Questions tagged [regulations]

Regulations relate to various legal and/or political requirements relating to electronics design. Examples include various radio frequency broadcasting spectrum regulations, aeronautics regulations, etc..

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Infrared eye tracking - safe levels of infrared exposure on the eyes

I'm making an infrared eye tracker where an infrared light will be shone on one of the user's eyes, and a camera will capture the user's gaze, and I have a 940mm IR LED for this purpose. I have the ...
Joel Leung's user avatar
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Control cabinet rules

I am building an electrical enclosure box equipped with a smart relay (PLC) and containing a 60W 24VDC power supply which is supplied from 230V AC. The PLC controlles a small 15W DC motor and ...
Gurul_01's user avatar
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Current into DC/DC or LDO doubt

I need a circuit that regulate and invert the input signal 0-24V to 0-3.3V of output signal. Also a pullup that produce a low signal when the input is detached. I thought about a schematic like this. ...
Gigapel's user avatar
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Should RVs electrical system be grounded to chassis?

I have an RV with both 12V and 230V systems. The 12V uses internal battery, while 230V is supplied from outside via plug. Should I connect these systems to metal frame of vehicle (minus of 12V or ...
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Pluggable cables for laptop computer power adapters

It has been nearly universally the case that the cable which connects an external power adapter (power supply) to a laptop computer is permanently fixed to the power adapter. This makes the cable more ...
Math Keeps Me Busy's user avatar
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Y capacitors regulations at the secondary of a class-I power supply

I know safety-rated Y1/Y2 capacitors are required at the AC line input for EMI purposes, but what about the isolated secondary of a class I power supply? What are the safety regulations here? Can I ...
pxidr's user avatar
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FCC exemption for sub 1.705 MHz devices

The exemption section of the FCC rules on unintentional radiators (Title 47, chapter I, Subchapter A, Part 15, Subpart B, Section 15.103) has the following item : (h) Digital devices in which both ...
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Safety regulations (USA) for high-power LED brightness (e.g. 1+ W)

For a "mostly" shielded sequence of 1 W where a user will see light bleed through small gaps in a device and (for argument's sake) might see a direct reflection of one of these 1 W LEDs (a ...
chroma's user avatar
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Why are conductive chassis double insulated appliances allowed in the UK?

MacBooks are infamous for 'buzzing' to the touch while charging. If another (properly Earthed) laptop touches one, it can flicker the screen or shut down. If I plug one of these same properly Earthed ...
OJFord's user avatar
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Disable/enable confusion: is this an error in the design?

If Enable_Voltage is at 3.3 V then the disable pin is high and the chip (EMI transformer) is working. Doesn't that mean the transistor is on and the enable voltage is short-circuited? Is this the ...
Elektroneu's user avatar
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CE certification of new project Radio Equipment Directive

I work at a certification Institute of construction products, but sometimes we do consultancy on other related products. Recently, a manufacturer asked us a regulatory/certification study on his new ...
Tiago Ribeiro's user avatar
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Are those electric fields dangerous?

Is 8.6 amperes per meter, 70 microtesla, 0.70 gauss, 695 milligauss, safe on long time exposure? I am just worried.
Paul Delaunay's user avatar
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Self regulating effect of loads for frequency control

How does power absorption from loads depend on frequency? I know that during a frequency deviation in power grid, there are primary reserves which control the frequency, but I know there is also the ...
Samuele Benito Di Gioia's user avatar
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How do older-style meters still in use keep their clocks synced?

How accurate must the real time clock of an electricity meter be? Apologies if this is more a legal question than an electrical one. I am particularly interested in Western Europe but also interested ...
user133831's user avatar
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EMC regulations versus electronics in the market

I am wondering about starting low quantity sale of some of my products, that I've developed by myself. And there is a question - what are the regulations that I have to meet? Do I need to realize ...
Bratw's user avatar
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Taiwanese Regulations of 433 MHz

I'm designing a wireless commercial device to be sold in Taiwan. I'm looking for transceiver modules, some of them work at 433MHz. However, I'm not clear if the 433 MHz is regulated in Taiwan. Does ...
Leonardo Márquez's user avatar
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Which products require EMC certificate?

