Questions tagged [microprocessor]

The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that elaborates information in the form of digital signals. Not to be confused with a microcontroller, which embeds many additional devices to control embedded systems.

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What's the difference between a microcontroller and a microprocessor?

What's the difference between a microcontroller and a microprocessor?
endolith's user avatar
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35 votes
9 answers
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What happens when an embedded program finishes?

What happens in an embedded processor when execution reaches that final return statement Does everything just freeze as it is; power consumption etc, with one long ...
Toby's user avatar
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48 votes
9 answers
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How were the first microprocessors programmed?

This has just dawned on me that if you're writing an operating system then what are you writing it on? I ask this as I am reading a microprocessor fundamentals book from 1980 and this question popped ...
Dean's user avatar
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12 votes
3 answers
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How do I get +5v for loud noise, 0v for silence from Electret Microphone (or other components)?

I have been asking a few questions here to get to a proper one, the initial questions I asked are linked to at the end. I used Fritzing to make up some schematics of my initial thoughts, but at the ...
Ehryk's user avatar
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12 votes
2 answers
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Maximum clock frequency of microprocessors

Recently, I have heard that AMD has released the new Vishera series of FX processors which run at 5 GHZ. My question is whether there is any upper bound of clock rate of a processor? That is can we ...
Torsten Hĕrculĕ Cärlemän's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
25k views

What is meant by Input clamp current/Output Clamp current in micro controller datasheet?

While reading a PIC data sheet, I found the parameters Input clamp current / Output Clamp current. Where do I consider these specifications?
tamil_innov's user avatar
50 votes
5 answers
26k views

How can a CPU deliver more than one instruction per cycle?

Wikipedia's Instructions per second page says that an i7 3630QM deliver ~110,000 MIPS at a frequency of 3.2 GHz; it would be (110/3.2 instructions) / 4 core = ~8.6 instructions per cycle per core?...
davide's user avatar
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26 votes
5 answers
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What could cause a microcontroller to unexpectedly reset?

One particularly irritating variety of bug in a microprocessor-controlled system is for the microprocessor to unexpectedly reset. An important tool for debugging this kind of problem is a list of ...
Stephen Collings's user avatar
22 votes
3 answers
38k views

Soft core processors vs hard core processors

I am doing a study on FPGA interfacing with microprocessors such as ARM9. I found the concept of soft core processors and hard core processors in my study. May I know what is the comparison between ...
How Xing Quan's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
456 views

8085 μp; Why does Read cycle take 3 T-states and not 2?

In the text I'm following, R.S.Gaonkar it's explained that, During T1, address in Program Counter(PC) is latched onto the Memory Address Register(MAR), During the falling edge of T2 \$\overline{MEMR}...
Aravindh Vasu's user avatar
96 votes
10 answers
33k views

Why are there no 256-bit or 512-bit microprocessors?

In an 8-bit microprocessor its data bus consists of 8 data lines. In a 16-bit microprocessor its data bus consists of 16 data lines and so on. Why is there neither a 256-bit microprocessor nor a 512-...
Michael harris's user avatar
59 votes
5 answers
39k views

Why does more transistors = more processing power?

According to Wikipedia, processing power is strongly linked with Moore's law: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore's_law The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an ...
Oli's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
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Why All 1's used as a second input in decrement operation of ALU?

Suppose the first four data inputs are X (X0, X1, X2, X3) and the second four data inputs are Y (Y0, Y1, Y2, Y3) in a 4-bit ALU. Why "All 1's" are used as an input for Y in the decrement operation of ...
user253689's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
4k views

How does a chip interpret different opcodes?

I have learnt in school about opcodes and how it works with the ALU to add numbers and such, now is my question how the computer is able to understand this, because it is codes and the computer needs ...
user1009013's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
13k views

Stalling and Flushing in MIPS Piplining

I am learning MIPS data path with piplining and I am a little confused in the following two things? How do we perform Stall in MIPS data path? What is the difference between Stall and Flush? Here ...
Alfred's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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Parts to build a digital camera

What kind of components are needed to build a simple digital camera? One that processes a JPEG image and can transfer over one of USB (in mass-storage mode), Bluetooth or WiFi. When could I get them? ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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JL (or maybe something else) misterious branded IC's, what is the origin? [closed]

Edit 12/31/2019: Thanks to Mariano Dupont: Found it: Zhuhai Jieli Technology zh-jieli.com Take a look at this example of an IC found on a circuit board: Brand is found on many PCB's of Chinese/...
Codebeat's user avatar
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1 vote
3 answers
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How to set all flags in 8085?

