Questions tagged [regulations]

Regulations relate to various legal and/or political requirements relating to electronics design. Examples include various radio frequency broadcasting spectrum regulations, aeronautics regulations, etc..

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35 views

Compliance of user replaceable lithium cells?

I seem to remember that in the EU, lithium cells may not be sold to consumers and may not be user-replaceable in consumer devices. This vague idea seems to be supported by the fact that I cannot ...
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1answer
41 views

Which standard must Li-ion battery fulfil for CE marking in late 2020, IEC 62133:2012 or IEC 62133-2:2017?

I am looking for a slim CE-certified rechargable battery to put in my product. All of the (very few) certified batteries that I have found are compliant with the IEC 62133:2012 (2nd edition). But that ...
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65 views

Is it allowed to use a USB-C connector to a USB 2 host?

I am working on a product that is intended for at least the european market and possibly the US market as well. I am not at all acquainted with the USB specifications, and currently I do not intend to ...
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1answer
44 views

Saftey regulations of multiple 1mW lasers

AFAIK devices containing exposed 5mW lasers are illegal without a license, but those containing 1mW lasers are. But how about a device with ten 1mW lasers? Is it still a safe and legal device? The ...
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1answer
18 views

1.6V SSR power supply regulation

I am trying to power an SSR opto coupler, and need a maximum 1.6V supply, so that I don't blow the LED. However the main voltage supply is between 0V and 4V, and the minimum zener diode voltage I can ...
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3answers
72 views

Regulatory considerations for 500W, 400V DC power tether

I'm working on a robotics project where we intend to deliver ~500W of power over a 1000 ft tether. The current plan is to run ~400VDC down the tether on a pair of 16 AWG wires. These power wires will ...
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1answer
79 views

When is it allowed to use non-isolated PoE?

Currently I am designing a circuit that is required to be PoE powered. We are debating whether to use an isolated or a non-isolated supply. The device is wall mounted and in a plastic enclosure. No ...
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1answer
61 views

Building a UHF RFID Reader, FCC regulations?

I've been working on a project that involves tiny UHF transponders (ex. OMNI-ID Fit 220) that fit into a product with very limited space. We wanted to build our own reader (5 or 6 of them) because it'...
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1answer
128 views

ATEX: PCB design for intrinsically safe, output capacitor

We're looking into restricted breathing or encapsulation concept because PCB has a complex circuit that makes it impossible to achieve SMD clearance under 'ic' or increased safety concept. I have a ...
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1answer
79 views

What is the purpose of the stand off on a wall wart?

I'm making a device that fits best into the form factor of a wall wart. On some wall warts I've seen they have a little plastic standoff that creates a gap between the case and the wall. Does that ...
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2answers
259 views

Splitting 0-10V Analog signal from 1 AO to two different set of Ventilators to regulate speed?

Is it possible to take 0-10V signal from analog output and split it in parallel to two different Analog inputs ..to regulate speed of two different sets of ventilators? Or do i need some special ...
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119 views

Mosfet Regulator heating issue

Guys i trying to step down voltage using mosfet. Application: Input battery supply 40 to 50 volt Output voltage is 12 volt not more than 500 ma. Mosfet heating issue due to... Since the mosfet is ...
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1answer
28 views

What safety regulations do I need to follow for wiring of a decorative lamp utilizing a fluorescent tube with g10q fitting?

I'm building a cast concrete decorative lamp. It will use an exposed circular fluorescent bulb, which attaches to a g10q lampholder. I understand I will need to wire it up to a ballast and starter, ...
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62 views

Do HF (13.56MHz) RFID readers need government approval? [closed]

If I were trying to design a product and added a RFID reader in it, would that RFID reader need government approval from the country I'm selling in? I believe UHF RFID readers need approval from each ...
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2answers
58 views

Proximity of Insulated Wire

I want to sell an electrical product with an earthed, metallic enclosure for commercial use in Europe. The wiring inside the product is pretty tight. Are there any laws that prevent me from having ...
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2answers
78 views

Does US have standards for smart power outlets?

