Questions tagged [pcb-layers]

Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are composed of a sandwich of alternating layers of insulating substrate and conducting copper layers. The copper layers are etched to form connecting tracks between components as well as earth/ground or power planes. The simplest PCB has one substrate layer and one copper layer. Generally only the copper layers are counted. A complex PCB might have seven layers.

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Modelling a single trace PCB?

I am trying to model a PCB trace as a R, L, C circuit. Assumption: My PCB has a a single trace running through it. Just giving input from one side and taking output from other. There is not even a GND ...
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Length matching/differential pairs and distance to polygon and other layers

If you have length matching on the inner layer of 4 layer board: Do you need any minimum or maximum distance to the adjacent layers above and below? Are there any rules of thumb? Also is there any ...
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2 Layer PCBA routing strategy for high current design

I have a very simple pcba design. The only thing of value is that the traces will carry up to 30A of current. I have already decided to increase copper thickness to 2 oz for improved current capacity. ...
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Two layer PCB vs. four layer PCB for simple design with 30A current

I have a design which is literally just 2 connectors (input and output), a relay and a diode. Basically using the relay to connect a charger to a battery. The board size is predetermined and I can't ...
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PCB with AC voltages - May earth cross paths with hot/neutral on a different plane?

I'm trying to build an AC "transfer" board that will feature: 1x DPST switch (hot and neutral will be switched) 1x power line filter Although this is my first time designing a "high ...
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Exported same file in Gerber X2 and ODB++ and diffrent result

Using Altium I exported the same PCB in Gerber X2 and ODB++ and sent it to production (so they could choose what file format they preferred). The manufacturer came back asking why the design did not ...
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Kelvin connections in PCB

in the following webinar from youtube, a recommendation is presented about the kelvin connection at the 41st minute of the video. but I couldn't get it. (second language) https://www.youtube.com/watch?...
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Greener way to design a PCB

Lets say we are designing a very simple PCB and there is a layer(s) where not much is going on, from an environmental perspective alone would it be better to leave the layer with a large ground copper ...
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Why would this PCB design cause a short?

Yesterday, I designed my first ever PCB. It's meant to take data from several sensors and pass the data to a Raspberry Pi, which will in turn actuate pumps to control nutrient concentrations in a ...
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Altium route to plane

in the past I always used internal Signal layers, on which I created huge GND polygon planes as a ground plane. However, there are actual solid planes definable in Altiums Layer Stackup Manager, which ...
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Applying bottom Soldermask layer to EAGLE board

everyone. I have a problem with one of my designed boards. I submitted my order to PCBWay for checking my files before ordering and I was informed that there is no bottom Soldermask layer. This ...
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Will layer-to-layer leakage happen in a PCB?

I have a four-layer PCB that contains a circuit that measures voltage from a very high impedance node. This voltage is a DC voltage value ranges from 33 V to 36 V. The voltage measurement circuitry is ...
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4-Layer PCB bottom signal reference plane?

I use a 4-Layer PCB with the following layer stack from top to bottom: SIG-GND-PWR-SIG. Now, as long as I route everything on the top signal layer, the HF signals have the GND reference plane ...
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Avoiding acute angle problems in PCB design

I know that on high speed digital communication trails sharp angles can cause some problems. However, in some cases it is difficult to avoid them. For example, in the image below, the angle between ...
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6 votes
3 answers
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Opamp Guard Polygon: Only in Top PCB layer or or all layers

I have an opamp circuit as shown below. My board stack up is SIGNAL-GND-POWER-SIGNAL. I am providing a polygon to Guard the trace which is going to non-inverting the input of the opamp. The guard ...
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TB9051FTG Model Restrict DRC Error

So I picked up this model for TB9051FTG from UltraLibrarian via DigiKey, https://www.digikey.com/en/products/detail/toshiba-semiconductor-and-storage/TB9051FTG-EL/10123940 I am looking to route the ...
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Should I do a ground copper pour on a 4-layer PCB in order to shorten return current paths?

