Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [saturation]

The tag has no usage guidance.

0
votes
1answer
31 views

Instrumentation Amplifier Saturation to Rails

I am working with a TI INA821 Instrumentation Amplifier to try to amplifier a 0-5mV (delta) analog signal off a strain gauge. To reiterate, every DC analog value between the delta of 5mV represents a ...
-1
votes
0answers
44 views

op amp saturation problem

I use opamp656 from texas instrument to integrate the output current pulses from a photodetector. When I use 15pF capacitor in parallel with a 100K resistor as the negative feedback network, my ...
1
vote
2answers
35 views

Magnitude of \$I_{CBO}\$ in a typical transistor

I read in a book that \$I_{CBO}\$ doubles for every 10 degree rise in temperature and hence contributes to thermal runaway. However I am confused since essentially it is the reverse saturation current ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Usuing P_channel mosfet to make o normally closed switch

Hi, I am trying to implement a normally closed switch. In the shown circuit: Vcc = 16..60V (Vcc>>Vz) The characteristics of the P-mos are: Vth = -1V Rdson = 0,055ohm The circuit works correctly: in ...
1
vote
3answers
47 views

Saturation current on chip inductors

Inductors are really not my strong point, and I have been getting a bit confused on the rated current vs saturation current. I know the rated current is how much current the inductor can handle ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Magnetic material demagnetization through Curie temperature

It is known that some materials lose their permanent magnetic properties when they are heated above certain temperature known as Curie temperature or Curie point. As those materials are cooled down to ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Do BJT (Darlington) transistors have a minimum collector current?

I am using a TIP122 Darlington transistor. From the graph provided in the datasheet, I can see that the saturation voltage decreases as the collector current decreases. Since the load I am driving ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Why isn't the Saturation Current of a Photodiode the same as its Short Circuit Current?

The formula I see everywhere is: $$ I_{sat} = \frac{V_{bias}}{R_L} $$ But this seems incomplete for the following reason: The larger the resistance is the smaller the Saturation Current, it stands ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

What part of Ebers-Moll equation shows the decrease of the collector current in saturation region

By looking at the Ebers-Moll equation for a BJT transistor: Is this formula explicitly showing why Ic starting to decrease towards zero in saturation region. Which part of the equation shows that?
0
votes
1answer
75 views

Where would Icbo flow through and would it cause thermal runaway?

I was reading this page about thermal run away. And it mentions: Due to increase in the temperature of collector junction, Ico will increase, Vbe will decrease. But for Ico to increase Ic and ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

MOSFET goes into saturation mode much later

I am using IRLML6346 NMOS in LTSpice. Its threshold voltage is Vt = 0.95V. I plotted the graph of Vds(voltage between drain and source) vs Ids(Current from drain to source) for different values of Vgs(...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

BJT saturation question

For the following question, how do we find \$I_B\$ and \$I_C\$? Would it be $$I_C = \frac{V_{in}-V_{BE}}{80k}$$ and $$I_B = \frac{12-0.12}{5k}$$
0
votes
1answer
87 views

NMOS/PMOS Saturation

If I recall correctly, saturation occurs if \$V_{GS}>V_{TH}\$ and \$V_{DS}>V_{Dsat}\$ for NMOS. But is there an upper limit for the voltage? Like, when does a transistor not saturate after ...
0
votes
1answer
72 views

Double BJT circuit with one BJT off and one in saturation

In the circuit below, due to the base voltage, the circuit becomes a common-emitter setup. However, assuming a reasonable value for the base current the BJT should be in saturation. However the value ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

How can a magnetic circuit with an airgap have a higher e.m.f in the secondary coil than the same circuit without the air gap?

