Questions tagged [physical-design]

This can refer to the design of the actual transistors inside an IC. That is also called IC layout.

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How to find the main clock in Synopsys ICC2 if just handed the design

I am handed a design and want to find the main clock in order to complete the physical design flow. If I am using Synopsys ICC2 for Physical Design, what command do I execute to find the main clock ...
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48 votes
11 answers
3k views

How do I improve a simple home-made capacitor?

I was explaining to my son that a capacitor is simply 2 sheets of foil separated by a dielectric and rolled up and he said, "can we make one then?" I'm giving it a go. I used household ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Variation in Tphl of MOS nand gate due to input patterns

I was studying the variation of propagation delays in CMOS NAND gate from Jan.M.Rabey Digital IC Design book. It has this table given for Tplh and Tphl for different input patterns applied at inputs A ...
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What makes some commercial JFETs asymmetric?

In a MOSFET, the obvious cause of asymmetry is the fact that the source is tied to the body. But in a JFET, no such obvious answer exists, as the body, gate, and drain are all the same piece of ...
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using solenoid magnetic field to press a button

I'm looking for a simple way to make Arduino press a spray button. I don't care which button to use, it can be either this type: or the following: I know there are ways to solve this problem using a ...
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1 answer
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DRAM Rank-Level Allocations

I want to do allocations on a specific DRAM rank. The smallest allocation unit in an OS such as Linux is at the page size ...
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Vias in a the layout of a CMOS Integrated Circuit

Is there a downside to using maximum possible VIAs (adhering to DRC rules) to connect two very long metals (ex. Power rails in Mx and Mx+1) running in parallel at block level? I know that multiple ...
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1 answer
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Uncertainty(jitter) in setup and hold calculation

In setup calculation, the launch flop is triggered by 1st edge and capture flop is triggered by next edge. And in calculation we take jitter into account only for the clock path of capture flop. There ...
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Tips for designing a permanent magnet synchronous generator?

I'm currently working on designing a permanent magnet synchronous generator for one of my personal projects and I'm having trouble getting a voltage I am satisfied with. My goal is to get around 4-6 V ...
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1 answer
936 views

Working of NMOS as a capacitor

I came across instances where NMOS was used as a capacitor in analog circuits. This is done by shorting the drain and source. The drain/source acts as one terminal of the capacitor while gate acts as ...
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MOSFET treshold voltage

Does anyone know how MOS treshold voltage varies if the physical distance between source and drain decreases ?
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Machine learning for floorplanning

I have an educational assignment to make an floor-planning tool. Can I use machine learning in some part of the algorithm? For example, I was reading the book Algorithms for VLSI Physical Design ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Why do lead-acid batteries only last for a few years? [closed]

Why do lead-acid (automotive-style) batteries typically only last for a few years of regular use (or x amount of cycles) before having problems? Obviously, things can't last forever. But, what are ...
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Segmented Display With SMD Pads? (Not Thru-Hole or Half-hole SMD) [duplicate]

I'm looking through a product design, and I've seen these SMD / sticky segmented displays LCD being used. They are not hand-soldered, the segmented display appears to use some conductive sticky pad ...
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How can I calculate/estimate the resistance of the thin film structured like in the picture (top view)?

let's say the thin film is made of metal with resistivity rho and thickness t. I need to calculate the sheet resistance between point A and B. any reference suggestion is really appreciated.
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5 votes
4 answers
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Do PCBs have schematics? [closed]

I have been studying electronics a bit at home in my spair time. I was wondering if manufacturers make schematics for PCBs? If I could get ahold of something like that i feel that I could understand ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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How to design ultra low-power opamp?

I am designing a low-power opamp (differential amplifier) that will be used in the low-power consumption devices, e.g., power management circuits, portable devices, or energy harvesting circuits. I am ...
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Floorplanning vs Placement in VLSI

The major steps of physical design that I learnt from a VLSI lecture are: 1)Partitioning 2)Floorplanning 3)Placement 4)Routing. The question of mine is about the steps 2 and 3. It seems like the ...
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Spinning Solar Cells at 50 hz make a pure sine wave? [closed]

What would be the out put of the solar panels spinning towards the sun? Ideal conditions would be o gravity in a vacuum tube or space.
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2 answers
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What is standard about standard cells in layout designing? [closed]

Why are standard cells called 'standard' cells? Why couldn't it be just cells? What is Standard about them? (I'm talking about the common terminology used in layout designing wherein the standard ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Multiple Transistors (FinFET) sharing a gate?

Transistors are among the most fundamental components of electronic devices, and that to produce transistors with better performance, FinFET transistors have been developed: This allows for better ...
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-5 votes
3 answers
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Fear of electric arcs on a multiple outlet [closed]

I am physically near a multiple power outlet of the following model: The official page of the article is PowerCube |Extended| My doubt is: each outlet seems to close to each other. Should I fear ...
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Calculating resistance for metal layer from LEF File

I have a .LEF File which has various metals description and their parasitics information. I am trying to calculate R. It is specified as RPERSQ = 0.278. In the File description it is written as ...
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4 votes
3 answers
268 views

Help understanding practical transistor considerations?

So first, sorry if I make some incorrect assumptions or statements. If I do, just correct me and forgive my ignorance. It seems like everything I've been taught so far in classes about transistors ...
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GDSII stream reading

GDSII is a photomask\artwork format for photolitography. I am having trouble resolving a particular line in the file. For example, 'SRefs' means it refers to one of the structures and uses this ...
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-1 votes
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Odd resistor design

In one of my designs, I specified the Rohm LTR10EZPF1003 100K 0802-Wide resistor: The issue is that when I added the resistor to the circuit, it creates a direct short: Measuring between the Green ...
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Is sinking mode and open drain the same concept in electronics?

