Questions tagged [protocol]

A protcol is a ruleset for formatting and exchanging messages.

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Implement a data protocol between a smartphone and a MCU via NFC hardware?

If I'm able to develop a mobile app which is able to use the NFC hardware of a smartphone to write/read through it. And if I have a board containing a MCU and a NFC transponder like the IC from ST ...
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2answers
92 views

Right protocol for IoT embedded devices

I have a wall-powered embedded device that has several sensors. The MCU collects all sensor data, packages it and then sends it to an on-premise server through UDP. It is sending data every 100ms, ...
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PROFIBUS Architecture for Ultrascale +: experts' opinion request

I'm working on the design of a custom carrier board based on a Xilinx Ultrazed-EG SOM. Specifically, the Carrier (embedding the SoM) should realize the PROFIBUS DP master node in the specific ...
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What is the difference between SDA protocol and I2C?

A manual for Sound Design Technology's "DSP Programmer" programming box has the following statement: Hearing aids based on the Sound Design Technologies Wolverine platform can be programmed ...
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1answer
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Simplex UART echo implementation on ATtiny

I'm currently trying to implement a simple UART echo application on the ATtiny85, with no additional pins other than RX/TX (no autoflow control). I'm using the Universal Serial Interface of the ...
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1answer
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Generating analog signal (PPM) Raspberry Pi

I am trying to generate a PPM signal like the one used by RC receivers, using a raspberry pi. I am using the pigpio library. Here's what I have so far. Here's the header file: ...
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1answer
49 views

Interfacing LIN bus with CAN

On the following figure, LIN is used to build subnetworks from a CAN bus: Is there any standardized way to interface these two buses (e.g. for addressing a LIN node from a CAN node)? I read an ...
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2answers
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Please help me understand modbus communications

I'm just starting out with understanding how modbus works over a rs485 protocol. I've received a communication protocol document from a company that makes solar inverters. I want to send a command ...
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IEC 60870-5 General Interrogation Command

Recently I watched a video explaining communication protocol IEC 60870-5. The video states that the General Interrogation (GI) command takes the following sequence Master Station sends an ...
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2answers
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What is RS-485 and MODBUS? [closed]

I understand the title seems too broad but it's a bit specific and I'm totally new to the communication stuff, so please bare with me. If the question is too broad, please provide some suitable links ...
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3answers
78 views

What makes a communication architecture/protocol faster than others?

Why is thunderbolt considered faster than other? Apart from the inherent channel properties which affect the speed of data propagation, what else determines the speed of data transfer? Of course ...
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Why is a LIN cluster limited to 16 nodes?

It says everywhere that a LIN network can be made up of at most 16 nodes (1 master node and up to 15 slave nodes). The id field however is 6 bits long allowing for more than 15 slaves to be addressed. ...
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Pull up resistor selection for LIN bus

What exactly will happen if I use 1.2K ohms at LIN master node pull-up? Why does the LIN protocol spec recommend to use 1K typically?
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1answer
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SDLC Frame Check Sequence details

In the Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) protocol, the frame contains a "frame-check-sequence" (a CRC). The protocol contains a number of other implementation details, such as NRZI encoding, and ...
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Can you help me improve this circuit design?

I'm a electronic noobie and for a school project I need to design a circuit that will then be connected to a micro controller. The aim of the project is to build a sniffer to decode a particular ...
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1answer
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How to determine the length of the last data field in a SDO block transfer?

I've got a problem with the implementation of the CANopen SDO Block Transfer. The transmission is ok except the last block: ...
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1answer
163 views

I need help to understand a sniffer circuit schematic

I'm an electrical engineering students and for a school project I need to understand a circuit schematic. First, I will provide some context. The school project I'm working on is the modification of a ...
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36 views

Do modern PS/2 keyboards ignore the RESEND command?

Trying to understand how to correctly implement response to the RESEND (0xFE) command from keyboard host, I've made an experiment: at a certain time, when the (real) keyboard is sending its first byte ...
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1answer
475 views

Are USB protocol and connector free or are they patented?

For a hobbyist developing a device, certification is not pleasant. I am wondering if implementing USB in any way is patented or needs a certification? I am concerned about both protocol (USB-2,3) ...
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1answer
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Can I run a DDR4 module at 50 MHz?

I haven't seen any restrictions about minimum clock, but I may have overlooked them. EDIT: The module is a Crucial CT4G4SFS824A, based (this is an informed guess) on 4Gb Micron 512 Meg x 8
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Wishbone B4 rule 3.55: Is this for a special case?

Rule 3.55 of Wishbone B.4 states: "MASTER interfaces MUST be designed to operate normally when the SLAVE interface holds [ACK_I] in the asserted state." I read this rule together with permission 3.35,...
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1answer
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Is it possible to program a RFID tag like a microcontroller?

I am working on an RFID project. I want to be able to send specific messages between the reader and the tag or maybe perform my own protocols on it. Is there a type of tag that I can provide some sort ...
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How are MBIM transaction ID's supposed to be used?

Situation I am developing a product that will use this Sierra Wireless HL7618RD Cat 1 LTE modem. I am interfacing to the modem over USB using a small SoM running a Debian flavor of Linux. The modem ...
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Video AHD protocol documentation/stanard for implimentation?

Im looking for some form of documentation in which supplys the information to impliment the Analog High Definition (AHD) protocol, for knowledge, I am using an FPGA for reading data, and a Swann PRO-...
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SD controller SD protocol single block read transaction timing

When does an SDHCI controller (3.00 spec) starts reading the DAT lines in a single read block transaction (not using DMA)? Does it wait to receive the full ...
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CLK signal on DAT0 line on SD protocol?