I am hobbyist and I am trying to build Wi-Fi power outlet. Right now it is personal project but I want to bring it to a mass production if I will succeed. I have never built such things before and I ...
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2answers
190 views

Current Regulation Drift

Over a 200ms period of which this circuit regulates a 500mA current, the current drift downwards for about 0.4%. At first I thought it was due to R202 temperature coefficient, but from my calculation ...
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1answer
148 views

Do the FCC's regulations make any sense?

I have read on the following page that the maximum permissible exposure MPE standard FCC have is 1 mW/cm2 for RF wave above 1500 MHz for general population. http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/...
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4answers
236 views

Does this appliance break UK safety laws?

Good evening. I recently purchased this active suction SMD pick-up tool from AliExpress: When it arrived, it seemed to work fine. However, when I opened it up (to investigate the feasibility of ...
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2answers
48 views

Standard for document in diagrams the power of motor

One machine supplier shipped us a motor with a power in its plate so different (800 kW) to the one indicated in the electrical diagrams (500 kW). We calculate the wires using the diagrams information ...
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0answers
249 views

ETSI EN 300 220-2 vs ERC 70-03 Limitations

I’m trying to understand discrepancies between EN 300 220 and ERC regarding the use of 865 - 868 MHz spectrum for SDR. Current ERC 70-03, page 8, says: Frequency Band: h1.2 Maximum Occupied Bandwidth:...
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2answers
914 views

FCC Co-Location of antennas

I am looking at creating a device within regulations for a medical environment with two Txing antennas, BLE (cypress FCC certified module) and 915MHz ST Spirit1 FCC certified module. I have found ...
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2answers
186 views

Is the maximum audible noise from power supplies regulated in Europe?

Power supplies make sometimes a lot noise in the range of kHz. Is there a regulation for the maximum allowed noise emission for consumer electronics on the European market? Is there a regulation ...
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1answer
57 views

Where can I find ultrasound machine regulations?

Diagnostic ultrasound machines are limited in their output power so that the sound waves don't cavity the microbubbles in the body. What I want to know is how do manufacturers prove their power ...
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1answer
820 views

Regulation of transformer with inductive load

The regulation of transformer and alternators is poor while supplying inductive loads like a motor as compared to resistive loads. Why is it so? I do understand the phasor analysis of these loads ...
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60 views

What is the correct way (read “correct way according to the law”) to choose the section of a power cable in the EU and UK?

I am wondering if there is a standard process across the EU in particular Germany, France and the UK, for choosing the the section of a power cable. Suppose that: the cable is to be installed in an ...
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3answers
427 views

A Voltage Divider with Load Regulation and Efficiency Question? [closed]

For this question, the voltage divider splits the 12 V battery into +/- 6 V and it supplies up to 10 W total to the load, split between the two output voltage outputs in an arbitrary ration. Load ...
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0answers
35 views

Operating temperature regulation

Is there a regulation that states which minimum ambient temperature range a commercial equipment must be operational? I.e., a mandatory range of temperature every industry must guarantee its products ...
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2answers
58 views

Load Regulation at -30C Temperatue

I was doing temperature testing of my product. Which had 230V input supply voltage Inside the product one SMPS module which convert 230Vac to 20Vdc. Again this 20Vdc converted to 5Vdc using DC to DC ...
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1answer
221 views

What is the rule of the Vdc regulation in a shunt active filter

I understood very well the principals of harmonics identification in an shunt active filter ( PQ theory : Akagi & al for example), but what i don't understand is why do we care about regulating ...
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3answers
173 views

Regulations (if any) for using electronic devices built by myself in my house

Are there any rules and regulations for using electronic devices built by a user in his own house in the UK? Like for example, if I build a DMX control system (from scratch - i.e. PCB and enclosures ...
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666 views

Confusion in deriving ripple voltage for an unregulated power supply

Above is a full wave rectifier as an unregulated power supply (please left-click with your mouse to enlarge the image) In many texts and tutorials the ripple voltage(|AX| in above figure) which is ...
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2answers
1k views

How do I cycle a WiFi transmitter through all modes, for FCC intentional radiator EMC testing?

