Questions tagged [protocol]

A protcol is a ruleset for formatting and exchanging messages.

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Frequency Key Shift technique to superpose the digital communication on top of 4–20 mA signals

I start working with HART devices and I really try to understand how digital data is transferred trough 4-20ma current loop. I start read this article: https://instrumentationtools.com/hart-...
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What are examples of complex communication protocols that do not need a 7 layer OSI model to describe them? [closed]

I am trying to dissect an existing design of a custom communication protocol that shall make use of infrared pulses to communicate between only 2 devices. The design is architected in such a way that ...
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63 views

SPI Slave implementation in software

I need to implement SPI Slave (@10Mhz clock) on a microcontroller (a sensor with Cortex M33 core) in software. The problem is software is not fast enough to prepare data just after the command. (also ...
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6answers
154 views

Logic analyser or oscilloscope? [closed]

I am an embedded enthusiast and very much into embedded C and firmware development. I love to interface different sensors and modules to MCU by creating my own libraries from scratch. Now for ...
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8 views

If Pointer Extension = 1, what should Pointer become then in J1939 standard - CAN bus

Assume that we have the EEPROM address 647 and we want to read to it. That can be done in J1939-21 CAN bus standard. But the problem I faceing is that if I'm using Pointer Extension = 1, then I can't ...
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What is “Number of occurrences” in DM16 - Binary data transfer at J1939 CAN-bus protocol

After I have send a DM14 memory access with the functionality read. Assume that I'm want to read 646 and 647 address. Then I want to use the lenght = 1, Pointer Type = 1(if I want DM15 message ...
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1answer
30 views

What is “Pointer” in DM14 at J1939 CAN-bus standard?

What is "Pointer" in DM14 at J1939 CAN-bus standard? Can it be the memory Address[DEC]?
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1answer
33 views

Help using usb c to power display

Here is a bad diagram of a project I’m working on. In a beginner to EE and this stuff. I have a laptop display connected to a controller board I got on eBay. It has a input of hdmi and a dc power jack ...
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53 views

Splitting pins on USB-C

I’m new to EE and I have a project I’m working on that has confused me. I have an old display from a laptop that I want to make into a custom 2nd monitor, I bought a driver board for that model ...
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33 views

J1939 - CAN BUS - What is ECU and ACU?

I have a question about the CAN-bus protocol J1939. What is ECU and ACU? Assume that we have three motors that can be controller via J1939. Each motor have it's source address 0x80, 0x81 and 0x83 and ...
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1answer
49 views

I2C hold master mode Vs no hold master

Suppose to have a I2C device like Sensirion sht21, the datasheet says that the sensor supports both hold master read mode and no hold master read mode. In addition to that, suppose that the library ...
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2answers
98 views

Rinnai water heater power and communication interface/protocol

My Rinnai tankless water heater can be connected to a wifi module that controls the recirculating pump and other functions. The only connection between the PCB of the water heater and the external ...
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1answer
74 views

Trying to control vintage amplifier (TEAC A-H500) with Raspberry Pi - what's the communication protocol? 8-bit bus?

I'm trying to control my vintage amplifier from Raspberry Pi - I want to create a nice little Spotify streamer that on playback start will automatically turn on the amplifier and set the input ...
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2answers
72 views

How many devices can be daisy chained via SPI/I2C?

How can we determine how many devices can be daisy chained from a datasheet
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62 views

What IR Protocol is this?

This was found on a window fan remote control. The fan is a Bionaire BW2300 It seems to have no AGC leader, 12 bits, my guess is each bit is either: ~420us on + ~1260us off ~1260us on + ~430us off
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2answers
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Are there any advantages to an inverted serial prototocol?

