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Questions tagged [microwave]

Microwaves are radio waves with a frequency from 300MHz to 300GHz which corresponds to a wavelength of one meter down to one millimeter. Often in RF engineering however it is used to refer to a narrower region such as 1 to 100GHz.

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Selecting coaxial cable and connector for PCB referring to required frequency

I want to transmit my 24GHz signal from PCB through coaxial to antenna. I wonder how to chose best match for it, also the power is -5dBm, 50 ohm. It's based on ADF5901 2ch PA. I have found two good ...
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How to line a Metal Melter secondary for higher safety

A Metal Melter is a kind of home-made low voltage (less than 40 volts, mine is 3v) welder (small-scale) made from a microwave oven transformer (MOT). I left the primary intact (the thicker wire, which ...
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732 views

90° Bend: Mitered vs Curved

On RF PCBs to bend a trace 90° you have many choices but among them Curved and Mitered bend considered as a good choice from performance POV (Both shown below). For many years I thought that if you ...
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Can you generate a pure sine wave by mixing a fixed frequency sine wave with a variable frequency square wave?

Let us suppose I don't have a DDS available, and instead I have two square wave clocks with frequencies of my choosing. I have the impression that creating a wide bandwidth (multi-decade) sine wave ...
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28 views

HB100 microwave sensor impedence question

The patch antenna on these are minimal. I would like to cut the feed point and tap it with a short length of UT141(?) to feed two 10 GHz horns. Does anyone have a guess as to the feed point impedance? ...
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35 views

Determining required signal SNR (beat signal from FMCW RADAR)

I'm trying to determine the SNR required for signal outcoming from FMCW Radar. This is the chain: signal will created by "24 GHz VCO and PGA with 2-Channel PA Output" by triangle shape frequency ...
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76 views

Microwave - Standard Intermediate Frequency?

VHF/UHF receivers use one of a few standard intermediate frequencies. Is there a similar set of standard intermediate frequencies for microwave (around 3GHz) receivers? As I understand it, the choice ...
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28 views

Interpreting scattering parameters on a Smith chart.

I'm trying to become reacquainted with microwave circuits and how to analyze them, especially with a VNA. Just to get some practice I'm using Keysite ADS simulator. To get the feel of it I used the ...
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1answer
35 views

Difference between a flared and not flared rectangular waveguide antenna

Someone can explain to me the difference in terms of performance between a flared rectangular waveguide antenna (precisely a pyramidal horn) and a not flared rectangular waveguide antenna? In horn ...
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1answer
46 views

Free air or waveguide wavelength?

If you have a microwave frequency of say 2.45 GHz, would you use that frequency in a simple rectangle cross section waveguide, or do you need to use the "lamdba g" waveguide frequency I've read about ...
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83 views

Can a magnet cause a microwave oven to unsafely radiate energy?

I've already successfully warped the colors on a large old CRT Television by setting unshielded speakers on top of it. If I understand correctly, this was due to the deviation of the electro-magnetic (...
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62 views

Other than direct radiation, how can RF interference transfer between stacked PCBs?

I have VHF aviation radio consisting of 3 boards stacked upon each other: digital, receiver and transmitter, the digital is on ‘top’ with receiver in the middle, there is thick shielding between the ...
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39 views

Ferrite bead to remove interference from microwave and television

Not sure if this is the correct area, but thought I'd get more insight than other exchanges. I have on one wall a microwave, and on the back side of it is the television. When the microwave is turned ...
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1answer
60 views

Reference Plane In Impedance Calculation

I'm designing an 8-layer PCB with 10 distinct region of power. To attain 50Ohm trace I used Stripline calculators (like this fancy EEWeb) and they work great If you know that you have a complete solid ...
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CST Studio Space State Matrices

I am new to using CST Studio and I am trying to figure out how to see the state space matrices (A,B,C,D) of a designed antenna to describe its radiation pattern in other software. Any help on the ...
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111 views

Effect of VIA fence on grounded coplanar waveguie (GCPW)

I'm working on a RF Frequency board with up to 6GHz signals. To connect components on the board (Mixer, Attenuator, ...) I decided on using GCPW. I designed my GCPW Using AppCad calculator (free ...
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1answer
90 views

