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Questions tagged [physics]

Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time.

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79 views

Physical intepretation of the absolute value of impedance [duplicate]

If \$\rm{Re}( Z)\$ gives the reactance of a circuit, then what is the physical meaning of \$|Z|\$? How do they differ, and when would one use one over the other? (Where \$Z\$ is the impedance of an ...
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1answer
40 views

Electrostatics/conservation of charge

Conservation of Charge states that "Charge cannot be created neither be destroyed." If something cannot be created, then how it is in existence?
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1answer
34 views

Optimal Grounding for a PVC Dust Collection System?

It is common in woodworking (A hobby of mine) to make a dust collection system (Basically a tube hooked up to a vacuum to carry away dust created from automatic woodworking tools) out of PVC. We'll ...
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3answers
79 views

Is there a way to experimentally separate the effects of gate voltage?

I'm currently doing experiments on new kind of semiconductors. These devices have a body (source, drain) and a top gate. These devices show a response to gate voltage. The conductance changes with ...
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2answers
75 views

For an Ideal transformer where permeability of the iron is infinity, why is the excitation current 0 if the secondary winding is open circuit?

I have read this question Why is the Exciting Current zero in an ideal transformer?. However I don't quite understand where his initial equation for the excitation current came from. Can someone guide ...
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3answers
216 views

Homemade Faraday Cage?

I'm working in an office with a Wi-Fi router, desktop, and a few cell phones making RF noise. I have an 8 feet long by a 3-feet wide table, and I have an Aaronia BICOLOG 30100 + spectrum analyzer + ...
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0answers
52 views

If we're wearing a metal watch, do we get an electric shock on our wrist when we're charged and touch a conductor?

Or if the conductor itself is charged. As the charge would flow to/from the watch, assuming I'm insulated from the ground with rubber soles, or standing on glass.
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51 views

How to calculate the current produced by a solar panel?

The equation for calculating current when given voltage and temperature is known as the 5-Parameter model ie. \$I = I_{ph} - I_o[\exp(\frac{V + R_sI}{nV_t})-1] - (\frac{V+R_sI}{R_{sh}})\$ Since this ...
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3answers
74 views

Does voltage limit current?

When I short the negative and positive wires on my DC lab power supply, at ~1V the supply shows it's max current output of 5A. but when I turn down the voltage, at some point the output ampere ...
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1answer
50 views

MOSFET treshold voltage

Does anyone know how MOS treshold voltage varies if the physical distance between source and drain decreases ?
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3answers
105 views

Variable wavelength IR Diode?

I was thinking of building a DIY IR Spectroscope but for this, I need to find an IR diode that can do variable wavelengths. So far I have looked at Farnell and Mouser but all the diodes I have looked ...
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1answer
43 views

Explanation of 5 Parameter Model for Solar Cells

I am having a hard time understanding this equation, the 5 Parameter model for photovoltaic cells. \$I = I_{ph} - I_o[\exp(\frac{V + R_sI}{nV_t})-1] - (\frac{V+R_sI}{R_{sh}})\$ My goal is to apply a ...
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2answers
77 views

Three voltage sources circuit

Suppose the given circuit, find the current through the resistant R2 given that: E1 = 3 V E2 = 4 V E3 = 2 V R1 = 1 Ω R2 = 6 Ω I tried to apply kirchhoff laws but it was hard given such ...
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0answers
47 views

Why doesn't current leak to ground (DC)? [duplicate]

In the circuit shown below, I am considering ground to be ideal earth ground (stays at 0V no matter how much current it absorbs). It is my understanding that current flows when there is a potential ...
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3answers
733 views

How do electrons carry thermal energy in Peltier coolers?

I've read that when electrons enter from metal to semiconductor type N, they gain thermal energy and make that side cooler and the reverse happens when they leave semiconductor to the conductor. Why ...
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2answers
73 views

current speed/flow [closed]

Note my questions are in form of explaining. its because I've scattered information (or assumptions) and it want to link them. that's probably why you can see me explaining to much? Question part: ...
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1answer
112 views

Why are(n't) rechargeable batteries damaged by partial charging?

