Questions tagged [memory]

Consider instead more specific tags, e.g., dram, sram, flash

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Storing data for a really really long time [closed]

How might one store data for the far future? (100 years and up, possibly centuries) This is entirely hypothetical but would it be possible for semiconductor based data storage to have similar ...
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Recover correct value from unstable memory through read operation

We are given a memory with 32-bit width for each word. it has the length (N - number of rows) which is not relevant for the question. we know that the memory has a problem where at any row, one bit ...
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Why are the mosfet gate tunneling currents disappearing in a bsim4 simulation under a width and/or length of 10µm? (TSMC65)

I am trying to simulate the current from the gate of a mosfet to its body (drain, source and bulk are shorted). But with a downscaling of the transistor the current disappears abruptly and fully under ...
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2answers
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ATmega: Can one determine if an address is program memory or data memory?

On an Atmel ATmega1284 (or any of its AVR cousins), is there any way to determine at compile time or at runtime whether an address that is passed to a function belongs to program memory space or data ...
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How to Use Addresses with Single Port RAM on FPGA

I am trying to understand this example of single port memory where an 8 by 64 bit RAM is created. If I am understanding correctly, the section of code that says "reg [7:0] ram [63:0]" means ...
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Calculating RAM memory capacity from schematic symbol

Is it possible to calculate the memory capacity of a RAM given its schematic symbol? I made a first guess from an example but seems to be incorrect: If the address bus is 15-bit width, there are a ...
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2answers
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ddr3 content after intialization

I am verifying a memory interface to MIG IP from Xilinx. The MIG IP is connected to a ddr3 SDRAM from Micron. I have a ddr3 model from Micron that I included in my testbench. I waited until the ...
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How is 1 bit transfered from RAM to a 1 bit register?

I've been reading on computer RAM and CPUs. I came to the conclusion that most RAM today use arrays of DRAM while CPU registers and caches use SRAM. 1 bit DRAM is a circuit with one capacitor and 1 ...
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Vivado VHDL BRAM write-read Simulation not reading properly

So im trying to simulate a simple write and read memory program in Vivado design suite. Before implementing a clock in the sensitivity list on the process to write and read, the reading part used to ...
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1answer
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VHDL Type memory question

My question is very simple i think, but i would be really gratefull if anyone can help me with this. When i want to write in the fpga memory using the classic following line code: ...
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1answer
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What is the relation of memory and PLD to (synchronous) sequential circuits?

In Mona's Digital Design book, Chapter 5 outlines the formal procedures for analyzing and designing clocked (syn- chronous) sequential circuits. The gate structure of several types of flip‐flops ...
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1answer
130 views

DRAM Rank-Level Allocations

I want to do allocations on a specific DRAM rank. The smallest allocation unit in an OS such as Linux is at the page size ...
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Termination Requirements for DRAM

I am curious about how to wire DRAM to an SoC. What is required for optimal usage other than the net itself? I have seen conflicting information on if you should or should not use a termination ...
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3answers
590 views

SRAM/DRAM Price Difference

An SRAM cell uses 6 CMOS transistors to store 1 bit of information. A DRAM cell uses 1 transistor and 1 capacitor to store a bit. So one could guess that for the same amount of information (say, 1GB), ...
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1answer
162 views

How does a CRC check work between a microcontroller and EEPROM?

I have communication between an EEPROM and a microprocessor over SPI and I want to take care of data integrity. Could you please confirm my below understanding? I have a data which I want to write in ...
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1answer
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how to add top module port to port list

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What are odd-even memory addresses in 8086 and how do they work? [duplicate]

I have recently started to look more into microprocessors at the hardware level, and i am a bit confused on what are the odd-even memory locations that 8086 uses. As far as i understand, it has ...
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1answer
71 views

How do modern CPUs treat memory operations? [closed]

How does a modern CPU treat memory reads and writes on the hardware level? With old 8-bit architectures all memory locations are read and written to one byte at a time, but how do modern CPUs that ...
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1answer
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Understanding addressing and size in memory map

TM4C123 has 256 kiBytes of flash ROM as shown in the memory map. The range of memory addresses for the ROM is 0x0000.0000 to 0x0003.FFFF (a 32bit address), totaled to 3x16x16x16x16 = 196,608 number of ...
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1answer
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PROGMEM problem with my project - dynamic allocation error

My project is and RTISR (Real Time Instant Signal Recognizer). I'm sampling a signal from PIN A0 in the Arduino, and I have 6 types of Signals which I compare with (using squared cross correlation to ...
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1answer
127 views

MicroSD to USB adapter

My goal is to make a MicroSD to USB adapter myself. With this question, I saw that I can use a USB2240 controller chip to connect my µSD card to my computer. In ...
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4answers
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The memory regions I can write and cannot write to, ARM Cortex-M architecture

I hope my title is correct terminologicaly. I am working(learning) with STM32F4 discovery board, which has an STM32F407VGTx microcontroller on it. I really try to find the answers in the reference ...
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8answers
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EEPROM being both “programmable” and “read-only”

Since it is called programmable, I tend to think that it should also be named with the write option. What is the deal here?
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1answer
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Understanding PIC MCU memory from datasheet

Being new to PIC, I have been struggling to understand the information in the datasheet. Q.1. : What does "256 bytes Linear Data Memory Addressing Memory" mean? I am looking at the ...
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41256 / 81256 - dram power and ground confusion

I'm trying to design a memory board for an Emu Emax sampler to enhance the amount of memory. Now, when I read the Emax service manual and look at schematics over memory chip connections (in this case ...
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1answer
125 views

Manual EEPROM Programming Problem

I have a 28c256-25 EEPROM that I have created a breadboard circuit to program. The datasheet says after the address is set and the data is put on the I/O pins, a low pulse on /WE while /OE and /CE are ...
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Why it is required to write each byte with 0 before erase in NOR flash?

