Questions tagged [regulations]

Regulations relate to various legal and/or political requirements relating to electronics design. Examples include various radio frequency broadcasting spectrum regulations, aeronautics regulations, etc..

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Self regulating effect of loads for frequency control

How does power absorption from loads depend on frequency? I know that during a frequency deviation in power grid, there are primary reserves which control the frequency, but I know there is also the ...
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How do older-style meters still in use keep their clocks synced?

How accurate must the real time clock of an electricity meter be? Apologies if this is more a legal question than an electrical one. I am particularly interested in Western Europe but also interested ...
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Uncertainty regarding EU regulation for switching devices

Our company is working on developing an AC electric car charger for the EU market. One part of the design process is choosing a suitable relay for this application. In the standards it is required ...
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EMC regulations versus electronics in the market

I am wondering about starting low quantity sale of some of my products, that I've developed by myself. And there is a question - what are the regulations that I have to meet? Do I need to realize ...
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Taiwanese Regulations of 433 MHz

I'm designing a wireless commercial device to be sold in Taiwan. I'm looking for transceiver modules, some of them work at 433MHz. However, I'm not clear if the 433 MHz is regulated in Taiwan. Does ...
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Which products require EMC certificate?

What are the guidlines (or where can I find them) for which products require EMC testing certificate? I know that this determined per country, so for starters let's go with the US. My product contains ...
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Radio Frequency Regulations for continuous low-power single-frequency signal

I am somewhat confused about the regulations on the radio frequencies. I am designing a system using an antenna, which is not used for communications. It is used for sensing based on the reflection ...
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Voltage drop cable regulations

I've just started the electrical installation part of my engineering course and I'm clueless on how to solve this any help would be appreciated.
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Maximum Allowed Radiated Continous Wave Power in 61.25GHz ISM Band

I am looking into a possibility for 60GHz energy harvesting for low power sensor nodes and I am little confused about the differences I have found between the US and European regulations related to ...
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ATX PSU and offline UPS compatibility

Specifically how well can an ATX PSU and in turn the Computer it is powering cope with power loss for x miliseconds during the changeover from Grid AC to offline UPS inverter AC Can I use offline UPS ...
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Compliance of user replaceable lithium cells?

I seem to remember that in the EU, lithium cells may not be sold to consumers and may not be user-replaceable in consumer devices. This vague idea seems to be supported by the fact that I cannot ...
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Which standard must Li-ion battery fulfil for CE marking in late 2020, IEC 62133:2012 or IEC 62133-2:2017?

I am looking for a slim CE-certified rechargable battery to put in my product. All of the (very few) certified batteries that I have found are compliant with the IEC 62133:2012 (2nd edition). But that ...
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Is it allowed to use a USB-C connector to a USB 2 host?

I am working on a product that is intended for at least the european market and possibly the US market as well. I am not at all acquainted with the USB specifications, and currently I do not intend to ...
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Saftey regulations of multiple 1mW lasers

AFAIK devices containing exposed 5mW lasers are illegal without a license, but those containing 1mW lasers are. But how about a device with ten 1mW lasers? Is it still a safe and legal device? The ...
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1.6V SSR power supply regulation

I am trying to power an SSR opto coupler, and need a maximum 1.6V supply, so that I don't blow the LED. However the main voltage supply is between 0V and 4V, and the minimum zener diode voltage I can ...
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12v wiring regulations (UK)?

What regulations (if any) do I need to follow if wiring a 12 volt system (in the UK). I was planning to wire up a garden shed / summer house to the 220v mains. I'm confident I could wire it safely and ...
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Regulatory considerations for 500W, 400V DC power tether

I'm working on a robotics project where we intend to deliver ~500W of power over a 1000 ft tether. The current plan is to run ~400VDC down the tether on a pair of 16 AWG wires. These power wires will ...
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When is it allowed to use non-isolated PoE?

Currently I am designing a circuit that is required to be PoE powered. We are debating whether to use an isolated or a non-isolated supply. The device is wall mounted and in a plastic enclosure. No ...
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Building a UHF RFID Reader, FCC regulations?

I've been working on a project that involves tiny UHF transponders (ex. OMNI-ID Fit 220) that fit into a product with very limited space. We wanted to build our own reader (5 or 6 of them) because it'...
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ATEX: PCB design for intrinsically safe, output capacitor

We're looking into restricted breathing or encapsulation concept because PCB has a complex circuit that makes it impossible to achieve SMD clearance under 'ic' or increased safety concept. I have a ...
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What is the purpose of the stand off on a wall wart?

I'm making a device that fits best into the form factor of a wall wart. On some wall warts I've seen they have a little plastic standoff that creates a gap between the case and the wall. Does that ...
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Splitting 0-10V Analog signal from 1 AO to two different set of Ventilators to regulate speed?

Is it possible to take 0-10V signal from analog output and split it in parallel to two different Analog inputs ..to regulate speed of two different sets of ventilators? Or do i need some special ...
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Mosfet Regulator heating issue

Guys i trying to step down voltage using mosfet. Application: Input battery supply 40 to 50 volt Output voltage is 12 volt not more than 500 ma. Mosfet heating issue due to... Since the mosfet is ...
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What safety regulations do I need to follow for wiring of a decorative lamp utilizing a fluorescent tube with g10q fitting?