What are the guidlines (or where can I find them) for which products require EMC testing certificate? I know that this determined per country, so for starters let's go with the US. My product contains ...
Geva Tal's user avatar
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Radio Frequency Regulations for continuous low-power single-frequency signal

I am somewhat confused about the regulations on the radio frequencies. I am designing a system using an antenna, which is not used for communications. It is used for sensing based on the reflection ...
zxcmehran's user avatar
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Voltage drop cable regulations

I've just started the electrical installation part of my engineering course and I'm clueless on how to solve this any help would be appreciated.
Michael scott's user avatar
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Maximum Allowed Radiated Continous Wave Power in 61.25GHz ISM Band

I am looking into a possibility for 60GHz energy harvesting for low power sensor nodes and I am little confused about the differences I have found between the US and European regulations related to ...
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ATX PSU and offline UPS compatibility

Specifically how well can an ATX PSU and in turn the Computer it is powering cope with power loss for x miliseconds during the changeover from Grid AC to offline UPS inverter AC Can I use offline UPS ...
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Compliance of user replaceable lithium cells?

I seem to remember that in the EU, lithium cells may not be sold to consumers and may not be user-replaceable in consumer devices. This vague idea seems to be supported by the fact that I cannot ...
ARF's user avatar
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Which standard must Li-ion battery fulfil for CE marking in late 2020, IEC 62133:2012 or IEC 62133-2:2017?

I am looking for a slim CE-certified rechargable battery to put in my product. All of the (very few) certified batteries that I have found are compliant with the IEC 62133:2012 (2nd edition). But that ...
Jonatan G's user avatar
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Is it allowed to use a USB-C connector to a USB 2 host?

I am working on a product that is intended for at least the european market and possibly the US market as well. I am not at all acquainted with the USB specifications, and currently I do not intend to ...
Jonatan G's user avatar
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Saftey regulations of multiple 1mW lasers

AFAIK devices containing exposed 5mW lasers are illegal without a license, but those containing 1mW lasers are. But how about a device with ten 1mW lasers? Is it still a safe and legal device? The ...
John M.'s user avatar
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1.6V SSR power supply regulation

I am trying to power an SSR opto coupler, and need a maximum 1.6V supply, so that I don't blow the LED. However the main voltage supply is between 0V and 4V, and the minimum zener diode voltage I can ...
jackv12333's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
854 views

12 V wiring regulations (UK)?

What regulations (if any) do I need to follow if wiring a 12 V system (in the UK)? I was planning to wire up a garden shed / summer house to the 220 V mains. I'm confident I could wire it safely and ...
ConanTheGerbil's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
110 views

Regulatory considerations for 500W, 400V DC power tether

I'm working on a robotics project where we intend to deliver ~500W of power over a 1000 ft tether. The current plan is to run ~400VDC down the tether on a pair of 16 AWG wires. These power wires will ...
Chris Fernandez's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
2k views

When is it allowed to use non-isolated PoE?

Currently I am designing a circuit that is required to be PoE powered. We are debating whether to use an isolated or a non-isolated supply. The device is wall mounted and in a plastic enclosure. No ...
Karsten's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Building a UHF RFID Reader, FCC regulations?

I've been working on a project that involves tiny UHF transponders (ex. OMNI-ID Fit 220) that fit into a product with very limited space. We wanted to build our own reader (5 or 6 of them) because it'...
C10-X's user avatar
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ATEX: PCB design for intrinsically safe, output capacitor

We're looking into restricted breathing or encapsulation concept because PCB has a complex circuit that makes it impossible to achieve SMD clearance under 'ic' or increased safety concept. I have a ...
Riscy's user avatar
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What is the purpose of the stand off on a wall wart?

I'm making a device that fits best into the form factor of a wall wart. On some wall warts I've seen they have a little plastic standoff that creates a gap between the case and the wall. Does that ...
user875234's user avatar
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2k views

Splitting 0-10V Analog signal from 1 AO to two different set of Ventilators to regulate speed?

Is it possible to take 0-10V signal from analog output and split it in parallel to two different Analog inputs ..to regulate speed of two different sets of ventilators? Or do i need some special ...
FreshPLC's user avatar
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2 answers
3k views

Mosfet Regulator heating issue

Guys i trying to step down voltage using mosfet. Application: Input battery supply 40 to 50 volt Output voltage is 12 volt not more than 500 ma. Mosfet heating issue due to... Since the mosfet is ...
Bud's user avatar
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What safety regulations do I need to follow for wiring of a decorative lamp utilizing a fluorescent tube with g10q fitting?

