Questions tagged [non-volatile-memory]

Memory which maintains it's value through power cycles.

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Can I read programmed content inside any sort of non-volatile re-programmable memory device with Microscope, X-ray, etc.?

Non-volatile re-programmable memory like NAND flash, NOR flash, and etc. stores information in forms of electron charges and doesn't change in structural forms that can be inspected with X-ray or ...
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How to store one bit without the use of an IC? [duplicate]

I am trying to store a bit of data from a circuit, but I don't want to use an IC like an EEPROM chip. Is it possible to store one bit with a transistor or something else to that effect?
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Power On Tracking Integrated Circuit, ON Time Odometer [closed]

How would I realize a I2C/SPI device capable of tracking how long power has been applied over the lifetime of the device? Ideally this would be a 8 pin (or less) SMT part costing around a couple ...
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23 views

How to design 1T-1C DRAM circuit in spice design tools, such as LTSPICE?

I have been trying to design a DRAM cell using the LTSPICE MODEL tool. The DRAM that I want to design is of 2nd GENERATION, i.e, 1t-1c dram cell. But whenever I design digit line it states the line is ...
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Where is load-leveling data stored on a MicroSD card?

Reading this question on load-leveling of writes on a MicroSD card, Is it true that a SD/MMC Card does wear levelling with its own controller?, it prompted me to wonder where on the MicroSD card is ...
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Mysterious NVM write protection

I'm implementing a serial bootloader on an ATSAME51N20A (Cortex-M4). I'm reading in packets of UART, and writing them to internal flash. For some memory addresses the flash writes work fine, and for ...
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FRAM : excessive erase of one memory cell can damage another memory cell?

Erroneously , we made excessive erase of FRAM first 1024 bytes multiple times (millions and more erases). Afterwards we observed that memory upper half is damaged (part of it). Can it be that ...
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1answer
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Write endurance: Is there a difference between eMMC and Micro SD Card?

I have seen several forum posts (link 1, link 2) debating whether eMMC offers an endurance advantage over SD cards for embedded applications. My understanding was that the write endurance problem is ...
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How to read from the FM25V20A-PG memory device using spi?

This is my first time working with SPI. I am trying to write and then read two bytes of data from the FM25V20A-PG external memory. The data sheet for the device can be found here: https://www....
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eMMC selection problem due to lifecycle

As you know while considering eMMC's lifecycle there are 3 technologies called SLC, MLC, and TLC. But I could not understand exact speed of these. i.e. MLC's lifecycle. Some say 3k like this one. ...
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Writing on one flash memory location could affect whole memory page

I am working on designing energy meter using PIC18F46K80. When the power goes off the meter store data on the flash memory (credit and so). Meter power supply stores enough energy to supply the ...
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62 views

Is writing in FeRAM memory cell destructive?

I have read that writing in Ferroelectric random access memory is not destructive. But in a WL||PL memory architecture, if I try to write a '0' in a cell and the adjacent cell holds a '1', shouldn't ...
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Is there any memory cell that can store more than one bit? [closed]

SRAM, DRAM, Flash, EPROM - all of the memory cells contain one bit of data each. Is there any memory cell that can store more than one bit, e.g. 2 bits/4bits?
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NAND Flash memory block - plane issue

I am programming a 2Gb NAND flash memory and I don't understand how the block-plane addressing should be treated. According to the datasheet The flash memory is divided into two planes. Each plane ...
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195 views

Programmable gain non inverting amplifier

I'm a hobbyist and like to design my own tools rather than buying chinese "kits" that teach nothing. I have been needing all sorts of amplifiers for different things and usually I would just use an ...
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1answer
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How is an EEPROM different from a Flash memory? [duplicate]

I am trying to understand the terminology used for various non-volatile memory chips for example as EEPROM and Flash. Is there any preference to use the word EEPROM or Flash for specific type of ...
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Memory capability and powers of 2