I'm building a cast concrete decorative lamp. It will use an exposed circular fluorescent bulb, which attaches to a g10q lampholder. I understand I will need to wire it up to a ballast and starter, ...
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Do HF (13.56MHz) RFID readers need government approval? [closed]

If I were trying to design a product and added a RFID reader in it, would that RFID reader need government approval from the country I'm selling in? I believe UHF RFID readers need approval from each ...
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Proximity of Insulated Wire

I want to sell an electrical product with an earthed, metallic enclosure for commercial use in Europe. The wiring inside the product is pretty tight. Are there any laws that prevent me from having ...
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Does US have standards for smart power outlets?

I am hobbyist and I am trying to build Wi-Fi power outlet. Right now it is personal project but I want to bring it to a mass production if I will succeed. I have never built such things before and I ...
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Current Regulation Drift

Over a 200ms period of which this circuit regulates a 500mA current, the current drift downwards for about 0.4%. At first I thought it was due to R202 temperature coefficient, but from my calculation ...
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Do the FCC's regulations make any sense?

I have read on the following page that the maximum permissible exposure MPE standard FCC have is 1 mW/cm2 for RF wave above 1500 MHz for general population. http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/...
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Does this appliance break UK safety laws?

Good evening. I recently purchased this active suction SMD pick-up tool from AliExpress: When it arrived, it seemed to work fine. However, when I opened it up (to investigate the feasibility of ...
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Standard for document in diagrams the power of motor

One machine supplier shipped us a motor with a power in its plate so different (800 kW) to the one indicated in the electrical diagrams (500 kW). We calculate the wires using the diagrams information ...
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ETSI EN 300 220-2 vs ERC 70-03 Limitations

I’m trying to understand discrepancies between EN 300 220 and ERC regarding the use of 865 - 868 MHz spectrum for SDR. Current ERC 70-03, page 8, says: Frequency Band: h1.2 Maximum Occupied Bandwidth:...
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FCC Co-Location of antennas

I am looking at creating a device within regulations for a medical environment with two Txing antennas, BLE (cypress FCC certified module) and 915MHz ST Spirit1 FCC certified module. I have found ...
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8 votes
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Is the maximum audible noise from power supplies regulated in Europe?

Power supplies make sometimes a lot noise in the range of kHz. Is there a regulation for the maximum allowed noise emission for consumer electronics on the European market? Is there a regulation ...
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1 answer
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Where can I find ultrasound machine regulations?

Diagnostic ultrasound machines are limited in their output power so that the sound waves don't cavity the microbubbles in the body. What I want to know is how do manufacturers prove their power ...
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Regulation of transformer with inductive load

The regulation of transformer and alternators is poor while supplying inductive loads like a motor as compared to resistive loads. Why is it so? I do understand the phasor analysis of these loads ...
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What is the correct way (read "correct way according to the law") to choose the section of a power cable in the EU and UK?

I am wondering if there is a standard process across the EU in particular Germany, France and the UK, for choosing the the section of a power cable. Suppose that: the cable is to be installed in an ...
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A Voltage Divider with Load Regulation and Efficiency Question? [closed]

For this question, the voltage divider splits the 12 V battery into +/- 6 V and it supplies up to 10 W total to the load, split between the two output voltage outputs in an arbitrary ration. Load ...
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Operating temperature regulation

Is there a regulation that states which minimum ambient temperature range a commercial equipment must be operational? I.e., a mandatory range of temperature every industry must guarantee its products ...
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Load Regulation at -30C Temperatue

I was doing temperature testing of my product. Which had 230V input supply voltage Inside the product one SMPS module which convert 230Vac to 20Vdc. Again this 20Vdc converted to 5Vdc using DC to DC ...
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What is the rule of the Vdc regulation in a shunt active filter

I understood very well the principals of harmonics identification in an shunt active filter ( PQ theory : Akagi & al for example), but what i don't understand is why do we care about regulating ...
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2 votes
3 answers
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Regulations (if any) for using electronic devices built by myself in my house

Are there any rules and regulations for using electronic devices built by a user in his own house in the UK? Like for example, if I build a DMX control system (from scratch - i.e. PCB and enclosures ...
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Confusion in deriving ripple voltage for an unregulated power supply

Above is a full wave rectifier as an unregulated power supply (please left-click with your mouse to enlarge the image) In many texts and tutorials the ripple voltage(|AX| in above figure) which is ...
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How do I cycle a WiFi transmitter through all modes, for FCC intentional radiator EMC testing?

I'm integrating a WiFi/Bluetooth module into a consumer product, however the module does not have a modular grant, will not have a modular grant, and is anyway getting paired with a unique internal ...
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Building compliance requirements for IOT sensors

I want to install a differential pressure sensor, (datasheet), in a clients building and leave it running for a few months. The sensor will be powered by a gateway, that will be approximately 50m ...
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Difference between medical device status: CE mark versus FDA approval

Can anyone tell me what the exact difference is between a medical device getting a CE mark versus FDA approval? As far as I know, a CE mark only means that a medical device conforms to the European ...
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If I incorporate a UL/NRTL listed power supply in our product, must we re-test?

We are building a product. It's a bench-top electrical testing thing, similar to a Keithley DMM or an oscilloscope in that it's something engineers would use at companies for testing stuff and ...
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AC power cord different on a laptop and a desktop, other appliances

If I look at the power cord plugged from the wall socket to desktop computers, monitors, etc. at the office, it looks like (North America): Now, if I look at the power cord plugged into my laptop's ...
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Of what real, practical use is electronics certification?

I am brand new to EE/ECE and am aware that companies such as UL offer a gammit of services such as: Circuit verification (they verify your schematic does what its supposed to do and doesn't have any ...
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Is CE marking on module necessary?

Suppose a RF module has passed CE EMC tests. Must the CE marking be printed on the module itself in order for the approval to be valid if it is to be used in an end product?
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