Impedance matching a capacitor load

I am currently trying to impedance match a capacitor as a load. In detail, it is an insulating thin film grown on top of a conductive layer (grounded). We now sputtered small Pt electrodes on top and ...
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Intuition behind transit angle of a klystron

What I understand is that the electrons get attracted to the anode and during their passage through the buncher gap, they regroup into bunches due to differing potentials imposed on different ...
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297 views

Why are cell towers so high? [closed]

Why do cell towers need so much height? Does the height increase antenna gain because it may provide directionality?
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55 views

Single tone signal generation at microwave frequency with best phase noise and spurious performance

What is the best way to generate a single tone signal with best phase noise and spurious performance? Is frequency multiplication the best way? single stage multiplication or multi stage ...
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1answer
56 views

How cell sites work? [closed]

In Mobile communication, how do cell sites communicate to each other to the point when they reach the cell site which is connected to the other mobile phone when I make a call . What is the medium of ...
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45 views

Metallic Waveguide Boundary

I've been studying TE and TM modes on waveguides for microwave frequencies. It basically consists on applying Maxwell equations on a rectangular metallic cavity, with infinite length on \$z\$ ...
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Finding output SNR using Noise figure

am trying to solve this question below: So I did find the system's overall noise figure to be 2.3 = 3.68dB, and you are more than welcome to verify it. However, my problem now is to find the output ...
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76 views

How to build a simple waveguide and start on microwave electronics?

I have an electrical engineering qualification and new to microwave engineering, but really never did much RF or microwave when studying. I want to build a very basic and simple waveguide microwave ...
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42 views

Ohmic power loss due to electric field

Recently I read in the basic EM theory course , that the Ohmic power dissipated in a conductor is directly proportional to the conductivity and the square of the electric field intensity , but we know ...
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35 views

Bounds of impedance matrix of a passive two port network

If we consider the impedance matrix of a linear, reciprocal passive network (Z12 =Z21 because of the reciprocity), $$ \begin{bmatrix} Z_{11} & Z_{12} \\ Z_{12} & Z_{22} \...
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73 views

Why no IEEE 802.11 version use 24 GHz ISM band?

IEEE 802.11 aka WiFi uses multiple ISM bands to transmit data,2.4,5 and 60 Ghz.The 24 GHz was never used in WiFi,why? Why did they jump from 5 to 60 and ignored 24? Why no wireless standard use this ...
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140 views

High current low voltage transformer not working

I have rewound a microwave oven transformer to produce a low voltage on the secondary. I'm not sure what the ampere rating of the transformer is but its about 4mm thick wire on the primary. I wound ...
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1answer
26 views

Co-application of DC field and Microwave Irradiation on Soil

I am attempting to design/enhance a system which applies direct current to a soil for the electro-kinetic remediation of organic/metal contamination. My current plan is to try enhancing conventional ...
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39 views

RF signal on wirebonds

I am curious to know how RF signal is transmitted through wirebonds. I thought that in microwave transmission lines, the energy was stored in electric and magnetic fields inside the dielectric ...
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2k views

What causes loss of power over lifetime of a magnetron?

The power of a magnetron declines over time\$^1\$. While not noticable for most consumer applications (A 2000-hour lifetime would last over 20 years if the device is used only 15 minutes a day), this ...
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Can I trust these microwave power readings?

So I've got an old Hughes TWT that supplies roughly 20W across the Ku band (12.4 - 18 GHz) that has a waveguide output flange (WR-62). I am "gently re-purposing" it to be driven at a lower frequency (...
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1answer
106 views

Microwave oven with no heat, Bad design or wrong component choice? [closed]

Few days ago, my Magic Chef MCD990B microwave oven magically passed away randomly and so suddenly that I didn't even have time to say goodbye, not that I have used it heavily or considered it as my ...
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Multiband LNA Design [closed]

I am familiar with circuit design - Basic Op-Amp Design, concepts like stablity, Phase margin and I am a beginner in Microwave Engineering. I am familiar with some basic ideas and little familiar with ...
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54 views

Rectangular Waveguide H-Plane Step Discontinuity - Equivalent Reactance for Change in Height

I have been reading Pozar's Microwave Engineering, and in Section 4.6, he goes through the analysis to determine the reactance of a discontinuity between two coupled waveguides. In that chapter, he ...
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1answer
31 views

AWR PA Output Power Simulation - Credible?

