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Questions tagged [rf]

Short for Radio-Frequency. Frequencies at which radiation (intentional or not) plays a role. Typically associated with wireless communications, but also relevant for high-speed PCB design.

7
votes
2answers
440 views

what is the purpose of having a “thru cal” on RF PCB?

I often find a thru cal on RF PCB like picture below. What is the purpose of having this thru cal thing on the board? One purpose I can think of is to test whether the designed transmission line is ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Questions about stability circle and impedance matching

I'm a RF circuit beginner and got stuck in stability related issues. According to Pozar's textbook, output stability circle is a contour in the "gamma_L" plane and its arc represents the "gamma_L" ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Coax cable shielding understanding at AC

I know that AC changes its polarity once a cycle. We use coaxial cable for protecting the signal from magnetic interference. But if the cycle is negative then it it will flow in the shielding, won't ...
1
vote
2answers
43 views

Testing the RF properties of an enclosure

I need to measure RF (cellular) blocking properties of an enclosure. Is there an off-the-shelf set of tools for doing this? I'm assuming a MHz signal generator and an oscilloscope with an antenna ...
1
vote
4answers
90 views

Selecting coaxial cable and connector for PCB referring to required frequency

I want to transmit my 24GHz signal from PCB through coaxial to antenna. I wonder how to chose best match for it, also the power is -5dBm, 50 ohm. It's based on ADF5901 2ch PA. I have found two good ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

First order PLL power consumption

For a system level project I want to estimate the impact having a single vs. multiple PLLs. Is there a first order estimate that relates power, jitter (total integrated phase noise) and possibly ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

How to choose a blocking capacitor for RF power amplifier

I'm using a power amplifier that requires an external blocking capacitor for the input and output ports and I'm trying to decide the best value to use. My understanding of this is that I choose a ...
-4
votes
0answers
46 views

What amplifier RF do you advice me at low cost to transmit at 82mhz with a power of minimum 50W to 100W? [closed]

I have to transmit a sine wave at 82Mhz and 85Mhz, what do you advice me?
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Does a Vcc layer cause noise to a 4-layer RF PCB?

I'm designing a 4 layer GPS tracker PCB with the 2nd layer as ground and 3rd as Vcc. Is this a good practice? I know a gnd layer is good but I'm not sure how to distribute the positive of the supply ...
0
votes
3answers
56 views

How do I terminate a directional coupler?

I'm using a directional coupler for a radar application using frequencies of 5.3-5.9GHz. The directional coupler linked above is matched to a 50ohm characteristic impedance. How do I terminate the ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

SDR Signal Generator Frontend

I am working on a board that can take the output of an SDR (or VCO) and provide high accuracy amplitude control (+- 0.5dB). This is an opensource project that I will hopefully launch on crowdsupply ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

EN 300 328 CE radio certification with power limit

We have developed product for Malesia country, where we need local SIRIM certificate. RF module we used in our product is 2.4Ghz wifi mesh, with max 30dbm (1 watt) output power capacity. To get ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Contradicting ideas about differential signal route, confining fields vs Increasing impedance

By initial sense I think we must: keep pair intra-distance as close as possible for field cancellation. Fill surround of pair with GND plane and have via near to it to confine the fields, prevent ...
0
votes
1answer
82 views

Implementation of Decoupling capacitor [closed]

I have schematic for decoupling capacitors (3 set of 0.1uF,1nF,10pF): And I've implemented that in this way: And there is ADI reference for easy evaluation: And the ground pins of decoupling caps ...
10
votes
1answer
736 views

90° Bend: Mitered vs Curved

On RF PCBs to bend a trace 90° you have many choices but among them Curved and Mitered bend considered as a good choice from performance POV (Both shown below). For many years I thought that if you ...
-3
votes
0answers
52 views

Using Arduino Uno to isolate receiving radio frequencies [closed]

I'm trying to get a project started dealing with low radio frequency scanning. I want to receive radio signals in the range of 25hz - 100hz and discard signals in a higher band. Is this ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Quadrature modulation Digital to Analog

I want to use an FPGA to generate quadrature modulated signals for use with an RF transceiver (something like MAX2828 ). I am confused specifically about how the digital to analog modulation should ...
0
votes
2answers
24 views

Cellular chip antenna feedline width?