I'm facing some problems in the initialization stage of the SD protocol on a custom board, specifically when sending the ACMD51 command and reading the Status Card ...
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2answers
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How does line encoding relate to bus protocols like SPI, serial, i2C, ethernet etc [closed]

I'm referring to line codes like bipolar, machester, miller etc... https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_code How do these line codes relate to bus protocols? Is it another level down? Is it ...
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1answer
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How to best use SPI (master/slave)?

This is a follow/new insight regarding my previous question Messages for SPI protocol. One idea from that question is to use the SS line to know a new message is being sent from the master to the ...
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2answers
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Questions regarding messages for SPI protocol

I want to use the SPI protocol to communicate between an STM32 and Arduino. So I made up some message structure where the first byte is the 'command' byte, and data bytes following. The number of ...
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1answer
148 views

Signal filtering, what's wrong with the circuit?

I have this circuit where I receive a protocol signal: The +L_IN signal is this: This signal has a 28V DC voltage. The signal at ...
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2answers
121 views

Extremely low data rate transmission over long distance for attinys

For a lighting project I need to be able to trigger 20 units every couple of seconds independently which are daisy chained with 1-2 m space between each of them like so: Control station ====== Unit 1 ...
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183 views

Mbus Optical readout of energy meter?

I have a Sharky 775 energy meter, that I would like to read data from periodically, either using an Arduino/ESP8266/ESP32 or a Raspberry Pi and gather/display data via MQTT. The datasheet and ...
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1answer
164 views

What happens when there is a simultaneous Read and Write launched to the same address in AXI3/4?

I have a doubt regarding the AXI3/4 protocol. Assume a hypothetical scenario where a single master issues a valid Read and Write transaction to the same address simultaneously. From the AXI ...
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Average and maximal number of time slots in adaptive tree walk protocol

I was wondering if it is possible to know the maximal and average number of time slots that will pass until and including the time slot in which there will be a successful broadcast, knowing that two ...
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finding the minimal length of a broadcasting frame in a channel(CSMA/CD)

i am unsure about this question. would appreciate your assistance with it. in the following CSMA/CD network with cable length L and propagation T. assuming that the signal is not decreasing and there'...
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1answer
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Bit-Map vs ALOHA protocol

So i have been reading about ALOHA and Bit-Map protocols and i am note sure which is more preferable in the following scenario: 8 stations, numbered 0-7 want to transmit in any given time slot. ...
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5answers
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How fail-safe is \n\r as stop bytes?

In my UART communication I need to know the start byte and the stop byte of the message sent. The start byte is easy but the stop byte, not so much. I have implemented two stop bytes at the end of my ...
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calculating the probability of a successful broadcast in p-csma protocol

am quite unsure with the following question. would appreciate your help with it: in a 3 stationed p-csma network, where \$p=0.3\$, we know that in \$t_0\$ the network is restarted, the channel is ...
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1answer
154 views

How to monitor one wire “kind of” protocol

In the current network, there's 1 master device, which gathers data from over 20 devices. Nameplate says the baud rate is 2400. In the bus cable there's one data wire, 12V and GND. A friend of mine ...
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1answer
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Why always in communication protocols R/W configuration,Reading is configured by “1” and writing by “0”? [closed]

when a microcontroller communicates with another one via one of the communication protocols there is a configuration bit in a control register to choose whether to send(write) or receive(read) this ...
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1answer
52 views

Do I have to initialize Dali lamp somehow if I use broadcast commands?

I have few Dali lamps. Some of them are new, some of them are used. It is hard to tell which was initialized (addressed?) and which was not. I have simple DALI circuit with microcontroller and simple ...
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1answer
247 views

MQTT Broker vs Server

I am trying to learn MQTT technology. What I understand so far, is that MQTT is based on a 'Broker' that does the 'Publish and Subscribe' of messages and topics. I wonder if it's another name for '...
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4answers
67 views

Video Protocol Without Required Speed

I am trying to output a video signal with a slow microcontroller (Arduino). I don't need anything fancy like HD or 30fps, and if it takes a second to update the frame that is fine. I was looking for ...
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1answer
122 views

Problem with SPI wiring?

Searching for images of SPI wiring between Master and Slaves, I found that some of them connect MOSI/SDI of master to MOSI/SDI of slaves and so MISO/SDO of master with MISO/SDO of slaves, meanwhile ...
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1answer
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Using UART chip without programming control registers

Is it possible to use a UART chip without programming control registers? In other words, with Factory Default configuration? If yes, which ones? UART - SPI mode. I have examined the datasheet for ...
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1answer
176 views

Identify this open collector serial protcol

I'm trying to analyze the serial link between two devices, respectively a motor controller board and a Li-Po battery manager, which battery powers both devices. The application is a battery-powered ...
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2answers
3k views

How do universal IR remote “codes” work?

It is easy to find this kind of reference when searching for IR protocols and codes for specific equipment. The actual IR transmission contains far more data than these small codes can hold. What ...
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3answers
1k views

How does this fire alarm system transmit data on two-wire?

In the fire detection industry, analogue addressable systems use control panels and detectors (and devices such as interfaces) which communicate with each other by means of a protocol. What protocol ...
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1answer
104 views

Schneider Micom P123 trigger Output Relay

I am testing a Micom P123 relay with IEC103 protocol. I was able to communicate with 3rd party free Protocol Analyzer, Vinci. I was able to get Digital Input status. So communications is working good. ...
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Addressable RS485

I have a requirement to take a board that interfaced with RS232 and put it on a half duplex RS485 bus. The obvious problem is that at the very least the board firmware will need to be altered to be ...

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