Why are computer memory capabilities often multiples of a power of two, such as 2^10 = 1024 bytes? I think it is something related to the binary logic, but I do not understand the precise reason for ...
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2answers
118 views

Adapting an I2C FRAM chip to an SRAM-like parallel interface

I have a project that requires a parallel interface non-volatile RAM. I had hoped to use an FRAM, however the only parallel FRAMs seem to much larger in capacity (and more importantly, price) than I ...
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Need a non-volatile memory IC with near unlimited read/write operations capability

I need a memory solution which is going to be used to keep track of an accumulated count on a micro-controller based project. By accumulated count, I mean to say that the micro-controller uses this ...
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Initial data values of FRAM devices

I've got an FM25L16 FRAM part in a board design. For a new part from the manufacturer, what are the initial data values? All 0x00, or all ...
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I've seen many conflicting answers online: For optical storage, does a pit represent a '1' bit or does a land represent a '1' bit?

I've seen many conflicting answers online so: When reading an optical disk, which one of these is true: A 'pit' represents 1 and a 'land' represents 0 or A 'pit' represents 0 and a 'land' ...
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Is it possible to add a UID to M45PE10-VMN6?

Is it possible to add a UID to p/n M45PE10-VMN6 ? We need to add this security feature to these chips, but I am assuming it needed to be done at factory. Originally we could have purchased p/n ...
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Volatile keyword with ADC, USB interrupt readings

I was just reading an answer about global variables, it also stated that I should use volatile affix whenever a global is used in an interrupt. In my program I am using a 30 byte ADC buffer without ...
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W25q64 Nor flash does not get Erased

I am trying to write the data into the NOR flash but for some reason it is taking some random/garbage data . First i tried to erase the sector then i read the data from the same location which i have ...
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Why isn't there any EEPROM in STM32F4 MCUs? [closed]

Why isn't there any EEPROM in the STM32F4 series MCUs? Mostly I have Microchip MCUs and they have EEPROM available in them, but I just found out that it is not available in the STM32F4 MCUs... And it ...
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Can FOTA be performed by changing the execution point of the code i.e, changing the program counter in lpc1759

For FOTA can we divide the memory into two blocks, eg : block A and block B. And whenever there is a new version of firmware detected, we shall change the execution point of the code. Is this ...
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33 views

Measurement of the retention period of a memory cell

Manufactures of Non Volatile memory devices give a quote for the Memory retention period of their device. To the best of my understanding, this period refers to the maximum period up to which the ...
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1answer
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NOR Flash Memory Full chip vs Block vs Sector Erase

I am trying to use a NOR flash memory device: SST25VF016B (with STM32 discoveryboard F407VG). However, I am confused on some terms on their datasheet. You can find the datasheet here: https://www.elfa....
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Why are SRAM based FPGA used more than NVM based FPGA?

SRAM based FPGAs need to load the bitstream again after power off. Meanwhile the Non-Volatile based one don't need that. I wonder, why are more experiments and security research done on the SRAM ...
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322 views

Why is there a need for an eNVM and an eSRAM in the same SoC FPGA

SmartFusion2 SoC FPGA is distinguished by containing an embedded Non-Volatile-Memory (eNVM) that is used to store the code needed for the booting process of the FPGA after power up. So in the presence ...
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1answer
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What makes Smartfusion2 FPGA clamed as highly secure to ensure secure booting?

Is the FPGA Smatfusion2 claimed to be highly secure by its manufacturer (Microsemi, now Mircochip) because it is a non volatile memory FPGA? Meanwhile the SRAM FPGA like the zynq 7000 are considered ...
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186 views

How to work with eMMC from software developer point of view

I am facing a problem how to implement parameters management in an embedded software. Parameters management means that I have some subset of variables which values should be persistent but they will ...
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1answer
214 views

Possible to replace worn out NAND chips in solid state drives?

