Questions tagged [microprocessor]

The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that elaborates information in the form of digital signals. Not to be confused with a microcontroller, which embeds many additional devices to control embedded systems.

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Signal generator design [closed]

I need to construct a signal generator (DC), that can provide a square wave signal of 5V at 50% duty cycle and frequency of 0.125 Hz. What would be the best option, considering this situation? ...
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Do microprocessor have any special hardware to do division and multiplicaiton?

My old school understanding is that multiplication is nothing but successive addition and division is nothing but successive subtraction. So, my question is there any changes being done like do we ...
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confusion understanding a processor?

As shown highlighted in attached photo,In case of 6713 dsp,during each clock cycle, up to eight instructions can be carried out in parallel Does this happen in case of every processor that multiple ...
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Why don't we make CPUs with 1000s of layers to make use of space in the third dimension?

I am wondering why don't we make processors such as CPUs with 1000s of stacked layers to make use of space in the third dimension now that we have three-dimensional transistors. To be clear I'm ...
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What happens when main() returns on ARM-GCC

As I am working myself into the AT91 Bootstrap project, I have found that its main() function apparently returns the address of the next-level software component: <...
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DAA operation in 8085 microprocessor

Let the content of register A is 98H. Both Auxiliary Carry flag and Carry flag are set i.e. AC=1 & Cy=1. If now I execute DAA once, both nibbles will get added with (0110) and the result is FEH ...
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77 views

How to decide whether to place a microcontroller on the top or bottom side in PCB layout?

How to decide whether to place a microcontroller on the top or bottom side in PCB layout? What are the advantages on the top side? What are the advantages on the bottom side?
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Cellular module(4G/3G/GSM) interface to host processor or microcontroller through UART how the data rate is achieved?

The majority of cellular modules are interfaced to host microcontrollers or microprocessors using UART interface or some times USB interface (where internally it's UART). But the data rate of UART is ...
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Why does the conditional CALL instruction in the 8085 microprocessor take 2 machine cycles, when the condition is not satisfied?

When the condition gets checked in the 6th T-state itself and is found to be not satisfying, why does it need the 2nd machine cycle?
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Do we know the processing power (in GFLOPs) of Apple's H1 chip? [closed]

We know that Apple's Arm A4 Chip that powered the iPhone 4 had approx 1.6 GFLOPs of processing power. In the second generation of Apple's Airpods - there is a custom chip called the Apple H1. My ...
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Feasible to capture data to/from a 1970s RAM chip?

I have a 1978 Bally Playboy pinball machine. The processor is a 1Mhz 8-bit microprocessor Motorola 6800. I would like to build a way to extract/watch game state from outside of the machine. The best ...
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T2081 SPI pin Muxing

In my current design using the T2081, I want to interface both SPI and eMMC card. While reading the datasheet of T2081, I found that SPI_CS0 pin is muxed with sdhc_dat4 which I need for my eMMC ...
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Suitable motor for steering wheel angle of the self-driving car?

I am working on the self-driving car as a final year project. I want to map the steering wheel motor angles with frames captured via a camera of the track. In order to generate the dataset, I am ...
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Relay from door sensor to laptop usb port?

I want the opening of the front door to launch a script on my laptop. I looked around on the internet and only found relays that allow you to send commands to external devices such as alarms and ...
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1answer
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Is an even number of DRAM chips required?

I want to design a microprocessor based board (NXP imx 8m). All the boards I've seen so far have an even number of DRAM chips. If I want 4GB of RAM, do I have to use two 2GB DRAM chips or can I use ...
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Connecting display to arduino [closed]

So i've been googling displays for the Arduino, and they are all usually small or the wrong shape, but they all seam to have GPIO connectors in the back (shields) that connect directly to the Arduino. ...
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How does the input voltage affect the current consumption of a microcontroller?

