Questions tagged [propagation]

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847 views

Effect of changing the length of an inverter's N-mos transistor on the propagation delay

let's say we want to check the time it takes for our source Vdd to charge a capacitor through an inverter network. changing the width of the P-mos transistor will make more current flow, thus ...
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6answers
2k views

Why does more bandwidth guarantee high bit rate?

The definition of bandwidth is frequency range and it seems to be correct to say that higher bandwidth guarantees higher data rate. However, i do not understand why it does. Data rate depends on ...
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2answers
3k views

What causes the difference in tPLH and tPHL?

What causes the difference in propagation delays, for example on the SN7404N inverter, \$ t_{PLH} = 12-22 \$ ns, and \$ t_{PHL} = 8-15 \$ ns. Why is one longer than the other? Does it have to do with ...
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2answers
995 views

Atmospheric attenuation calculation for a 1550nm link budget

My apologies in advance if this is the wrong place to ask this question. I was told that there were some RF communications experts here, so i figured there might be some FSO experience here as well. ...
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1answer
750 views

Propagation delay in 4 inverter w/l ratio

hi guys, I was given a task on optimizing propagation delay of four inverters using cadence software. The circuit connection is shown in above figure. I was asked to change the ratio of w/l for pmos ...
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1answer
74 views

How to find the polarization (phase) of the virtual source if image theory is used

Consider a radiating element (actual source) is placed above a ground plane, and if we apply image theory to determine the E-filed, the virtual source will be placed below the ground plane and ground ...
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1answer
4k views

Propagation delay of a digital logic circuit

I'm trying to answer a question on propagation delay. The question is: Assuming the propagation delays for different circuits are as follow: 4 ns for XOR gate, 3 ns for OR gate, 5 ns for NAND gate ...
3
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1answer
418 views

How much is the propagation velocity affected by the characteristic impedance?

Someone posted the (very educational!) video Similiarities of Wave Behavior from 1959 in another answer, and after watching the part about impedance mismatches, it strikes me that the propagation ...
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1answer
238 views

How the relationship between input and output is derived in a comparator?

In the slide 6 of the page about propagation delay of a comparator, the time relationship between input and output is as below. However, I am not sure how the function between input and output voltage ...
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4answers
2k views

How important is gate delay when designing a Circuit?

First year EE student here, we've been learning about CMOS Inverters in class and about the of logic gates, but it hasn't really been mentioned how much this effects the design of a Circuit in ...
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1answer
967 views

Propagation delay

For my master thesis, I need to measure the propagation delay of the modules of my implementation. I use Quartus II to do so. My goal is to measure the critical path of my modules. I have read a lot ...
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2answers
2k views

Why do EM waves with longer wavelengths propagate longer distances?

AM radio signals use carrier waves which are quite longer than in FM case. We know that in free space both high and low freq. RF signals should take the same distance in same period of time. There ...
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1answer
1k views

propagation delay (low -> high / high-> low)

i build a 2x2 bit multiplier circuit where i take a number (a1a0) and multiply it by (b1b0) . and im asked to calculate the time propagation from high to low , and from low to high for every input to ...
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1answer
222 views

Does the Free Space Path Loss model apply to all types of electromagnetic waves, including light?

The free-space path loss model describes the attenuation of the electromagnetic (EM) signal as a function of the distance between Tx and ...
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4answers
2k views

How does a logic gate behave with an input changing faster than its propagation delay?

I am attempting to create a simple logic circuit simulator. I am having a hard time figuring out how does a logic gate behave with an input changing faster than its propagation delay. When attempting ...
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1answer
1k views

near field power density formula for a dipole antenna

I am looking for a formula for near field power density from a dipole antenna antenna. Is cylindrical model is sufficient? Do I have to consider ground reflection too? Please share your ideas?
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1answer
586 views

Two-Ray Ground Propagation Model or Free Space Propagation Model

May I know that when we want to estimate outdoor transmission performance between two wireless points, which model,Two-Ray Ground Propagation Model or Free Space Propagation Model is more suitable? ...
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2answers
2k views