Over the years, I've come across websites and people with different opinions on the "correct" way to charge rechargeable batteries (I'm more concerned with laptop, tablet and phone batteries than with ...
2
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1answer
60 views

Estimate temperature for silicon (p-n junction)

I need to estimate the temperature at which p-n junction made of silicon lose it rectifying characteristics. (\$N_A=N_D=10^{15}\,cm^{-3}\$) \$E_G\$ is independent of the temperature and are 1.12 eV ...
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1answer
41 views

Non-Corrosive Water Sensing

I have been told that passing DC current through two probes in water will lead to corrosion on the terminals. Apparently AC does not cause corrosion. Preventing corrosion is of high importance to me....
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1answer
31 views

How to determine direction of induction current (I inc) according to V emf?

In this question, I easily understand the solution. But I want to determine the direction of induction current (I inc) with the Lenz Law. I know how works Lenz Law, but I couldn't determine the ...
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2answers
61 views

Determining magnetic flux density of a closely wound toroidal coil

I am using David K. Chengs's Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics book. In chapter 5/question 5.2, there is a given closely wound toroidal coil, and it asks what is the magnetic flux density ...
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4answers
113 views

Can I calculate how much time it will take for an electrical signal to propagate through a TTL circuit?

Given a particular circuit of TTL, can I calculate how much time it will take for an electrical signal to propagate through some section, or all of, the circuit? If I wanted to know how long it ...
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2answers
155 views

What is the mechanism that causes two conductors to “stick together” when a current is passed?

If the positive and negative terminals of certain DC supplies are brought together under certain conditions, the wires will "stick together" with a slight force, feeling almost like they are ...
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0answers
44 views

Factors affecting the \$V_f\$ of a Schottky diode

The usual wisdom about Schottky diodes is that their \$V_f\$ is around 0.2 to 0.3 volts, but what specifically determines this? I know that for p-n diodes, doping concentration can affect the forward ...
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1answer
34 views

TVS diode with 10 - 15 V forward voltage

I came across this TVS diode: https://m.littelfuse.com/~/media/electronics/datasheets/tvs_diodes/littelfuse_tvs_diode_smf3_3_datasheet.pdf.pdf It has a forward voltage drop of 10 to 15 V. Why? How? ...
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2answers
2k views

Why the prevelance of mechanical oscillators in electronic circuits?

The clock sources in modern electronics seem to come invariably from quartz and MEMS oscillators, both of which generate vibrations mechanically. The amplitude and frequency of the vibration are ...
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1answer
70 views

Inductance of planar (spiral) coil near solid copper surface

I'm working on a electromagnetic levitation system, consisting of a flat spiral (planar) inductor positioned above a solid copper surface. The planar coil is parallel to the copper surface. (Consider ...
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2answers
240 views

Estimating torque of AC motor

Given voltage, measured current draw, and RPMs of an AC motor, and an estimated efficiency rating, is it possible to calculate the actual instantaneous output torque? Or is other information required? ...
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1answer
32 views

Conductivity formula for Metals

Is there any expression for the direct change in conductivity of metals with temperature ? I am aware of change in resistivity with temperature.
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1answer
94 views

Are there semiconductor materials with hole mobility greater than electron mobility?

Every material I've ever seen has a hole mobility much less than its electron mobility. For silicon, it's by a factor of two or three; for gallium arsenide it's more like twenty. But are there any ...
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2answers
206 views

How do phosporus atoms affect the conductivity of a doped semiconductor?

Free electrons come from electrons in the Phosphorus atom when it excites to the conduction band. This leave an ion, what effect does this positive ion have on the flow of electrons?
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1answer
68 views

Will thermocouples sharing a common wire create inaccuracies during measurement?

Specifically, I've been working with pre-existing temperature cables which are T-type thermocouples which share the same Constantan wire. My question is if one of the thermocouple junctions is heated ...
2
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1answer
50 views

Why do shorted PSU probes stick together just a bit, even on very low power?