Is there a relationship between the current used by a microcontroller unit (MCU) and its input voltage? In other words, given a MCU with a wide-input range (e.g. 2.7 to 5.5V for the ATmega328P), will ...
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Read/Write from microprocessor memory

I have just started to learn how a microprocessor works and I have some questions. I have read that the way the microprocessor read/writes data is by setting the address on the address bus, then ...
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Power circuit for a microprocessor

This is my first question here, and my english is not the best, so i am sorry if i miss some community rules :) I have a microprocessor MIMXRT1064DVL6A from NXP, and I am having a bad time figuring ...
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When a processor has a given frequency, what is the order of magnitude of the typical transition frequency of the internal transistors that make it?

The transition frequency (or cut-off frequency) of a transistor represents the cut off frequency, so that above it, the behaviour is not normal (the impedance diverges). A processor is made of a huge ...
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111 views

How is Machine Learning/Artificial Intelligence used in Electrical Engineering? [closed]

So i've been trying to find out the answer to this question but i can't seem to find a specific answer with examples. by the way i have heard about "Machine Learning Processors" but i don't know what ...
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Accessing odd address memory locations in 8086

I am a beginner in microprocessors. Apologies if my question is too naive. The memory section of the 8086 processor is divided into two segments: even and odd to allow the CPU to fetch 16 bits in one ...
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single stepping TS68000 microprocessor

I recently got TS68000 microprocessor. My final goal is to build a simple computer based on that CPU. For now I am trying to find a way to single step it. I found schematic below by ...
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Atmel SAM3X / SAM3A, handle interrupts from Parallel Input/Output Controller (Peripherals)

I want to enable the PA8 pin in a processor (Atmel SAM3X / SAM3A). I have set: PIOA_MDER[7]=0 PIOA_MDDR[7]=0 PIO_OER[7]=0 PIO_ODR[7]=1 so that the tri-state ...
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Is microcontroller power consumption directly related to its operation time?

I have to decide on a way to measure the efficiency of an algorithm running on a microcontroller/microprocessor. My thought is that I can use the runtime of the algorithm to complete a certain task ...
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58 views

Is there any device or way to measure how many watts a computer's processor is using? [closed]

I know there's a device to measure how many watts a computer is using, you get an energy meter you plug the computer into it and it tells you But I'm interested in finding out how many watts a ...
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3answers
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Can an instruction set do everything?

Given a certain instruction set, and that any high-level code is just converted to machine code anyway, then except simulating human intelligence, is it sufficient enough to do anything you want a ...
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8085 ; High impedance state of lower order address/multiplexed data bus during memory read and write machine cycles

The two pictures are of memory read and write machine cycles . Could somebody please explain why in memory read cycle the lower order address / multiplexed data bus is in high impedance state at the ...
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62 views

Can a 16-bit microcontroller contain 32-bit microprocessor?

I am new to the field of embedded systems. I am wondering if 16-bit microcontroller can contain a 32-bit microprocessor. How will the data transfer take place as data busses in the microcontroller ...
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R65C02P4 (6502) microprocessor R/W pin state while suspended

I'm building a circuit with a Rockwell R65C02P4. When the RDY line is pulled low, the manual specifies that the address lines will reflect the current address. It doesn't specify what the R/W state ...
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548 views

How does a microprocessor control its transistors? [closed]

Or in other words, what is the more fundamental building block of an IC below transistors? When I load a code onto my microprocessor, how (fundamentally, sure some people here could write books about ...
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8085; why we can't reduce number of T-states in opcode fetch machine cycle [duplicate]

In the above timing diagram for opcode fetch machine cycle , can we not do the entire operation in just 2 T states like this : In T1 state we first latch the lower order address by making ALE high for ...
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What is the role of discrete resistors and capacitors in a motherboard? [closed]

I know the basic function of resistors and capacitors. I know filters, oscillators, one-shot, differentiator/integrator, ADC/DAC, power supplies, etc. But in a motherboard why are there so many ...
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132 views