My Microprocessor teacher of 8085 gave an assignment to set all flags ! I have written this little program to set all except Sign, Please help me out ...
Asad Irfan's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
492 views

What is the role of discrete resistors and capacitors in a motherboard? [closed]

I know the basic function of resistors and capacitors. I know filters, oscillators, one-shot, differentiator/integrator, ADC/DAC, power supplies, etc. But in a motherboard why are there so many ...
Noob_Guy's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Where to start building this wifi video streaming circuit?

I am working on my own quadcopter and I would like to stream video from it to my computer. I know how to do it using Raspberry Pi and wifi dongle hooked to its usb port, but I don't want that solution ...
pkout's user avatar
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1 answer
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F280021 Wiring Help

I just want to make sure that I wired up the power circuit for this F280021 correctly according to the datasheet. Datasheet:https://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/tms320f280021.pdf?ts=1628790148836&...
RGB Engineer's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
465 views

ADC protection best practice

Say you were wanting to measure a signal with a higher voltage than the ADC could handle. Is there some best practice or commonly used circuitry that goes beyond a simple voltage divider to protect ...
zsky3333's user avatar
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0 votes
3 answers
793 views

If we can access (64*4) 256Kb of memory at a time in 8086 and you can move those segments around, what is the use of the remaining memory

If we can access (64*4) 256Kb of memory at a time in 8086 and you can move those segments around, what is the use of the remaining memory? Some say that we can move around the segments but what is the ...
Deepak Pawade's user avatar
0 votes
12 answers
4k views

How exactly does the transition between Software and Hardware occur?

Well first allow me to explain what I actually meant to ask. Ok, so it is clearly known that without software, a piece of hardware is just a lifeless body, something without a soul. But I clearly ...
vineel13's user avatar
  • 197
0 votes
3 answers
659 views

ARM How to invoke branching?

Was looking through a code with regards to loop. ...
Meep's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
1k views

how a microcontroller or microprocessor is called as 8 bit, 16 bit? [duplicate]

In what basis a micro controller or a microprocessor is classified as 8bit and 16bit?
Embedded C's user avatar
55 votes
7 answers
18k views

Why don't we make CPUs with 1000s of layers to make use of space in the third dimension?

I am wondering why don't we make processors such as CPUs with 1000s of stacked layers to make use of space in the third dimension now that we have three-dimensional transistors. To be clear I'm ...
Ethan's user avatar
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27 votes
6 answers
10k views

Why are relatively simpler devices such as microcontrollers so much slower than CPUs?

Given the same number of pipeline stages and the same manufacturing node (say, 65 nm) and the same voltage, simple devices should run faster than more complicated ones. Also, merging multiple pipeline ...
Michael's user avatar
  • 431
24 votes
8 answers
26k views

How do I build a computer with a Z80 microprocessor?

I've got the chip, so how would I add: a clock, RAM, hard drive (maybe EEPROM?), a screen (LCD graphical screen?), input method (keyboard, mouse) ?
user8210's user avatar
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21 votes
9 answers
22k views

How can 8-bit processor support more than 256 bytes of RAM?

If a 32-bit processor can handle approximately 4 GiB of RAM (i.e. \$2^{32} = 4 294 967 296\$) bytes, why does my Arduino Mega 2560 have 8 KiB of SRAM, if being a 8-bit processor allows it to handle ...
ZaqueoAlejandro's user avatar
18 votes
8 answers
7k views

Writing DSP algorithms directly in C or assembly? [closed]

I m working on a DSP project(IIR filtering) on an Analog Devices digital signal processor(BF706) with the compiler suite coming with it, CrossCore Studio. It has some examples for simple DSP stuff ...
doubleE's user avatar
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14 votes
4 answers
2k views

Do 4-bit CPUs still outsell 32-bit CPUs in unit volume?