I have a magnetic circuit with the same configuration as in the image, the primary coil has 203 turns and the secondary has 406 turns, how do I get a higher eletromotive force when there is an air gap ...
5
votes
2answers
199 views

Self-made Schottky transistor doesn't behave as I'd expect

For a project of mine I need to generate UART-like signals with higher voltage (up to 18V) and a baudrate of 115200 bps and later possibly 250000 bps. I tried a basic BJT level shifter which worked as ...
0
votes
2answers
596 views

BJT: Equation of Vce for Saturation Region

In Sedra and Smith: Microelectronics Circuits (6E), it is mentioned, on page 185: Recalling that the CBJ is much larger than the EBJ, the forward-voltage drop \$v_{BC}\$ will be smaller than \$v_{...
0
votes
1answer
166 views

Differential amplifier circuit, problem with saturation

I have a homework problem regarding differential amplifier. We have a differential amplifier with symmetric supply (i.e. \$V_{CC}=-V_{EE}\$). Emitters are connected to a perfect current source \...
2
votes
2answers
162 views

OPAMP saturating when output is negative, simulation is OK

The schematics: It should convert 0-3.3V input from the DAC to -4.1 + 4.1V (roughly) The positive part works great, the negative output voltage saturates at -2.95V. Is it ok? The simulation looks ...
1
vote
1answer
103 views

Saturation Cascade MOSFETS (Need Help from EE Experts)

this is a very straightforward question. I'm running a Harmonic simulation on ADS where I need to design a cascode amplifier of two NMOS and one PMOS, that have a gain higher than Av > -100. The ...
0
votes
1answer
284 views

Problem with output swing in LM358

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I am working on a battery charger with indicator. I am using a LM358 to compare the voltage of my battery with a reference voltage of ...
1
vote
1answer
139 views

Do we have a voltage drop across this ideal current source?

Additional info includes Vss=0V, Vdd=3V. Also assume saturation (since we have Vd=Vg) and λn=0. We also know the reference current but not the Resistor. I know Vgs and thus Vds but I am looking to ...
0
votes
2answers
268 views

Why collector current is small in value in saturation mode?

Why is the collector current smaller in value when a transistor is in saturation mode of operation? My guess is that although both the junctions are forward biased, the (forward) currents are '...
0
votes
1answer
111 views

JFET saturation current

Is it possible to analytically calculate Idss for JFET? I tried by setting voltage gate-source to zero, and then finding the drain current, but it doesn't seem to match with the given value?
-1
votes
1answer
85 views

Why this operational amplifier is saturated?

my problem is that in this circuit: Where \$\pm V_{cc} =\pm 15V, R1=1k\Omega, R2= 10k\Omega\$, if I introduce a signal like: \$ v_i(t) = 2 \cos{(2\pi 1000 t)}\$, the output voltaje is this: Where ...
6
votes
1answer
254 views

Simulating Chua's circuit in LTspice with a saturating transformer-based nonlinear resistor

Chua's circuit is one of the simplest circuits known to exhibit chaotic behavior. It consists of resistors, capacitors, an inductor, and an active nonlinear resistor. One implementation of this ...
0
votes
1answer
119 views

Photodiode amplification works with LM258N but doesn't with LF356N

The circuit is as follows I'm powering the op-amp from a 9V battery. It gives me constant 3.6V at the output and it doesn't change with changing the illumination of the diode. I tried replacing the ...
0
votes
0answers
139 views

Saturation due to opamp offset

I have built a non inverting integrator with a THS4631 op-amp. The circuit schematic is shown below. Without any input the output of the circuit should saturate to supply voltage. However, the output ...
0
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the difference between “Collector-Emitter” and “Base-Emitter” Saturation Voltage?

As you can see on the datasheet below for the 2n2222a NPN transistor, the "Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage" and "Base-Emitter Saturation Voltage" are defined respectively as 0.3 to 1.0 and 1.2 to ...
1
vote
1answer
162 views

Cannot find “reverse saturation current” of base-emitter junction in the data-sheet

Regarding the reverse saturation current \$I_{ES}\$ aka \$ I_{EO}\$ of an NPN transistor, according to Ebers–Moll Model: \$I_E = I_{ES} (e^{V_{BE}/V_T} -1) -\alpha_RI_{CS}(e^{V_{BC}/V_T}-1)\$ ...
1
vote
2answers
175 views

Saturating magnetic field in an inductor without heating

I am building an RL series circuit with a toroidal inductor that I am winding on my own. The toroid is made of steel (low carbon, I believe, but not 100% sure) and has about 280 turns of 22 gauge wire....
10
votes
6answers
2k views

Why do we want gap in the core material while designing inductor?