I'm designing a 4-layer PCB with the SIGNAL/GND/POWER/SIGNAL stackup. Since I have a dedicated ground plane layer, I've decided not to pour ground connected copper on the top and bottom signal layers, ...
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Altium: Design rule to highlight a plane that is not assigned to a net

In Altium Designer 20.1.14.287 I tried to create a design rule that would highlight that a plane is not assigned to any net after running the DRC. But in the PCB Rules and Constraints Editor I only ...
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Help in finding articles/research papers regarding materials used for designing small PCBs

I am currently working on an article for my internship on the topic of techniques for PCB design under space constraints. I am looking for the type of PCB materials that are used for manufacturing ...
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How to outline traces in graphics

I've been searching online with no luck. I'm using KiCad and I want to outline my traces with graphics similar to the image shown below. Is there a function within KiCad that does this or is this a ...
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Power and ground plane layer

I created 18 layers for my project. I defined PWR and GND layers as planes in layer stack manager. When I want to draw polygon in PWR or GND layer, a placed polygon looks disabled as in the picture. ...
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VCC and GND islands on TOP layer

I was checking Intel Tiger Lake UP3 reference board layout and I noticed that they made core VCC islands on top layer and through vias they connected to a layer that has the bigger/continuous plane of ...
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On a two-layer PCB, should I have a plane for both grounds, or for only one ground and the 3V3 power?

The microprocessor on my board can switch off all the other components via an NPN transistor. This means that I have the 3V3 line going from the processor to everything, a ground going from all the ...
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How can I specify in Altium to leave out the dielectric layer for a portion of the board?

I am trying to replace the dielectic layer in just a portion of the board and instead have that just be more copper. The idea is to essentially allow the PCB to use anything it lays flat on to be a ...
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Should i via shield a usb 2.0 trace?

im looking into designing some usb 2.0 devices and have been wondering about how far id need to go to ensure that for good practice that it would ideally pass any test thrown at it. I use altium ...
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PCB via array for "better" heat dissipation

My two PCB mount power supplies are getting quite hot (temp 60 to 70 degrees). Max temp of the power supply is 90 degrees. I cannot use external heatsinks due to space constraints. Input voltage is ...
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Polygon Pour GND Plane Short Circuit Error Altium

I created a board outline, then wanted to add a polygon pour as a GND plane in the bottom layer of my 2-layer PCB. Altium's design rule checker raises the following error: ...
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RF PCBs on 2 layer FR4

I deigning a PCB for an open-source RadioSonde with 403Mhz transmissions using Si4063 ic. Now, these radiosondes are supposed to be inexpensive since there is quite tough competition in the market ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Via role in a 6 layers PCB Stack-up configuration

I am using a 6 layers PCB with the stack-up configuration shown below, representing only few components there's in the board. A proposed path to the current is shown to be analysed: QUESTION: When ...
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Altium, mixed signal board, convey to PCB designer whether net must stay over analog region of return plane or digital region of return plane

Some oversimplification is necessary to explain my question--please let's not debate PCB layout techniques--I just need help with a simple Altium question. Preface: One solution to making a good mixed ...
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PCB design guidance. Is AC in a power plane a bad idea?

I have a 4 layer PCB board that I am working on a new revision for with the following general layer setup: Top=signal = signal layer middle1 = 5V power plane (with 24VAC subdivisions) middle2 = gnd ...
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3 answers
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Mechanical construction of PCB. What is between the layers?

I came across an answer about the construction of a multilayer board. It included an image showing the mechanical construction of a board (see image 1.) This prompted me to think of the actual ...
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Purpose of multiple layer PCB without possibility of blind/buried vias?