Why would someone implement an inverted serial protocol? Are there advantages in doing so? One obvious disadvantage seems to be that an extra device needs to be included in a circuit if the ...
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176 views

Analyze protocol used for Futaba VFD display, 3 data pins

I take apart a Samsung SMT-C7140 HD Unit (made obsolete by cable company, a shame) and found a nice display that I could probably reuse. It is a Futaba GL07-00006A (13-BT-246GINK). I tried to find the ...
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Is there really a proper way to send private bits even 1 with CANBUS?

I was thinking of making an authentication protocol for canbus. Is there a way to send even 1bit privately to another node ? Have seen many implementations quite a few good ones. In particular ESA ...
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1answer
84 views

How to convert from 2 data line full duplex to 1 data line half duplex?

I'm trying to design a circuit that can convert from a two wire full duplex (think SPI), with one transmit line and one receive line, to a one wire half duplex (think i2c), with bidirectional ...
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36 views

HART Protocol - Logo/ Trademark details

Could you please share, advise any details on below. I am looking for details of HART trademark / Logo to add on my new product. Is it mandatory to have its logo on product, in datasheet? Where ...
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1answer
51 views

Some Physical Layers used with OBDII

I need to review some physical layers used in OBDII, a very common interface communication of vehicles and used as interface in a automotive scanners. I don't need exactly to know how the protocol ...
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1answer
46 views

Implement a data protocol between a smartphone and a MCU via NFC hardware?

If I'm able to develop a mobile app which is able to use the NFC hardware of a smartphone to write/read through it. And if I have a board containing a MCU and a NFC transponder like the IC from ST ...
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2answers
103 views

Right protocol for IoT embedded devices

I have a wall-powered embedded device that has several sensors. The MCU collects all sensor data, packages it and then sends it to an on-premise server through UDP. It is sending data every 100ms, ...
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62 views

PROFIBUS Architecture for Ultrascale +: experts' opinion request

I'm working on the design of a custom carrier board based on a Xilinx Ultrazed-EG SOM. Specifically, the Carrier (embedding the SoM) should realize the PROFIBUS DP master node in the specific ...
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47 views

What is the difference between SDA protocol and I2C?

A manual for Sound Design Technology's "DSP Programmer" programming box has the following statement: Hearing aids based on the Sound Design Technologies Wolverine platform can be programmed ...
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1answer
119 views

Simplex UART echo implementation on ATtiny

I'm currently trying to implement a simple UART echo application on the ATtiny85, with no additional pins other than RX/TX (no autoflow control). I'm using the Universal Serial Interface of the ...
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1answer
214 views

Generating analog signal (PPM) Raspberry Pi

I am trying to generate a PPM signal like the one used by RC receivers, using a raspberry pi. I am using the pigpio library. Here's what I have so far. Here's the header file: ...
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1answer
61 views

Interfacing LIN bus with CAN

On the following figure, LIN is used to build subnetworks from a CAN bus: Is there any standardized way to interface these two buses (e.g. for addressing a LIN node from a CAN node)? I read an ...
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2answers
81 views

Please help me understand modbus communications

I'm just starting out with understanding how modbus works over a rs485 protocol. I've received a communication protocol document from a company that makes solar inverters. I want to send a command ...
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67 views

IEC 60870-5 General Interrogation Command

Recently I watched a video explaining communication protocol IEC 60870-5. The video states that the General Interrogation (GI) command takes the following sequence Master Station sends an ...
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2answers
111 views

What is RS-485 and MODBUS? [closed]

I understand the title seems too broad but it's a bit specific and I'm totally new to the communication stuff, so please bare with me. If the question is too broad, please provide some suitable links ...
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3answers
86 views

What makes a communication architecture/protocol faster than others?

Why is thunderbolt considered faster than other? Apart from the inherent channel properties which affect the speed of data propagation, what else determines the speed of data transfer? Of course more ...
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1answer
74 views

Why is a LIN cluster limited to 16 nodes?