I understand that SSD endurance is typically much greater than advertised and disregarding any form of data recovery, is it possible to replace NAND chips in solid state drives (with the exact same ...
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2answers
190 views

Atmega328p - Program works with 2.7V power supply but doesnt with 3.3V

I already posted this question on avrfreaks but so far I'm not getting many responses so decided to ask here as well. So I'll start by telling little bit how this project looks together for the ...
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1answer
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How is a DRAM volatile with capacitors?

There are a few things I understand: DRAM stores each bit of data to a tiny capacitor with some potential difference. Unless the capacitor is connected to low voltage end, the potential difference ...
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How is normal ROM programmed [closed]

Perhaps this question may sound silly,and am sorry if there are similar questions answered already because i couldn't find one, as per guidelines. Mask ROM(MROM) are programmed while manufacturing,...
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1answer
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How can I design a Caesar cipher encrypter and decrypter without using Non-programmable circuit components?

My device should be able to take an input from A-Z and another input to from 0-25 and finally a Encrypt or Decrypt option. Currently I have given A a code of 0000, B 0001... so on and the output will ...
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382 views

alternative to NAND chips

The company I work for is manufacturing a device with ARM processor and embedded Linux. At the time of the project (a few years ago) our consultants relied on NAND flash chips with UBIFS as filesystem,...
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multiprocessor programming and memory management [closed]

I'm working for a project (an embedded storage system) that requires to increase a memory access speed using a multiprocessors programming, so that we can execute a memory access program (storing data)...
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1answer
108 views

NAND technology - ecc error

Nand technology has some issues, which I find it a bit difficult to understand. It is said in nand devices that manufacture guaranty that a page will have no more than X (4/8/16,etc according to nand ...
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1answer
185 views

Memory dump size does not match size of MTD partition

Device with Linux embedded system on NAND flash memory. I did memory dump of some MTD devices partitions use serial console, from U-boot bootloader use available commands. First I read MTD partition ...
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245 views

Non volatile switches [closed]

Sometimes, chemical reactions need a small push in the right path to start and then, the reaction sustains on its own. Now is it possible to make a non volatile microelectronic switch by using some ...
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476 views

How does the Pre-charge and Equalizing circuit shown in the below figure work?

(from precharge circuit) Could you please explain the operation of the above circuit regarding how the transistors Q8 and Q9 are responsible for charging the Bit Lines with VDD/2 while Q7 equalizes ...
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1answer
838 views

Read and Write multi variable (Struct) from/to external FRAM memory over SPI by ATMEGA Using Code Vision

I am working on a project to read some data from ADC and store them in external FRAM over SPI. I have 8 different float values which need to save when the power is off or other specific situation and ...
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3answers
2k views

interfacing of eMMC to MCU

I am trying to interface a MCU to an external non-volatile memory. The MCU being considered is TM4C123GH6. The memory selected is an SD card which is interfaced via SPI. But the environment is a high ...
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What happens when the chip enable active time limit is exceeded?

The datasheet of a FRAM chip (FM1608-120-P) says that "the device has a maximum /CE low time specification that must be satisfied". The datasheet does not state what the consequences are when this ...
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331 views

Persistent circular buffer with CC3220SF

I'd like to share with you some thoughts about a project to see if there are better solutions than mine... I'm designing a board based upon CC3220SF, that requires an external flash (16 Mbit) where ...
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What is the correct way to implement heavy-write persistent memory? [duplicate]

I'm designing a current meter, which should retain the Ampere-hour count during power loss (e.g. power cable is disconnected without regard for first saving the data). The Ampere-hour value could be ...
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2answers
447 views

How, could hardware write protect be implemented for flash media?

I come from a software background, but feel this is a hardware/electronics question. Looking for a way to hardware-write-protect on flash media, I bought an SDHC card (with a tiny switch labelled "...
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2answers
550 views

How does triple level cell FLASH memory achieve 3 bits per cell?

Originally each cell of FLASH memory held either a high or low level or state, and reflected one bit of information; 0 or 1. Mutli-level FLASH was then developed, with often four levels of voltage ...