Questions tagged [regulations]

Regulations relate to various legal and/or political requirements relating to electronics design. Examples include various radio frequency broadcasting spectrum regulations, aeronautics regulations, etc..

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31 views

ATEX: PCB design for intrinsically safe, output capacitor

We're looking into restricted breathing or encapsulation concept because PCB has a complex circuit that makes it impossible to achieve SMD clearance under 'ic' or increased safety concept. I have a ...
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1answer
74 views

What is the purpose of the stand off on a wall wart?

I'm making a device that fits best into the form factor of a wall wart. On some wall warts I've seen they have a little plastic standoff that creates a gap between the case and the wall. Does that ...
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2answers
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Splitting 0-10V Analog signal from 1 AO to two different set of Ventilators to regulate speed?

Is it possible to take 0-10V signal from analog output and split it in parallel to two different Analog inputs ..to regulate speed of two different sets of ventilators? Or do i need some special ...
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55 views

Mosfet Regulator heating issue

Guys i trying to step down voltage using mosfet. Application: Input battery supply 40 to 50 volt Output voltage is 12 volt not more than 500 ma. Mosfet heating issue due to... Since the mosfet is ...
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1answer
25 views

What safety regulations do I need to follow for wiring of a decorative lamp utilizing a fluorescent tube with g10q fitting?

I'm building a cast concrete decorative lamp. It will use an exposed circular fluorescent bulb, which attaches to a g10q lampholder. I understand I will need to wire it up to a ballast and starter, ...
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59 views

Do HF (13.56MHz) RFID readers need government approval? [closed]

If I were trying to design a product and added a RFID reader in it, would that RFID reader need government approval from the country I'm selling in? I believe UHF RFID readers need approval from each ...
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70 views

EN 300 328 Receiver (RX) Blocking | BLE DTM Implementation with Signaling Analyzers?

We are working through a Nordic NRF 52832 certification, and are getting the device CE tested. We are running into some issues getting our device connected to the R&S CMW 500 signaling analyzer ...
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2answers
58 views

Proximity of Insulated Wire

I want to sell an electrical product with an earthed, metallic enclosure for commercial use in Europe. The wiring inside the product is pretty tight. Are there any laws that prevent me from having ...
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2answers
78 views

Does US have standards for smart power outlets?

I am hobbyist and I am trying to build Wi-Fi power outlet. Right now it is personal project but I want to bring it to a mass production if I will succeed. I have never built such things before and I ...
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2answers
185 views

Current Regulation Drift

Over a 200ms period of which this circuit regulates a 500mA current, the current drift downwards for about 0.4%. At first I thought it was due to R202 temperature coefficient, but from my calculation ...
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1answer
147 views

Do the FCC's regulations make any sense?

I have read on the following page that the maximum permissible exposure MPE standard FCC have is 1 mW/cm2 for RF wave above 1500 MHz for general population. http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/...
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4answers
230 views

Does this appliance break UK safety laws?

Good evening. I recently purchased this active suction SMD pick-up tool from AliExpress: When it arrived, it seemed to work fine. However, when I opened it up (to investigate the feasibility of ...
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47 views

Standard for document in diagrams the power of motor

One machine supplier shipped us a motor with a power in its plate so different (800 kW) to the one indicated in the electrical diagrams (500 kW). We calculate the wires using the diagrams information ...
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0answers
219 views

ETSI EN 300 220-2 vs ERC 70-03 Limitations

I’m trying to understand discrepancies between EN 300 220 and ERC regarding the use of 865 - 868 MHz spectrum for SDR. Current ERC 70-03, page 8, says: Frequency Band: h1.2 Maximum Occupied ...
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2answers
652 views

FCC Co-Location of antennas

I am looking at creating a device within regulations for a medical environment with two Txing antennas, BLE (cypress FCC certified module) and 915MHz ST Spirit1 FCC certified module. I have found ...
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2answers
166 views

Is the maximum audible noise from power supplies regulated in Europe?