I have a chip cellular antenna from Pulse W3544B. In the datasheet it is said to make the transmission line 1.34 mm thick which I feel is too huge and also I wanted to make a strip line for impedance ...
0
votes
0answers
58 views

Can you generate a pure sine wave by mixing a fixed frequency sine wave with a variable frequency square wave?

Let us suppose I don't have a DDS available, and instead I have two square wave clocks with frequencies of my choosing. I have the impression that creating a wide bandwidth (multi-decade) sine wave ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

ESP32: 0.1uF Cap Between SENSOR_VP and SENSOR_VN

According to the ESP32 Hardware Design Guidelines, a 0.1uF cap should be added to the SENSOR_VP and SENSOR_VN pads when using them as an ADC. Why is it then that the subcircuit schematics shown in the ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Passive (or very low power sensor) sensor to wirelessly receive wake signal

Context. I am using an ESP32 and a small circuit to control an electronic lock on my one of my exterior doors. It is powered by batteries. It has a door magnet sensor to detect when the door is open ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Struggling with patch gps smd antennas connections

I'm struggling with antenna connections to GPS module in my PCB design. My antenna is a smd passive patch antenna, "SGGP.25.4.A.02 from Taoglas". The antenna shape and recommended footprint is in the ...
0
votes
0answers
53 views

High data rate (~1-5 Mpbs) Point to Point Radio

I'm working on a rocket project at my University, and am trying to find a point to point / point to multipoint radio capable of a hopefully 1-5 Mbps data rate between a ground station a directional ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

does adding Vias through the antenna feed line change impedance?

I have a GPS through-hole patch antenna, the through hole need to be connected to the bottom layer and then from there the feed-line flows to the GPS receiver. But I want the GPS receiver to be on top ...
2
votes
0answers
45 views

2.4GHz RF design losing signal

First time poster here, please excuse holes in the plot. I have a simple wireless design made of an MCU (atmega328p) and an NRF24L01 module, powered through a 3.3V regulator, talking to a similar ...
0
votes
1answer
82 views

How to increase range of AM radio waves? [closed]

As a personal project, I made a very simple AM transmitter with an idea from an online tutorial, using a 1 MHz crystal oscillator (plus power source, antenna, breadboard, etc.). However, when using ...
-4
votes
1answer
73 views

Are headphones with EMF measurement of 10,000 milligauss harmful to me?

I used a EMF detector app on my phone and measured the EMF output on my wired headphones. It measured around 10,000 milligauss on one part of both ear cups. Since wearing these headphones on my head ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

Discrepancy between simulation and measurement for a voltage doubler/ rectifier design at 5.8 GHz

I am designing a pretty straight-forward voltage doubler at 5.8 GHz with MACOM's MA4E1317 diode, which I have used before and know from previous experience that matches pretty well with the spice ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

Impedance matching for push-pull RF amplifier

I am working on the output matching network of a commercial push-pull class AB amplifier based on LDMOS BLF188. The output matching network consists of a 1:4 transformer and a Toroid with 8 turns The ...
0
votes
2answers
43 views

Noise power at receive antenna with finite transmit SNR?

I have seen a few examples of link budgets, and they all assume that the total noise at the Rx is just going to be -174 dBm + 10 log BW. However, this seems to me to assume that the transmit signal is ...
0
votes
1answer
81 views

A beginner that could use a few tips on wiring my first circuit involving relays

I am in no way experienced or knowledgeable with circuits or electronics passed installing my own car subwoofers and amps, or swapping out pickups on a guitar which means I only basically know how to ...
0
votes
2answers
170 views

Explain this circuit

I know this circuit is an oscillator circuit and it senses another signal of same frequency, but I don't understand the calculation behind it, and the reason for emitter inductor, 3.9k collector ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Impedance matching of a RF power amplifier based on the s2p file

I'm designing the input/output impedance matching circuit for a RF power amplifier, based on the vendor supplied s2p file. I designed separately the input/output matching circuit at the given working ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Rube Goldberg, twisting in a lightbulb [migrated]

For my rube golberg project I have to twist a lightbulb in and have it turn on. I have seen different videos on how they do it but they never explain it and most of the videos are blurry. We can't ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

XBee Pro Antenna Options - do the U.FL antennas have better range than the chip or micro pad antennas?