I'm reading a few manuals about I2C , SPI where it says I2C ports are open drain,which I don't know what it is. I know about sinking mode and sourcing mode of ports in electronic circuits.
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What is the measurement grid in the context of strain gauge?

The sensor I am investigating is the 1-LM11 by Omega. I am looking at the specification at there are two metrics which confuse me, the measurement grid A is 1.5mm while measurement grid B is 2.5mm. ...
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1 answer
654 views

Does this sort of connection on a Yagi Antenna make sense?

Here is an image of a WiFi yagi antenna I bought recently (and opened up for I could see no spectrum out of my SDR) I see that the coax has been connected to two plates, which I think act as dipoles. ...
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2 answers
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I need help with designing my first PCB on Proteus?

I've placed the component of a simple power supply circuit on PCB layout screen using auto-placer and auto-router. I would like to know many things about dimensions: Is there a standard space ...
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2 votes
2 answers
1k views

How is a signal physically routed in an FPGA?

I've looked at this similar question, but it does not provide the answer I'm looking for. The documents from Xilinx also confuse me and the diagram provided in the Implementation view of the Xilinx ...
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Source synchronous vs Common clock methodology in Physical design

The common clock and source synchronous clock scheme is explained here: http://referencedesigner.com/books/si/common-vs-source-sync.php. Question is: 1) How is maximum frequency attained with source ...
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Kick-off Spread Spectrum Clocking

Need of SSC: Spread spectrum clocking (SSC) is a special way to reduce the radiated emissions of digital clock signals. These levels or energy is radiated and therefore this is where a potential EMI ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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School Project : To determine Eq. resistance of a cube whose each edge has a resistor, say R [closed]

Background I am a high school student, we are supposed to submit a Physics Project, individually. Since I have never done any Electrical Project/Experiment before, I came up with the idea of making a ...
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2 votes
1 answer
1k views

How to make a phase shifter?

I've gotten interested in beam-forming via a phased antenna array. I read a few articles/tutorials and they have very nice diagrams of antenna arrays and how the antennas interact to behind each ...
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Is it possible to reverse engineer a ROM chip by grinding and taking photos?

Recently someone made a claim that you can reverse engineer a ROM by physically grinding the chip and taking pictures of the various layers. Is this really possible?
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1 answer
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Clock nets Routing

We know that the clock tree synthesis is performed before signal routing. What is the specific reason for that. Or we can route both at the same time?
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8 votes
5 answers
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Where is the cold junction on the commercial thermocouples?

According to all textbooks and articles, a thermocouple must have a cold junction somewhere on the middle of it. But none of the commercial products have a middle point or a marked spot for ...
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2 votes
2 answers
571 views

Muxes, Adders, Comparators, and Gates

This question is actually from one of my previous discussions, which I still don't understand how to implement. The goal is to use abstraction to design a circuit, which converts two-digit ASCII ...
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2 votes
1 answer
952 views

LM2907 schematic critique

I have been working with the LM2907 as I have been designing a few circuits around it. This has lead to me wanting to understand more of its inner workings and build up a breadboard model of the ...
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1 vote
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In logical progression, what things does a person need to know to design a robust opamp from BJTs

Opamps contain things like current mirrors, differential stage, push-pull pair and much more. Once a person starts from learning that BJT has 3 terminals for which Ic≈Ie≈βIb, what topics must a person ...
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Physical push-down toggle button that pops up on voltage

I have encountered innumerable variations to functionally identical 2-lead physical switches, like the push-to-toggle buttons I am currently working with. Manually depressing the button toggles ...
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6 votes
1 answer
4k views

What is the physical size of a logic gate?

I always hear about process size improvements in the news, but could never figure out how it translates into dimensions of a logic gate. I found a chapter from Weste's CMOS VLSI Design, that contains ...
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When do I twist the wires going to transformer winding terminals, and why do I do it?

I sometimes see the wires of winding are twisted outside of the transformer (or inductor), as seen in the images below. What is the purpose of this? When should I twist winding wires and when shouldn'...
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28 votes
3 answers
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Why do they crimp capacitor leads?

Most manufacturers produces crimped and straight lead pairs of their capacitors which has exactly same capacitance and voltage rating. Why do they bother crimping the leads? What advantage does it ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Antenna Design for specific directions

I am designing an antenna for a device and was hoping to gain some insight in the correct design direction for the antenna. The Idea: A receiver & antenna that fits in a 6" diameter by 3" deep ...
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3 answers
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Instructions on how to build electronic devices [duplicate]

I have got plenty of books in the theory of electronic devices, but I wish to build these transistors (BJT, MOSFETS, etc) and diodes by myself. Which books are there in offer to learn how to do this?
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7 votes
1 answer
538 views

What is "flush mount socket" in this 40yr old Tek scope?

EEVblog Dave shows us flush mount socketed IC's in this Tektronix 213 Portable Oscilloscope teardown, but it is hard to see and understand what exactly is a flush mount socket. Can someone explain how ...
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38 votes
4 answers
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Make a custom plastic case

I have worked on many electronic DIY projects like MIDIbox (http://www.ucapps.de/), it always was fun and working but at the end, the problem was that I ended with a cool gear, but in a poor casing, ...
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2 answers
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1bit Full Adder Cell in IC not working as supposed?

I got an adder cell, which in IC mirror layout is this: EDIT: Transistor-level, standard adder circuit: Which I actually made in IC like this: It's not working as it should! I labelled it same ...
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