Questions tagged [pcb-fabrication]

About the manufacturing of PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards).

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How to implement a Bookbinder PCB design in Altium

I am planning to design a bookbinder with airgap rigid flex PCB using Altium. Based on guidelines from Altium, and various other sources, it is important to have "staggered lengths", to ...
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1 answer
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Modelling a single trace PCB?

I am trying to model a PCB trace as a R, L, C circuit. Assumption: My PCB has a a single trace running through it. Just giving input from one side and taking output from other. There is not even a GND ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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PCB etching went wrong or what?

I was trying to etch a PCB of 12x23 cm using FeCl3 powder. Below are the pictures of the process: Before dipping into etching solution (some tracks were corrected using permanent marker): After ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Two layer PCB vs. four layer PCB for simple design with 30A current

I have a design which is literally just 2 connectors (input and output), a relay and a diode. Basically using the relay to connect a charger to a battery. The board size is predetermined and I can't ...
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Exported same file in Gerber X2 and ODB++ and diffrent result

Using Altium I exported the same PCB in Gerber X2 and ODB++ and sent it to production (so they could choose what file format they preferred). The manufacturer came back asking why the design did not ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Greener way to design a PCB

Lets say we are designing a very simple PCB and there is a layer(s) where not much is going on, from an environmental perspective alone would it be better to leave the layer with a large ground copper ...
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Why would this PCB design cause a short?

Yesterday, I designed my first ever PCB. It's meant to take data from several sensors and pass the data to a Raspberry Pi, which will in turn actuate pumps to control nutrient concentrations in a ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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What width should I use in the dimension layer in Cadsoft Eagle?

I've designed about 20 PCBs in Cadsoft Eagle, and for the board outline I've always used the "20 Dimension" layer, using "wires" of width 0 to enclose the PCB. I did this ...
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3 votes
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Will layer-to-layer leakage happen in a PCB?

I have a four-layer PCB that contains a circuit that measures voltage from a very high impedance node. This voltage is a DC voltage value ranges from 33 V to 36 V. The voltage measurement circuitry is ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Can't use a polygon to define a board shape in Altium. How to do it?

I have this small single layer LED PCB I created in Altium, with a Polygon poured on the top layer defining the board limits. When I try to create the board shape by using the polygon as reference, ...
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Homemade double sided PCBs and soldering

I etched my own double sided PCBs (no plated through holes) and quickly realized that there will be an issue with making sure contacts on both sides of the board are making a proper connection with ...
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UV masking with an LCD

I am planning to make a machine that uses an LCD screen as a mask for etching PCBs. However, I am concerned about the type of LCD that I would need as well as the accuracy that I would get. My main ...
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1 answer
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ESP32 Pad 39 - Where do I add vias?

I am building my first PCB ever with an ESP32. I want the PCB to be built by JLCPCB (or similar) and I am not sure what to do with the Pad39 I read these opinions: Do not add vias in pad, and if you ...
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0 votes
2 answers
79 views

Help in finding articles/research papers regarding materials used for designing small PCBs

I am currently working on an article for my internship on the topic of techniques for PCB design under space constraints. I am looking for the type of PCB materials that are used for manufacturing ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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How to outline traces in graphics

I've been searching online with no luck. I'm using KiCad and I want to outline my traces with graphics similar to the image shown below. Is there a function within KiCad that does this or is this a ...
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A general question about plated throughs holes and GERBER files

Introduction: I made a PCB with Allegro that is made of three layers. The mid-layer is completely the RF ground, and the bottom layer is connected to the connector so it is all ground as well. I have ...
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PCB manufacturing process

What process can I use for PCB etching? What chemical compositions required along with etching time, reuseability of the solvent, inks to be used so that copper layer of the drawing area is unaffected?...
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1 answer
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Soldermask bridge gap too small - PCBWAY