What's the purpose of multiple layer PCBs (i.e. 4 layer,) when many manufactures like JLCPCB can't produce blind/buried vias as they just support through-vias? Let's say I have an SMD component with a ...
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3 answers
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How to connect membrane tracks on a keyboard? Problem on photo

How to connect membrane tracks on a keyboard?
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Using ground plane between components on top and bottom layer

I’ve recently been reviewing some PCB designs to learn good practices. One thing I’ve seen is that a ground plane is used on top layer between the components and traces. Is this a good practice and ...
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2 answers
156 views

Recreating Arduino UNO - PCB design (How are the components connected?)

I'm trying to recreate the Arduino UNO in order to be good at PCB design via EasyEDA or Altium. I have recreated the Arduino Uno schematic and design but it is hard for me to figure out few things (...
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Multiple GNSS receivers on a tiny PCB - layout advices

I am designing a board where I want to have 2 receivers using different constellations. Due to space constraints, I have the idea to put the two receivers on the same PCB (one on the top layer and one ...
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315 views

Can I mass delete REFs from components in Kicad?

I have a PCB, and it can't nearly fit all of the REF markings on F.SilkS and B.SilkS. I want to just make my own for a few components, e.g. I would write "R1-R16", rather than "R1",...
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How does the number of PCB layers affect the temperature of the board?

I understand that a PCB with the exact same circuit on a 2-layer board will get hotter than a higher number board: 4-,6-,8-layer boards. But, I have not been able to find the reasoning for this ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is there a preferable way to distribute layers in a 4 layer PCB?

I'm routing a PCB and, due to its small size, I'm thinking to use 4 layers. I'm planning to use top, bottom and two internal layers. Summarizing: TopLayer : GND plane Midlayer1: 5Vcc plane ...
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Increasing thickness of PCB layers

To what values can I increase the thickness of each layer to be able to reach a total thickness of 1.6mm? Is there a specific standard between relative thicknesses for the dielectric layer, signal ...
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Manufacturer questions about USB 3.0 differential pair spacing in PCB design

After sending a re-design to MFG I got the following question. can someone please explain the notation 4.7/7.3/4.7 mill and the contradiction that the MFG found? Note: we are talking about USB3 ...
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What is the best way to layout this 4-layer PCB with multiple voltage rails and a large pulse current?

I'm currently working on my first commercial design and this is the final prototype before I finalise the design, so I want to get it as correct as possible. My PCB has 12V, 5V and 2 x 3.3V(digital) ...
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4 Layers PCB stackup

I'm working with 4 layers PCB and setting layers stackup. This is what Eagle shows me: Do I need to add also layers for solder mask or anything else required for production ?
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Power and rtn plane

I have a simple board, +28v and +28v rtn, these will be planes, there are no signals. I was thinking simple, top and bottom layers, then I thought do the the planes need a plane to be between the two, ...
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Power on two, cable connected PCBs

I'm making a device that will require two PCBs. One will be smaller, and pretty much just be the sensor that I'm testing. Almost like an evaluation board. This smaller PCB will be connected or ...
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What is the difference between Internal layer and Internal plane in altium and how to use them?

I'm designing a PCB using Altium and I have 3 signals that I want use in different layers: 5Vcc 3Vcc GND Initially, using Polygon Pour, I made GND planes at the top and bottom layers. However, as ...
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Layer thickness design for 4-layer boards

I'm designing a 4-layer PCB, containing a GPS module (u-blox NEO M9N) and a Taoglas antenna. The GPS antenna should be on the top layer, and the GPS receiver should be on the bottom layer. Besides the ...
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Advice on copper pours

Below are the pictures I have of the PCB design of the sepic converter using LT3958 (datasheet here). I used a polygon to connect the GNDS of the IC and output capacitors. Since I have another ...
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1 vote
2 answers
158 views

4-layer circuit board of GPS module design

I'm designing a 4-layer PCB, containing a GPS module (u-blox NEO M9N) and a Taoglas antenna. The GPS antenna should be on the top layer, and the GPS receiver should be on the bottom layer. Besides the ...
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