It says everywhere that a LIN network can be made up of at most 16 nodes (1 master node and up to 15 slave nodes). The id field however is 6 bits long allowing for more than 15 slaves to be addressed. ...
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34 views

Pull up resistor selection for LIN bus

What exactly will happen if I use 1.2K ohms at LIN master node pull-up? Why does the LIN protocol spec recommend to use 1K typically?
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1answer
67 views

SDLC Frame Check Sequence details

In the Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) protocol, the frame contains a "frame-check-sequence" (a CRC). The protocol contains a number of other implementation details, such as NRZI encoding, and ...
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87 views

Can you help me improve this circuit design?

I'm a electronic noobie and for a school project I need to design a circuit that will then be connected to a micro controller. The aim of the project is to build a sniffer to decode a particular ...
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1answer
80 views

How to determine the length of the last data field in a SDO block transfer?

I've got a problem with the implementation of the CANopen SDO Block Transfer. The transmission is ok except the last block: ...
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1answer
205 views

I need help to understand a sniffer circuit schematic

I'm an electrical engineering students and for a school project I need to understand a circuit schematic. First, I will provide some context. The school project I'm working on is the modification of a ...
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1answer
934 views

Are USB protocol and connector free or are they patented?

For a hobbyist developing a device, certification is not pleasant. I am wondering if implementing USB in any way is patented or needs a certification? I am concerned about both protocol (USB-2,3) ...
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1answer
106 views

Can I run a DDR4 module at 50 MHz?

I haven't seen any restrictions about minimum clock, but I may have overlooked them. EDIT: The module is a Crucial CT4G4SFS824A, based (this is an informed guess) on 4Gb Micron 512 Meg x 8
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1answer
82 views

Is it possible to program a RFID tag like a microcontroller?

I am working on an RFID project. I want to be able to send specific messages between the reader and the tag or maybe perform my own protocols on it. Is there a type of tag that I can provide some sort ...
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0answers
228 views

How are MBIM transaction ID's supposed to be used?

Situation I am developing a product that will use this Sierra Wireless HL7618RD Cat 1 LTE modem. I am interfacing to the modem over USB using a small SoM running a Debian flavor of Linux. The modem is ...
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149 views

CLK signal on DAT0 line on SD protocol?

I'm facing some problems in the initialization stage of the SD protocol on a custom board, specifically when sending the ACMD51 command and reading the Status Card ...
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2answers
73 views

How does line encoding relate to bus protocols like SPI, serial, i2C, ethernet etc [closed]

I'm referring to line codes like bipolar, machester, miller etc... https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_code How do these line codes relate to bus protocols? Is it another level down? Is it ...
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1answer
179 views

How to best use SPI (master/slave)?

This is a follow/new insight regarding my previous question Messages for SPI protocol. One idea from that question is to use the SS line to know a new message is being sent from the master to the ...
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2answers
98 views

Questions regarding messages for SPI protocol

I want to use the SPI protocol to communicate between an STM32 and Arduino. So I made up some message structure where the first byte is the 'command' byte, and data bytes following. The number of ...
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1answer
157 views

Signal filtering, what's wrong with the circuit?

I have this circuit where I receive a protocol signal: The +L_IN signal is this: This signal has a 28V DC voltage. The signal at ...
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2answers
129 views

Extremely low data rate transmission over long distance for attinys

For a lighting project I need to be able to trigger 20 units every couple of seconds independently which are daisy chained with 1-2 m space between each of them like so: Control station ====== Unit 1 ...
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1answer
465 views

What happens when there is a simultaneous Read and Write launched to the same address in AXI3/4?

I have a doubt regarding the AXI3/4 protocol. Assume a hypothetical scenario where a single master issues a valid Read and Write transaction to the same address simultaneously. From the AXI ...
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1answer
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Bit-Map vs ALOHA protocol

So i have been reading about ALOHA and Bit-Map protocols and i am note sure which is more preferable in the following scenario: 8 stations, numbered 0-7 want to transmit in any given time slot. ...

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