to develop an automated potentiometer measuring device I have implemented the following op-amp based voltage controlled current source, controlled by the output of a DAC. The voltage ...
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10 views

Hspice : find max of measurement result in Hspice

i need to calculate efficiency of a circuit for diffrent parameters and then, find MAX of these efficiencies in Hspice.( also related parameters that refers to it) i ran i .DATA transient simulation,...
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1answer
46 views

Correct way to ground components for solar panel measurement

I'm currently doing a project where I'm supposed to measure the current and the voltage from a solar panel and am unsure of how I should ground all the components in the circuit (since electrical ...
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69 views

Photodiode to detect light

For a university purpose I am preparing a project, actually I am thinking of using a photodiode in reverse bias in order to measure intensity of light. I divided this project in some phases: 1) ...
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1answer
106 views

Reading digital wafevorms via VXI11 from the LeCroy wavesurfer 510/MS-500

I automating a test with an osciloscope via VXI11 with python's vxi11 package. I am using the remote control manual given by LeCroy. I am trying now to extract the raw Waveformdata according to page ...
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1answer
57 views

Measuring integrated current

I want to measure the amount of light striking a photodiode in a specific time window (about 1ms). In this window, we get \$10^6-10^7\$ photons, which get converted into electrons with about 80% ...
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74 views

Elimination of interfering voltage

I have a problem deriving a formula I will be using in my bachelor thesis. It's about eliminating interfering voltages during measurement. To understand how the interfering voltage is going to be ...
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75 views

What instrument is used for measuring very low current / voltage? [closed]

I'm wondering whether galvanometer can be used or not ?
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29 views

Resistance measurement and standard uncertainty

In a text there is a section regarding a basic example for uncertainty calculation of a resistor. Here is the related part: Above the text uses the the accuracy of the current source and the ...
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50 views

What is the correct name of a job involving mainly programming measurement instruments and making measurements on electronic components? [closed]

While revisioning my resume I found out that I do not know what is the industry standard name of one of my previous job. I simply called it "Software developer" but I don't think it fits properly. ...