Problem with calculating propagation delay

I need to calculate the propagation delay for this circuit.I am confused because do I have to take every necessary combination of inputs and outputs or do I have to take the longest route from input ...
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5answers
2k views

Nature of Electromagnetic Waves

We know that light is an electromagnetic wave. So is a radio frequency wave. From what I understand, the 50 Hz power frequency wave in our 230 V supply at home (60Hz and a lesser voltage in countries ...
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1answer
234 views

Measure propagation velocity through finite transmission line

I'm currently trying generate a wave in a circuit but am running into the issue of figuring out exactly how to measure the propagation velocity. The circuit diagram is below L1=L2=L3, C1=C2=C3, R1=R2=...
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3answers
2k views

How do signal reflections work?

How do reflections work, physically to the charge carriers level? Considering a square wave generator connected to a long, open cable, I've made a quick chronological diagram of the propagation of ...
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2answers
207 views

time delay in counter

For the ring oscillator shown in teh figure 1 , A ring oscillator consisting of 5 inverters is running at a frequency of 1 MHz. the propagation delay per each gate is? One possible solution for ...
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1answer
912 views

Propagation delay from a graph

I'm in the edX class and failed on all my three attempts on one of the questions. Clearly my reasoning is wrong, but I can't figure out where exactly. I would really appreciate if somebody could help ...
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1answer
96 views

Why are shorter leads preferred over longer leads?

I'm building oscillator circuits on a copper plate for an RF design class using the dead-bug method. I know that short leads between components is preferred over long leads, but why is this? I heard ...
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1answer
3k views

Increasing RF24 range using an antenna

First time poster here on electronics, so please excuse any big mistakes. I'm working on a project that uses the NRF24L01+ chip for radio communication between an arduino uno and a raspberry pi. It ...
3
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3answers
4k views

How to interpret these antenna radiation patterns?

The datasheet for this chip antenna shows a couple of radiation plots, but I don't know how they correspond to the physical orientation of the antenna. I want to orient the antenna so that the nice, ...
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1answer
105 views

40% Channel Utilization on 1Mb Satellite

Using the Slide Window technique, consider a satellite channel with: 500 byte frames sends 270 ms delay on send and receive 1 Mbps rate communication protocol is Sliding-windows Ignore the length of ...
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1answer
684 views

Estimating Path Loss from Measured 2.4Ghz/Wlan Signal Strength to get Distance

I want to estimate distances between Wlan Routers based on the RSS (received signal strength) indoors. Im fully aware that I only will get rough estimates. For that I studied some radio propagation ...
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1answer
412 views

In Altium Designer, how can you set the autotracer to route all traces with as equal lengths as possible?

Note that this board does not require a power or ground plane, since it's just used to bridge two boards. I want the traces to be as equal in length as possible in order to minimize any difference in ...
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1answer
67 views

Loss of pressure during sound propagation [closed]

I try to understand some things about acoustics and seems that I haven't understood many things. Suppose that the sound pressure at mouth is p_lips and the sound pressure at a microphone that is ...
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1answer
2k views

Why does the speed of the Electromagnetic wave in the material depend on the frequency of the wave where as they are constant in vacuum (freespace)?

I am confused on why would the propagation speed of any EM waves at ANY frequency is constant in the free space (vacuum) but they seem to disperse in any other materials as the propagation speed of EM ...
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2answers
5k views

What phenomena does “Coherence Bandwidth” explain?

Could anyone please provide a simple explanation of what Coherence Bandwidth means, and how is that related to Delay Spread. I read some articles but they don't help me to form the relation between ...
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2answers
710 views

Explain Rayleigh Fading in plain English

For a couple of days I am trying to understand the Rayleigh Fading model, but I am failing to. I look at various articles and tutorials online, everything goes fine up to a points, but then a lot of ...
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2answers
509 views

Radio frequency propagation near-field/far-field

What is the difference between the near-field and far-field radio frequency radiation? Is it true that the near field radiation is caused by the the energy dissipated at the end of the antenna ...

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