Way back in 2002, Jim Turley mentioned that about 14% of all CPUs sold were 4-bit CPUs, while about 8% of all CPUs sold were 32-bit CPUs. (Most people I know were surprised that any 4-bit CPUs were ...
davidcary's user avatar
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12 votes
4 answers
35k views

Map processor to circuit diagram

I am a software developer (using high level languages like .NET,C,C++ etc) trying to understand how computers work at a lower level. I am familar with this diagram: I am trying to gain a high level ...
w0051977's user avatar
  • 667
10 votes
3 answers
2k views

The manufacturing and grading of families of microprocessors

Intel produces families of seemingly similar microprocessors. For example, the Core i5-3320M (2.6 GHz, 3 MB cache), the Core i5-3360M (2.8 GHz, 3 MB cache), and the Core i7-3520M (2.9 GHz, 4 MB ...
thb's user avatar
  • 617
8 votes
3 answers
4k views

How to program multiple STM32Fs on same PCB

I work in a management roll and only have a very limited electronics knowledge (enough to make simple arduino projects etc). We are working on a product at the moment which has 3 STM32F303s and 2 ...
Newbie Noob's user avatar
5 votes
6 answers
3k views

microcontroller / cpu design book? [closed]

I'm looking for an introductory book to CPU / microcontroller /microprocessor design. Any ideas? ARM or x86 are both great. I have a great assembler language book, but I'm looking for something more ...
kalaracey's user avatar
  • 233
4 votes
4 answers
7k views

2-bit branch prediction accuracy

I am trying to solve this problem, the answer should be 15/20 = 75%. However, I am not sure how this was calculated and want to understand the underlying concept. A program core consists of five ...
Carlo's user avatar
  • 129
3 votes
3 answers
9k views

What is the Chip-on-board ic used in calculator, how to obtain one and how to use it?

In any calculator there is a black dot blob such as this : After searching on what it is, I find that it is a Chip-on-board controller but i can't find what is the type of or how to buy or how to ...
Ahmed Yasen's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
279 views

Are `call` and `return` usually instructions in a modern ISA?

I've been working through the problems in a game based around building a Turing Complete machine. One of the final problems asks you to implement the call and ...
Connor's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
2k views

what is microcoded architecture in computer architecture

I want to know what is microcoded microarchitecture of an instruction set architecture (ISA) and why is it used? What is the difference between microcoded architecture and single cycle ...
user2979872's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
11k views

Buses in 8086 micro-processor

What are the buses known as A, B, C in the following architecture of 8086? I cannot find any information about these.
user963241's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
6k views

Microcontroller to process HDMI frames

I am looking for a microcontroller to process 1 HDMI input, manipulate the frame, and output to 1 HDMI output. What can I use?
Varun's user avatar
  • 29
2 votes
1 answer
11k views

What's the difference between minimum feature size , transistor gate length and half pitch?

I've been looking into the limits that silicon based transistors. During this I've come across several terms describing the small size of a transistor, minimum feature size and transistor gate length ...
John's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
8k views

Can I use TI's cc2541 BLE as micro controller to perform operations/ processing instead of ATmega328P AU to save cost?

I am using arduino pro mini (which contains Atmega328p AU) along with cc2541(HM-10) to process and transfer data over BLE to smartphone. I am wondering if I can use cc2541 itself for processing data ...
Perry's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
457 views

Bus mastering VS Bus arbitration [closed]

If there are multiple bus masters possible in a bus architecture then is it certain that 'Bus arbitration' will take place before a master gets hold of the bus control or is it possible that bus ...
alt-rose's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
1k views

MC68000 Modern Equivalent (or can/should I use NRND/EOL chips)

I am designing a SBC that will feature the Motorola 68000 (or one of its descendants) but am having trouble finding new chips. The only chips that I have been able to find on Mouser or Digi-Key are ...
Billylegota's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
3k views

Designing a 8 bit ALU

I have started designing a 4 bit Arithmetic and logic unit. The sample image is as follows: The function Table: My question is: Is it possible to design an 8 bit ALU having the same ...
user6216509's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
619 views

Where/what functions as a clock on a (say intel i3-7) microprocessor?

In my Microcontrollers class today, our professor talked about how for the microcontrollers we use in lab, the clock is actually a "crystal" (either his command of English or of chemistry prevented ...
jfa's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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need for external i/o interfacing like in 8086 for latest processors

I am a student now currently learning about interfacing 8255 with 8086. For me the doubt is that, is there a need for external i/o interfacing like in 8086 for latest processors? what is GPIO ?
Harish Sp's user avatar
1 vote
4 answers
3k views

Is Micro-processor completely Digital?

I read about different parts of micro-processor like ALU, registers etc. all different digital parts. Are there any analog parts inside the processor?
sarthak's user avatar
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