It is written in some sites that for NOR flash, each byte has to be written with 0 before erase. Why it is required to write with 0 before erasing? Erasing the sector change each byte to 1.
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60 views

Is an even number of DRAM chips required?

I want to design a microprocessor based board (NXP imx 8m). All the boards I've seen so far have an even number of DRAM chips. If I want 4GB of RAM, do I have to use two 2GB DRAM chips or can I use ...
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170 views

Use MicroSD to SD adapter for read Memory Stick Micro M2

While searching in my personal affairs I found a Memory Stick Micro M2 (Sony) which I believe I was using in a phone. Unfortunately I no longer have the adapter ...
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1answer
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Built in Self Test - In Embedded memories

I am reading this thing called -BIST (Built in Self Test). I understand that, before a module enters its intended functionality, this BIST is made to run within the module. Once, this BIST is passed, ...
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2answers
140 views

Why do block RAMs have synchronous reading instead of async reading?

I'm programming FPGA boards (Artix 7 to be exact) and I recently noticed that, in order to be synthesized into block RAM, an array of storage must have synchronous reading, otherwise it will only be ...
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1answer
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Beginner trying to learn how to read start and end addresses for memory chips in hexadecimal

I'm new to electrical (construction management student) and am trying to learn how to read start and end addresses. The practice problem I have been given is in the picture, and I was wondering how I ...
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2answers
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Last address of program in STM32 HAL?

Is there a way to find the last address or last page of the program which is stored in an STM32(F1) using a HAL (or LL?) function? Background: I'm using EEPROM emulation in Flash and this works great....
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What is the relevance of a !Q in the D Flip-Flop when using for a memory module?

If the purpose of this circuit is to store the value of D in Q, why should I need a !Q? Why don't use a circuit like this instead?:
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What is the probability of a bit error occurring in modern computers?

What is the probability of a bit error occuring when reading/writing from/to the latest memory technologies (ssd, hdd, ram) in modern computers? If the same terminology is used in this context as in ...
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How do I implement authentication on an embedded device? [closed]

I have been reading a lot about encryption lately but most sources just care about making sure that the connection between two parties is secure. I want to know how I can be sure that the party I am ...
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2answers
597 views

Why does dynamic ram need to be 'refreshed'?

I read this question, but it didn't really answer my question. I also want to preface this question by saying that I'm asking this from the perspective of being a computer science student that took ...
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In Directed-mapped cache, a problem in exercise!

5.2 Caches are important to providing a high-performance memory hierarchy to processors. Below is a list of 32-bit memory address references, given as word addresses. 3, 180, 43, 2, 191, 88, ...
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Sequential circuits and memory

I read some books to understand why we need to memorise bits in electric circuits and found the sequential logic circuits are designed to achieve that goal. The basic element is the SR Latch which ...
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5answers
282 views

Why are bytes 8 bits? (and more)

An 8 bit value can range anything from 0 to 255 in decimal, or 00 to FF in hexadecimal. But why did they choose 8 bits for the byte, out of all of the powers of 2 they could have chosen? Even still, a ...
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1answer
355 views

Where the ICM20948 DMP memory is stored?

In Invensense ICM20948 motion sensor they mention The DMP in ICM-20948, therefore, has higher memory for code storage Hence, the AP/MCU must accommodate higher memory required to hold the DMP image ...
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EEPROM converted to DRAM?

Can we use a EEPROM cell for DRAM ? simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab This is an EEPROM cell. Can we use multiple cells of this type to create a DRAM?
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DDR4 column width v/s burst size

I'm trying to understand how data is going to fill up a 64bit cacheline with x4 DDR4 DIMM. x4 DDR4 has 16 Banks, 4 Banks each in 4 Bank Groups and each bank is having 4 memory arrays. Burst size is 8....
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2answers
135 views

The CPU has registers, but doesn't the RAM have registers too?

At low-level, registers are the same as a bunch of flip-flops connected by the same clock, so I would think RAM is made of registers. I've been reading, though, that registers are only in the cpu, ...
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Is there some kind of standard of modbus input register?

As the title said, based on your experience, is there a such thing? If no, which are the most commonly used? for example in a sensor, the input registers as follows: ...
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3-terminals magnetic tunnel junction

I was wondering if a 3 terminals magnetic tunnel junction can be implemented, as in the Figure. On the bottom I have a normal metal (NM), on the top a magnetic junction (FM = ferromagnet) and I can ...
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Devices storing volatile memory

I've hit a bit of a rut in a question on my homework for my computer architecture class (MIPS architecture): what are digital logic devices that can implement 1 bit and 32 bit volatile memory, and ...
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139 views

How x86-64 Intel CPU understands how many bytes load into a register

I have the following byte code one the left and and its byte representation on the right: ...
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67 views

Decoder inputs needed given 32 registers

I have a couple of questions about decoders. My first is this: If I have a register bank with 32 registers, how many inputs are needed for the decoder and why? I think that you need 5 inputs for this ...
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1answer
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74ls279 SR latch not working

I am trying to get an 74ls279 SR latch to hold a state, but it's not working. I am using a full-size solderless breadboard, a 3V power supply, and an LED to view its state. The LED flickers and loses ...

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