I'm integrating a WiFi/Bluetooth module into a consumer product, however the module does not have a modular grant, will not have a modular grant, and is anyway getting paired with a unique internal ...
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2answers
63 views

Building compliance requirements for IOT sensors

I want to install a differential pressure sensor, (datasheet), in a clients building and leave it running for a few months. The sensor will be powered by a gateway, that will be approximately 50m ...
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1answer
5k views

Difference between medical device status: CE mark versus FDA approval

Can anyone tell me what the exact difference is between a medical device getting a CE mark versus FDA approval? As far as I know, a CE mark only means that a medical device conforms to the European ...
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2answers
239 views

If I incorporate a UL/NRTL listed power supply in our product, must we re-test?

We are building a product. It's a bench-top electrical testing thing, similar to a Keithley DMM or an oscilloscope in that it's something engineers would use at companies for testing stuff and ...
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1answer
1k views

AC power cord different on a laptop and a desktop, other appliances

If I look at the power cord plugged from the wall socket to desktop computers, monitors, etc. at the office, it looks like (North America): Now, if I look at the power cord plugged into my laptop's ...
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2answers
339 views

Of what real, practical use is electronics certification?

I am brand new to EE/ECE and am aware that companies such as UL offer a gammit of services such as: Circuit verification (they verify your schematic does what its supposed to do and doesn't have any ...
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1answer
248 views

Is CE marking on module necessary?

Suppose a RF module has passed CE EMC tests. Must the CE marking be printed on the module itself in order for the approval to be valid if it is to be used in an end product?
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1k views

Must FCC-certified modules be labelled with the correct FCC ID?

The manufacturer of this radio module I bought claims that it's FCC certified, but there's no FCC ID on it (though there is the FCC logo). If the final product is to be FCC tested, would it then be ...
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5answers
3k views

Why don't DC PSUs need a fuse?

This feels like a silly question, but after taking apart some of our 6W 12V DC power supplies I've noticed that none of them are fused. Out of curiosity more than anything else, I'm wondering why a ...
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66 views

What's google's balloon estimated LTE radiated power at ground ?

Google loon, google's internet balloon project , is transmitting from a height of 20km , and has a cell radius of 40km, and uses LTE. What would be the EIRP ? would be one such that EIRP at near ...
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1answer
2k views

How to conduct “Transient Power” measurement according to ETSI EN 300 220-1 (v2.4.1)?

Background Info The company I work for builds Active RFID hardware that needs to conform to the regulations defined in ETSI EN 300 220 (Part 1). Our working frequency is 433.92 MHz. I am responsible ...
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2k views

Kickstarter electronics and local regulations

There are some electronics projects on Kickstarter. For being successfull, they offer buying the product worldwide. I wonder how they are able to comply with all the local regulations, for example CE,...
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1answer
239 views

Car electronic accessories [closed]

I want to design a computer vision device that will act as a "driving assistant". The device will improve driving safety by acoustically or visually alerting the driver of certain hazardous situations ...
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1answer
2k views

Can I determine a formula for fuse disconnection times?

This is the first time I have used this stack site so am not 100% sure this question is on topic (based on the tags I couldn't find) but thought someone may still be able to help me. For those not ...
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6answers
20k views

How to throttle power consumption of a heating coil?

Which is an appropriate but simple electrical circuit to reduce the energy (power) consumed by a heating coil which has an AC feeding without generating an asymmetric load (large DC component, e.g. ...
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2answers
1k views

868 MHz frequency standard

I am wondering whether I am free to use any transmit/receive methods on this particular frequency or do I need to stick to some standards. I am willing to buy a chip with PHY layer of 868 MHz and we ...
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4answers
1k views

Export restrictions when sourcing parts for PCB assembly in foreign country

If a company has a PCB design and wishes to assemble them economically, a natural choice is China. Some Chinese companies are asking for the parts (or some of them) to be shipped to them. This means ...
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1answer
186 views

What regulatory hurdles do I need to conform to to sell my products?

I have products that involve some simple resistors and diodes etc that plug into the microphone jack of a mobile phone (they are sensors). What regulatory hurdles must I cross in order to sell on ...