Logically the U.FL dipole antenna will have better range than the other two options, as it's a larger antenna, but is this actually true? How do the three antennas perform in relation to each other ...
-1
votes
0answers
27 views

APC220's not communicating

I am trying to establish a communication between my computer and an Arduino UNO using a pair of APC220 modules. First I struggled with the RF Magic software but finally got it to work and find the ...
2
votes
2answers
60 views

Question about the power rating of a RF power amplifier

In HMC453ST89's datasheet, it gives the electrical specifications when Vs = +5V: The max. output power is around 32.5dBm, about 1.6W. But for a 50 Ohm load, 1.6W means the peak voltage is about 12V. ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

How close to P1dB can I go?

I'm trying to decide on a safe input power to a power amplifier. The amplifier in question is SE5004L. The datasheet specifies that the amplifier output 1-dB compression point has a minimum value of ...
0
votes
2answers
116 views

Can somebody please explain the antenna and mixer stage of this AM superheterodyne receiver?

This is from an Elenco AM/FM superheterodyne radio receiver kit. The shown area is the AM antenna and mixer stage. The wire leading from the top right corner is Vcc. Q7 simultaneously oscillates ...
1
vote
2answers
78 views

Project - How to onstruct a circuit to introduce and control a 0-300ms delay in an RF feed from a Sky Box to multiple TV sets? [closed]

Just bought a new TV! It's "smart" but where my previous dumb TV didn't, my smart TV introduces a delay over HDMI from my Sky+HD box compared to the RF2 output which is wired via coax cable to the ...
3
votes
5answers
1k views

How do microstrips actually represent lumped components?

I'm having trouble understand intutively how microstrips repersent lumped element components. All we are told is that, high impedance sections on a microstrip line repersent inductors and low-...
-1
votes
0answers
45 views

Arduino Long Range RF Distributed TCP/IP Ethernet Mesh Network

I am trying to design and build a radio frequency mesh network of Arduino Nano + ENC28J60 + LoRa SX1278 distributed over a roughly 10km^2 campus. The Nano + 28J60 + SX1278 would be used as base ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

How to stop erroneous signals on startup of an RF circuit

I have a really janky setup where I'm using an ESP and some transistors to "push" the buttons on an RF remote control, used for controlling electrical outlets. The circuit works perfectly during ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Creating a balanced dipole from two monopole chip antennas for use on small PCBs

I'm trying to use a monopole chip antenna on a PCB much smaller than the one recommended in the datasheet. I am wondering if I can get away with a much smaller board by using two monopole antennas ...
0
votes
2answers
70 views

I don't know how to choose an adequate antenna

I need to choose an antenna for a long range free space communication (~10km), and I currently have a receiving antenna, but I don't understand enough to be able to pick an adequate emitter. The ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Equivalent Series Resistance of 13.56 MHz RFID Antenna

I am designing a system that uses the MFRC522 by NXP Semiconductors and I am having a bit of difficulty designing the antenna. NXP provide an antenna design guide under the application note AN1445 ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

How to design RF PCB to ensure the 50 ohm impedance

I do not have any experience designing RF circuits and I am finding many challenges for my project. One of them is to match the 50 ohm impedance that some components demand. In the input of my PCB I ...
-1
votes
1answer
51 views

My mobile detector circuit won't work

I'm trying to get C3 to detect RF signals from a mobile phone. Amplify this signal to detect it using an LED. My main issue is simulating the antenna on multisim since multisim doesnt have an antenna!...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

Generating a realistic sine wave in MATLAB

I'm working on a simulation on MATLAB and I need a realistic sine wave which has harmonics. So I know there would be harmonics at 2f,3f... but I am not sure how to determine their amplitude. I tried ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

How to find new ABCD parameters when reversing 2-port network

I have an ABCD matrix represenataion which is defined as: For such a problem, what approach should I follow in order to organize the new ( reversed) network ports voltages and currents properly. I ...