I'm building a cast concrete decorative lamp. It will use an exposed circular fluorescent bulb, which attaches to a g10q lampholder. I understand I will need to wire it up to a ballast and starter, ...
user19756's user avatar
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Do HF (13.56MHz) RFID readers need government approval? [closed]

If I were trying to design a product and added a RFID reader in it, would that RFID reader need government approval from the country I'm selling in? I believe UHF RFID readers need approval from each ...
Eddie Huang's user avatar
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2 answers
65 views

Proximity of Insulated Wire

I want to sell an electrical product with an earthed, metallic enclosure for commercial use in Europe. The wiring inside the product is pretty tight. Are there any laws that prevent me from having ...
Jack the Lad's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
102 views

Does US have standards for smart power outlets?

I am hobbyist and I am trying to build Wi-Fi power outlet. Right now it is personal project but I want to bring it to a mass production if I will succeed. I have never built such things before and I ...
zoonman's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
236 views

Current Regulation Drift

Over a 200ms period of which this circuit regulates a 500mA current, the current drift downwards for about 0.4%. At first I thought it was due to R202 temperature coefficient, but from my calculation ...
Damien's user avatar
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-5 votes
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Do the FCC's regulations make any sense?

I have read on the following page that the maximum permissible exposure MPE standard FCC have is 1 mW/cm2 for RF wave above 1500 MHz for general population. http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/...
ObsessionWithElectricity's user avatar
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4 answers
256 views

Does this appliance break UK safety laws?

Good evening. I recently purchased this active suction SMD pick-up tool from AliExpress: When it arrived, it seemed to work fine. However, when I opened it up (to investigate the feasibility of ...
Sod Almighty's user avatar
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2 answers
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Standard for document in diagrams the power of motor

One machine supplier shipped us a motor with a power in its plate so different (800 kW) to the one indicated in the electrical diagrams (500 kW). We calculate the wires using the diagrams information ...
Francisco Ferrero's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
289 views

ETSI EN 300 220-2 vs ERC 70-03 Limitations

I’m trying to understand discrepancies between EN 300 220 and ERC regarding the use of 865 - 868 MHz spectrum for SDR. Current ERC 70-03, page 8, says: Frequency Band: h1.2 Maximum Occupied Bandwidth:...
operator369's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
2k views

FCC Co-Location of antennas

I am looking at creating a device within regulations for a medical environment with two Txing antennas, BLE (cypress FCC certified module) and 915MHz ST Spirit1 FCC certified module. I have found ...
ConfusedCheese's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
270 views

Is the maximum audible noise from power supplies regulated in Europe?

Power supplies make sometimes a lot noise in the range of kHz. Is there a regulation for the maximum allowed noise emission for consumer electronics on the European market? Is there a regulation ...
Jonas Stein's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
65 views

Where can I find ultrasound machine regulations?

Diagnostic ultrasound machines are limited in their output power so that the sound waves don't cavity the microbubbles in the body. What I want to know is how do manufacturers prove their power ...
PJazz's user avatar
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Regulation of transformer with inductive load

The regulation of transformer and alternators is poor while supplying inductive loads like a motor as compared to resistive loads. Why is it so? I do understand the phasor analysis of these loads ...
Adnan Arif Sait's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
65 views

What is the correct way (read "correct way according to the law") to choose the section of a power cable in the EU and UK?

I am wondering if there is a standard process across the EU in particular Germany, France and the UK, for choosing the the section of a power cable. Suppose that: the cable is to be installed in an ...
mickkk's user avatar
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3 answers
504 views

A Voltage Divider with Load Regulation and Efficiency Question? [closed]

For this question, the voltage divider splits the 12 V battery into +/- 6 V and it supplies up to 10 W total to the load, split between the two output voltage outputs in an arbitrary ration. Load ...
CS111-Help's user avatar
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Operating temperature regulation

Is there a regulation that states which minimum ambient temperature range a commercial equipment must be operational? I.e., a mandatory range of temperature every industry must guarantee its products ...
PDuarte's user avatar
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