Power supplies make sometimes a lot noise in the range of kHz. Is there a regulation for the maximum allowed noise emission for consumer electronics on the European market? Is there a regulation ...
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1answer
56 views

Where can I find ultrasound machine regulations?

Diagnostic ultrasound machines are limited in their output power so that the sound waves don't cavity the microbubbles in the body. What I want to know is how do manufacturers prove their power ...
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716 views

Regulation of transformer with inductive load

The regulation of transformer and alternators is poor while supplying inductive loads like a motor as compared to resistive loads. Why is it so? I do understand the phasor analysis of these loads ...
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0answers
60 views

What is the correct way (read “correct way according to the law”) to choose the section of a power cable in the EU and UK?

I am wondering if there is a standard process across the EU in particular Germany, France and the UK, for choosing the the section of a power cable. Suppose that: the cable is to be installed in an ...
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3answers
369 views

A Voltage Divider with Load Regulation and Efficiency Question? [closed]

For this question, the voltage divider splits the 12 V battery into +/- 6 V and it supplies up to 10 W total to the load, split between the two output voltage outputs in an arbitrary ration. Load ...
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0answers
34 views

Operating temperature regulation

Is there a regulation that states which minimum ambient temperature range a commercial equipment must be operational? I.e., a mandatory range of temperature every industry must guarantee its products ...
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2answers
58 views

Load Regulation at -30C Temperatue

I was doing temperature testing of my product. Which had 230V input supply voltage Inside the product one SMPS module which convert 230Vac to 20Vdc. Again this 20Vdc converted to 5Vdc using DC to DC ...
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1answer
189 views

What is the rule of the Vdc regulation in a shunt active filter

I understood very well the principals of harmonics identification in an shunt active filter ( PQ theory : Akagi & al for example), but what i don't understand is why do we care about regulating ...
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3answers
161 views

Regulations (if any) for using electronic devices built by myself in my house

Are there any rules and regulations for using electronic devices built by a user in his own house in the UK? Like for example, if I build a DMX control system (from scratch - i.e. PCB and enclosures ...
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1answer
566 views

Confusion in deriving ripple voltage for an unregulated power supply

Above is a full wave rectifier as an unregulated power supply (please left-click with your mouse to enlarge the image) In many texts and tutorials the ripple voltage(|AX| in above figure) which is ...
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2answers
1k views

How do I cycle a WiFi transmitter through all modes, for FCC intentional radiator EMC testing?

I'm integrating a WiFi/Bluetooth module into a consumer product, however the module does not have a modular grant, will not have a modular grant, and is anyway getting paired with a unique internal ...
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2answers
60 views

Building compliance requirements for IOT sensors

I want to install a differential pressure sensor, (datasheet), in a clients building and leave it running for a few months. The sensor will be powered by a gateway, that will be approximately 50m ...
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1answer
4k views

Difference between medical device status: CE mark versus FDA approval

Can anyone tell me what the exact difference is between a medical device getting a CE mark versus FDA approval? As far as I know, a CE mark only means that a medical device conforms to the European ...
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2answers
200 views

If I incorporate a UL/NRTL listed power supply in our product, must we re-test?

We are building a product. It's a bench-top electrical testing thing, similar to a Keithley DMM or an oscilloscope in that it's something engineers would use at companies for testing stuff and ...
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1answer
864 views

AC power cord different on a laptop and a desktop, other appliances

If I look at the power cord plugged from the wall socket to desktop computers, monitors, etc. at the office, it looks like (North America): Now, if I look at the power cord plugged into my laptop's ...
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2answers
335 views

Of what real, practical use is electronics certification?

I am brand new to EE/ECE and am aware that companies such as UL offer a gammit of services such as: Circuit verification (they verify your schematic does what its supposed to do and doesn't have any ...
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1answer
241 views

Is CE marking on module necessary?

Suppose a RF module has passed CE EMC tests. Must the CE marking be printed on the module itself in order for the approval to be valid if it is to be used in an end product?
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2answers
1k views

Must FCC-certified modules be labelled with the correct FCC ID?