I'm using a standard bench power supply set to 3.6V and 0.5A. I also tried 0.05A. I then bring the positive and negative terminals together in a short circuit, and I noticed there is a noticable ...
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2answers
94 views

Will electrons be taken from a metal plate if a positive charge is applied to it?

If I have a single metal plate, a battery, and one wire. If I connect the wire to the positive on the battery to the metal plate, does that remove electrons from the metal plate? I am attempting to ...
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3answers
122 views

Why the earth attracts charge and where does the charge go when it goes into ground?

Self-explanatory question but to add what I know, by this I will also know if I am right or wrong. I read somewhere that Earth is positively charged, but is not the state (whether positive/negative) ...
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2answers
55 views

Effect of electron discrete nature on current density

Coulomb’s law states that the current that flows through a wire is proportional to the applied voltage. For sure there are many physical effects (linear and non-linear) that participates in the ...
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3answers
352 views

How fast can we measure using IR sensors

Supposing I have an repeatedly object passing through IR sensors and I am looking at the output waveform. What is the maximum frequency the output waveform can have? I think this maybe related to the ...
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1answer
135 views

Why do lead-acid batteries only last for a few years? [closed]

Why do lead-acid (automotive-style) batteries typically only last for a few years of regular use (or x amount of cycles) before having problems? Obviously, things can't last forever. But, what are ...
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2answers
196 views

Why do electrons move as if on conveyor belt in a circuit?

For example sometimes people will ask whether it matters what side of a component you place a resistor on. Surprisingly, it doesn't matter because electrons behave as if they're all connected together ...
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1answer
184 views

Sensor to distinguish between daylight and artificial light in a room?

is there a way to distinguish between daylight and artificial light in a room? I'm thinking my options are a light intensity sensor or a color temperature sensor. The sunlight is supposed to be much ...
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1answer
108 views

Photodiode scintillation detector for gamma spectroscopy

I'm trying to build a basic detector for x-ray or low energy gamma spectroscopy. I have a big photodiode with a CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal glued on top (Hamamatsu S8559 for x-ray detection [1]) and ...
2
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1answer
58 views

Capacitance among N conductors

I would like to have a rough estimate of the capacitance per unit length of a system composed by N parallel identical straight wires. I tried to sketch the capacitance network but I'm able to solve it ...
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2answers
3k views

Why is there no rolling shutter when using a mechanical shutter?

So I know it might not be the best place to ask this question, but maybe some of you are familiar with the mechanics of digital mirrorless cameras and the technology of CMOS sensors. I don't quite ...
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1answer
82 views

Ultrasound imaging: what are some artifacts caused by usage of time gain compensation (TGC)?

As the title asks: what are some artifacts caused by usage of time gain compensation (TGC).
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2answers
207 views

Electromagnet Options to Vibrate Long String at 80Hz

I recently completed a popular maker DIY where I recreated a product called SlowDance. You have see the original in action here https://player.vimeo.com/video/262079608 This product functions on the ...
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2answers
72 views

Phase and group velocity of wave

When an electromagnetic wave enter the waveguide, what is the change in the phase and group velocity that happen in waveguide? Does wavelength or frequency of wave change when it enter the wave guide?...
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1answer
86 views

Why don't electrons in Parralel battery circuits repel?

Here is a short Anecdote, which will give a good explanation into my question. I was in a Science class, and we were doing a circuit with a very small Filament Light Bulb, and some AAA Batteries. I ...
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0answers
85 views

Aluminium foil not blocking IR signal

I am using an IR sensor (vishay tsop32 series) but I want to ensure that it only sender directly ahead so I made blinders out of pla and covered them in aluminium foil. However it seems that despite ...
3
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1answer
96 views

How does the “rubbed” coating of an LCD align liquid crystal molecules?

For many LCD applications the liquid crystal layer's relaxed state is a "helix" twisting the alignment from one direction at top to another on the bottom. Obviously, within the liquid crystal layer ...
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4answers
1k views

Potato battery not powering clock

So for a school project where we have to make a lesson plan for kids to learn stuff out of "lame" experiments, I was assigned potato clock. I could not for the life of me find a simple 1.5 volt led ...