I've got a PCB design which contains a chip that uses the QFN (7x7) package. Because of the package size the pins are very close together and the pads are 0.2mm apart, which is smaller than the ...
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JLCPCB Bom Detection from U

I am trying to order a PCB from JLCPCB and have the following problem: When I enter the BOM in the Assembly it does not detect U1, all the other components are detected. What could be the mistake? ...
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1 answer
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Altium surface pad next to throughhole pad design

I'm trying to make a simple board that will use an Arduino Nano 33. These boards allow for being either used as an SMT board or with a standard throughhole header. I'd like to make the board where I ...
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3 votes
0 answers
75 views

Have there been any significant industry-wide changes to PCB manufacture in the last several years (~2019-2021)? [closed]

Sorry for the naive question! I want it to be specific enough to be answerable, but I'm not sure how to find the answer to my actual question, so I'm asking it here. Another way to put it might be &...
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3 votes
2 answers
339 views

Can I leave a throughole pad off one side of a machine-fabricated PCB?

So I'm designing a two-layer PCB and I'm very inexperienced. A third-party company will fabricate them. Now, I have a PTH part with a number of closely spaced pins (and there is no SMD equivalent of ...
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4 answers
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What is the possible causes for a power supply to drop to zero once connected to a load (PCB)?

I have 2 identical PCBs. One of the boards causes the power supply to drop from 14V to 0V when connected. What are the possible issues? If you have face the similar situation before, do you mind ...
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How can I select what Gerber file a PCB layer should be added to?

I am trying to make a panelized PCB that can be sent to manufacturing. The panel consists of several different PCBs. I am having trouble with exporting the PCB layers to the correct Gerber file. One ...
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7 votes
2 answers
1k views

How do PCB manufacturers know how to orient polarized components?

Let's say I have diode or a polarized capacitor in my circuit. How do PCB manufacturers know how to orient the part on the PCB? When I create the part in Altium for example, I just make up which pin ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Split / combine a larger printed circuit board from smaller boards

I have plans for a large PCB (~12".) Some sections of this board are modular - they have a very similar design. To lower the price, is it feasible to split one big board into smaller, modular ...
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PCB showing same readings pattern with and without component

I am doing an Arduino-like project on an old but "apparently" intact PCB. Part of the circuit involves a potentiometer, connected to an ADC, giving readings from -1.0 to +1.0. There's a ...
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  • 133
0 votes
2 answers
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Symmetric PCB stack-up for phased-array antennas

We all know that a symmetric PCB stack-up is always recommended since it makes manufacturing easier and more reliable. However when designing PCB for antennas application this became quite a difficult ...
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2 votes
2 answers
587 views

Via role in a 6 layers PCB Stack-up configuration

I am using a 6 layers PCB with the stack-up configuration shown below, representing only few components there's in the board. A proposed path to the current is shown to be analysed: QUESTION: When ...
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3 votes
2 answers
382 views

RF PCB ground plane surface finish

I am designing two boards that are supposed to operate at frequencies 2.45GHz and 5.8GHz. In my design, I use simple microstrip lines (not coplanar) on FR4 substrate. There are some quarter-wave ...
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1 answer
59 views

copper balancing poly on 4 layer PCB

i am designing the 4 layer pcb for the first time. I got typical 4 layer stackup - signal on the top, GND, PWR, signal on the bottom Most of the signals are routed on top, few are on bottom, and ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
62 views

Equivalent Mosfet Recommendation [closed]

We need to use a mosfet(AP9963GP), but cant supply it. So can we use this mosfet (IXF220N06T3) instead or anything else that you recommend?
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1 answer
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Tie via stitching and fencing to GND

I know that via stitching requires me to assign my vias to a signal (like GND pours on top and bottom layers). Do I need to assign signals to the vias in order to "fence" routed nets, for ...
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5 votes
1 answer
217 views

Is combined footprint for LQFP and UFQFPN packages a good idea?