The manufacturer of this radio module I bought claims that it's FCC certified, but there's no FCC ID on it (though there is the FCC logo). If the final product is to be FCC tested, would it then be ...
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5answers
2k views

Why don't DC PSUs need a fuse?

This feels like a silly question, but after taking apart some of our 6W 12V DC power supplies I've noticed that none of them are fused. Out of curiosity more than anything else, I'm wondering why a ...
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0answers
64 views

What's google's balloon estimated LTE radiated power at ground ?

Google loon, google's internet balloon project , is transmitting from a height of 20km , and has a cell radius of 40km, and uses LTE. What would be the EIRP ? would be one such that EIRP at near ...
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1answer
1k views

How to conduct “Transient Power” measurement according to ETSI EN 300 220-1 (v2.4.1)?

Background Info The company I work for builds Active RFID hardware that needs to conform to the regulations defined in ETSI EN 300 220 (Part 1). Our working frequency is 433.92 MHz. I am responsible ...
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2answers
2k views

Kickstarter electronics and local regulations

There are some electronics projects on Kickstarter. For being successfull, they offer buying the product worldwide. I wonder how they are able to comply with all the local regulations, for example CE,...
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230 views

Car electronic accessories [closed]

I want to design a computer vision device that will act as a "driving assistant". The device will improve driving safety by acoustically or visually alerting the driver of certain hazardous situations ...
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1answer
2k views

Can I determine a formula for fuse disconnection times?

This is the first time I have used this stack site so am not 100% sure this question is on topic (based on the tags I couldn't find) but thought someone may still be able to help me. For those not ...
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6answers
18k views

How to throttle power consumption of a heating coil?

Which is an appropriate but simple electrical circuit to reduce the energy (power) consumed by a heating coil which has an AC feeding without generating an asymmetric load (large DC component, e.g. ...
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2answers
1k views

868 MHz frequency standard

I am wondering whether I am free to use any transmit/receive methods on this particular frequency or do I need to stick to some standards. I am willing to buy a chip with PHY layer of 868 MHz and we ...
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4answers
1k views

Export restrictions when sourcing parts for PCB assembly in foreign country

If a company has a PCB design and wishes to assemble them economically, a natural choice is China. Some Chinese companies are asking for the parts (or some of them) to be shipped to them. This means ...
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1answer
184 views

What regulatory hurdles do I need to conform to to sell my products?

I have products that involve some simple resistors and diodes etc that plug into the microphone jack of a mobile phone (they are sensors). What regulatory hurdles must I cross in order to sell on ...
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1answer
651 views

Power supply CE compliancy requirements

I'm dealing with an electrical equipment which should be compliant to the CE low voltage directive (LVD), following the EN60950 standard. The equipment is connected to the mains (220V) through an ...
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2answers
1k views

Tippmatic auto shut-off switch - how to use it?

Some products in my company are now required to use an auto shut-off switch to be compliant with new regulations in European space (European Eco-Design Directive ErP). I got word that the device ...
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1answer
267 views

What if we want to clamp/clip current to a certain value or range as we do with diodes for voltage?

I have seen diode clamping/clipping circuits and can see that they can work well with such simple construction. However, what if we want to clamp/clip the current to some value rather than voltage?
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1answer
191 views

Bringing compiled device to market (and how to power)

(Preemptive apology if this is the wrong place to ask; pointers to the right place appreciated) I've thrown together a device using a Raspberry-pi, touchscreen (plugs into pi) and small monitor ...
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1answer
508 views

Do we need the CE certification for test series in quantity of 100pcs

We are developing a multimedia application WiFi + Audio out + Mic Input + and few buttons), which we plan to produce in the number of 100 pieces and half of that sell to our aquaintances and the rest ...
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5answers
5k views

Zener diode can vary current flow to maintain voltage drop, how does this magic effect work?

So it seems that a zener diode is "magically" able to change its resistance to allow more current to pass through it, such that the voltage drop across the diode remains the same. My question is ...
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1answer
2k views

CE certification: battery-powered LED lights

There are lots of products on the market that are LED lights which don't all seem to carry CE markings. I'm looking at designing little ornamental things with embedded LED lighting, and trying to work ...