Memory interfacing with 8086: IP/CS pointers in EPROM while RAM addresses start at F0000H

Design an interface between 8086 CPU and two chips of 16K x 8 EPROM and two chips of 32K x 8 RAM. Select the starting address of EPROM suitably. The RAM address must start at F0000H. I have a ...
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time step too small error in protus

I simulated two triangular wave using 555, then I make shifter circuit to shift negative part of two signals to positive , to can use it in arduino, but time step too small error appear. So what can I ...
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Proteus: Making microprocessor which is arm cortex m4 stm32f427 in proteus vsm

I'm working on a project which requires me to simulate ARM processor in Proteus but from what I know that we can make your own device/component in Proteus. However, as you know that in Proteus 8.9 ...
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84 views

MIPS clock cycle calculation formula

How many clock cycles will take execution of this segment on the simple pipeline without forwarding or bypassing when result of the branch instruction (new PC content) is available after WB stage. ...
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1answer
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What is meant by soft strap and pin strap (HW strap) in a processor datasheet?

I was referring the Intel processor datasheet and it mentions about pin strap to configure various functionalities. Why is it called strap pins? Has it got anything in relation to 'bootstrapper'? ...
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ZiLOG Z80 Stack Pointer Location in Memory?

I am trying to design a board for a Z80 based computer, and am having trouble designing the memory map. I have found that the Program Counter defaults to address ...
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1answer
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What do we Gain by Packing Various Components into SoC

I have been trying to understand that what is the added benefit in shrinking components such as DSP slice, IPU, LCD controller etc into SoC instead of keeping them separate. Is this done only to ...
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What is the technology of slicing a chip to debug called?

A couple of times, I have heard that there are situations where a microprocesor or chip has to be sliced to look in to the contents, or for the purpose of debugging it. Layer by layer sectioning is ...
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4answers
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Memory Mapped IO and IO Mapped IO

I am revisiting Microcontrollers and Microprocessor concepts. Yes. I know this question has been asked many times like here and here. I have also visited many sites regarding this concept but still I ...
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Soft Close OS / Battery Switch / Improvement

I have a system that gets +12VDC from a source. The source is controlled by a switch, which I can not access. When the switch is on(close) my Raspberry Pi starts to work. (I am using a voltage ...
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Are there technical documents about microprocessor design by Jim Keller? [closed]

Jim Keller has worked leading various chip design projects at Intel, AMD, Apple and Tesla among other companies. Does anybody know of any technical documents about microprocessor design written by ...
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How to properly implement a crowbar circuit to perform a fault injection / power glitch attack?

I am trying to implement a power glitch attack. This is a hardware attack in which for a very short period of time (order of nanoseconds) I remove the power to a processor, using a transistor, to ...
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I want to make a photo-trap for wildlife

I want to make a photo-trap with extra features. I tried using a Raspberry Pi for this, but I could not start the system in under 4 seconds. When other photo-traps detect motion, they start ...
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Data from CC1125 Microprocessor to USB

I have a CC1125 microprocessor in a circuit and I need to be able to exchange data with the microprocessor through a usb connection to a pc. I am really new to all of this and don't really know how to ...
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2answers
105 views

ADC protection best practice

Say you were wanting to measure a signal with a higher voltage than the ADC could handle. Is there some best practice or commonly used circuitry that goes beyond a simple voltage divider to protect ...
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Does stage Sy of instruction have to wait till all earlier instructions has executed their corresponding stage

I am trying to understand execution of instruction in RISC pipeline. Can stage Sy of instruction I2 execute before stage Sy of I1? That is, in below example, will it be allowed to run I2's ID in C3 as ...
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In asynchronous communication how is the frequency same but clocks of both devices different?

Am currently studying 8051 microcontroller and in the course the lecturer told that in communication the frequencies of sender and receiver should be same else they will get different bits of data at ...

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