We are struggling to source STM32L4Q5CG chips due to global semiconductor shortage. Normally I am using LQFP48 package which allows me to easily rework PCB if necessary. But sometimes UFQFPN chips ...
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1 vote
3 answers
121 views

How to connect membrane tracks on a keyboard? Problem on photo

How to connect membrane tracks on a keyboard?
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0 votes
1 answer
75 views

What can I use for PCB casing?

The size of my board is 13,5x14,5. I need some casing which will be used on device in a room that -24°C . Another requirement is PCB should not be screwed so that it can be unpluggable when it is ...
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0 votes
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100 views

Pin Swap for an FMC Connector

What determines if you can swap pins on an FMC or not? I can technically swap the pins on a PCB footprint but the datasheets don't show the pin arrangement I'm about to make to make the trace routes ...
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0 votes
0 answers
70 views

How many times FR4 can be put under a reflow process?

I have a board with several designs, one component did not arrive so half of the PCB cannot be fabricated. In order not to waste time I would like to manufacture the designs that can be done but I don'...
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0 votes
1 answer
44 views

Copper areas on IMS PCB

I'm designing a board that hosts some LEDs. The datasheet of the LED shows some copper area in the nearby of the pads: I assume this is to improve dissipation. Because I'm going to make the PCB with ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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I don't understand PCB fabrication copper thickness

In Eurocircuits I can select between 12um (end + -30um) to 105um (end + -130um), so in the worst case if I choose 12um can I have a thickness of 12-30 = -18um?
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0 votes
3 answers
250 views

PCB via size specification

I am designing a PCB in Kicad and I can define any diameter and hole of a via, but when I send it to be manufactured in china (JLCPCB, PCBWAY, etc) they can put any size of via or will it adjust to ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
47 views

Gerber and silkscreen [closed]

I have a question regarding PCB manufacturing process and gerber files: if a made a change only on the silkscreen layer, can I send only this layer to the PCB manufacturer ?
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1 vote
1 answer
525 views

Is there a way to remove the Ref and Value markings from the preview and final print?

I just started using KiCad. The "Ref" and "Value" markings are getting quite frustrating. I can remove them from the design preview by disabling some layers, but when I open it in ...
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-2 votes
2 answers
159 views

How prevalent is adoption of IEC and/or IPC standards among the major electronics manufacturers, especially CPU makers like Intel & AMD?

I spent part of the weekend learning about the history of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and IPC (originally an abbreviation for Institute of Printed Circuits) and their standards....
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0 votes
1 answer
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PCB base material IPC4101/21 dielectric constant value

According to THIS webpage, for material IPC4101/21, the dielectric constant for impedance calculation is 4.0, can I trust this value? Because I am not finding other sources on web with the same ...
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1 vote
1 answer
142 views

Is there a preferable way to distribute layers in a 4 layer PCB?

I'm routing a PCB and, due to its small size, I'm thinking to use 4 layers. I'm planning to use top, bottom and two internal layers. Summarizing: TopLayer : GND plane Midlayer1: 5Vcc plane ...
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0 answers
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Help with PCB Layout Validation

My project consists of: DAQ device (USB1608-fs Plus: https://www.mccdaq.com/usb-data-acquisition/USB-1608FS-Plus-Series) which connects to my computer for data acquisition of up to 8 analog input ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Defining 4-layer PCB stack and base material IPC4101/21, impedance calculation value

For my 4-layer PCBs, I was suppling only this to the manufaturer: And was considering a dielectric constant of 4.6 to calculate the 50 ohms RF trace. And now I want to provide a more complete ...
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1 vote
0 answers
70 views

Strange Pattern on Automotive PCB

What is the purpose of the following shape / item on PCB. Could this be a FR4 or Conductive Layer quality control related thing? Top Side: Point inside the rectangle connected to some tray (The Point ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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4 Layers PCB stackup

I'm working with 4 layers PCB and setting layers stackup. This is what Eagle shows me: Do I need to add also layers for solder mask or anything else required for production ?
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