I'm working with the SKY65111-348LF power amplifier from Skyworks and wanted to obtain some idea of its performance using AWR Microwave Office. I'm not sure if my process is correct and wanted to have ...
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1answer
58 views

How are antenna arrays synchronized for direction finding/localisation?

How are antenna arrays synchronized for direction finding/localisation? For example, if the processing unit is located closer to one antenna then another, it will see the signal from the closer ...
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76 views

Self Resonant Frequency VS Package Size for capacitor

In general belief, smaller capacitors have better charactristic(more capacitive behaviour) in high frequency than bulky capacitors. On contrary in one of my RF project (8.5GHz - 9.5GHz) when checking ...
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401 views

Preamplifier for HB100 doppler sensor

I'am working with HB100 doppler sensor and I tried to build the amplifier shown in the datasheet of HB100. This amplifier uses opamp LM324, I don't know why it doesn't work. The Vout of the circuit is ...
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1answer
44 views

From how wide a range of angles can a grid of dipole antennas efficiently receive a power beam?

This paper on solar power satellite concepts makes brief reference to the ground receiver receiving an elliptical beam due to the angle it is at to the transmitter (2nd paragraph). The angle isn't ...
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1answer
122 views

Transmission line voltage measurement(visualizing standing wave)

I want to measure voltage across a T-line to visualize standing waves on the line. something like this video min 6:53 and this experiment Measuring Standing Waves on a Microstrip Transmission Line I ...
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Distance between via fences and the gap in CBCPW

What is the consideration involved in placing the via fences relative to the gap edge of CBCPW (Conductor Backed Coplanar Waveguide) ?
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34 views

Line/load matching for electric power transmission

Impedance matching is a critical topic for microwave engineering where the signal wavelength becomes comparable to the physical sizes of components. Substitution of distributed component models for ...
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1answer
61 views

Scattering matrix of matched a device with matched ports

The scattering matrix of a device with matched ports has zeros at the position of the corresponding diagonal element(I am referring to equation 7.2 or 7.4 in Microwave Engineering by David M Pozar, ...
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1answer
33 views

Are h- and g-parameters only applicable to two-port networks?

There are plenty of references to various ways to represent two-port networks (S, Z, Y, T, ABCD, h and g parameters). S and T parameters are commonly generalised to N-port networks. Is the same true ...
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1answer
83 views

Can a Wifi device be made to output a continuous 2.4 GHz wave?

I wanted to do some energy harvesting experiments involving wifi-frequency microwaves and wanted to see if there was a way to make a Wifi-enabled microcontroller devboard (something like the esp32) ...
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1answer
79 views

How can I design a double pole eight throw microwave (2-6 GHz) switch?

I need to design a DP8T microwave switch for a microwave imaging senior design project. The frequency range is 2 to 6 GHz. I need to switch between 8 antennas and a 2 port VNA. So each antenna ...
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48 views

Understanding maxwell's equations

I'm trying to use the fundamental maxwell's equations to see how this expression was derived: ∇⋅ (E⋅ E+ c^2 B⋅ B) = − ∂/∂t(E⋅B-E⋅B)+ 1/ε (B⋅J - J⋅B) c is 1/sqrt(ue). I have found the cross product ...
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258 views

Soldering RG-405 coaxial cable directly to PCB pads meant for U.FL connector

Is there an ideal method to solder a bare cable to a PCB for microwave (5-6GHz) signals? The U.FL connectors that are normally used in this application are terrible, and there aren't many (or any) ...
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129 views

Blocking WiFi with a Faraday cage

As part of a project I'm trying to prevent WiFi transmission of frequency 2.4 GHz from reaching a Raspberry Pi via a Faraday cage. Would a 20 micron aluminum foil do the job?