In some cases it is necessary that core of inductor should have a gap, unlike with transformer core. I understand the reason with the voltage transformer core; there is nothing to worry about core ...
-1
votes
4answers
953 views

Negative voltage for Vce - BJT NPN

I was wondering what happens when VCE voltage becomes negative? suppose I am forwarding both junctions (no resistors). I know that saturation happens when VCE is between 0.1V- 0.3V but what happens ...
3
votes
1answer
986 views

Vce saturation voltage confusion

I finally finished my first transistor circuit and looks as follows: For the LED to light up properly, I assumed a forward current of 70mA and a voltage drop of 1.3V. The datasheet of the PN2222A ...
3
votes
3answers
848 views

How to determine the saturation level when an opamp schmitt trigger starts worknig?

The Opamp inverting schmitt trigger is constructed as shown. The output signal is So I ask why is the output at the start of operation saturated to positive? Also, if the input voltage is moved ...
5
votes
2answers
219 views

Powering an LED with transistor in saturation mode

I currently try to design my first transistor circuit to switch an LED on and off. So I came up with this circuit diagram: I have to use the following components: PN2222A NPN BJT IR LED TSAL 6200 ...
0
votes
2answers
323 views

Current increase in induction motor

I have an induction motor which is fed by a three phase inverter. I am trying to use vector control with d-axis aligned with the rotor flux vector. I have a load which increases its torque as the ...
3
votes
4answers
2k views

NPN Circuit simulation doesn't agree with book

I'm trying to understand an exercise reported in Microelectronic Circuit Design by R. C. Jaeger & T. N. Blalock (4th ed, p.237). $$\beta_F = 50, \beta_R = 1$$. I don't agree with the discussion ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

Opamp circuit problem

BJT Circuit Problem I have already posted a similar problem in the link above. I am facing the same issue in this circuit. What will be the state of the 2 BJT's Cutoff, Saturated or Active ? Please ...
3
votes
2answers
434 views

BJT Circuit Problem [closed]

I am facing problem in solving such mixed circuits with bjt, diode, opamp and Zener diode. In the above problem 1.zener can have 3 states (ON, OFF, Reverse ON) 2.diode can have 2 (ON, OFF) 3.BJT ...
2
votes
2answers
635 views

How to conclude region of operation for a series combination of MOSFET

I understand that M1 is on and for M2 to be on the intermediate voltage(drain on M1 and source of M2) should be less than 1.5V. Also if M2 is ON then M2 is in saturation since Vds>(Vgs-Vt) for M2. Now ...
1
vote
1answer
330 views

Inductor Inrush Current Rating

I am experimenting with the simple circuit shown below and was wondering how to ensure that the inductor used would handle the inrush current. My reasoned solution is the following: I solved for ...
0
votes
2answers
430 views

Current gain characteristics versus Collector Emitter voltage. Where is the transistor saturated? Can a transistor be saturated with a VCE of -10V?

I'm fairly new to transistor usage and determining stages of operation for a BJT. However, from what I've learned, in order for a BJT to be saturated, both junctions need to be forward biased, and ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Is possible to get Q2 saturated with the VI voltage?

I´m having trouble with this circuit. Is it possible to get Q2 --> saturation using the VI voltage? When VI = 0; the VCE2 = 14.457 V. By calculations I know that Q1 and Q2 cannot be on saturation at ...
1
vote
2answers
469 views

Why are the transistors in logic circuits used in saturation region for ON state?

This is a beginner question. I know how the logic gates with BJTs work basically to provide ON and OFF switching action. OFF state occurs when the transistor is blocked in cut-off region, and ON state ...
0
votes
1answer
190 views

DC Shunt Generation Ascending/Descending Terminal voltage Saturation Curve help?

In a DC Shunt Generator we increased Field Current from 0 to 2.0 and calculated the Terminal Voltage, we then decreased field current from 2.0 to 0 and collected our field current again. When plotting ...
2
votes
1answer
421 views

Avoiding opamp saturation - working with apd

i have avalanche photo diode with which i am trying to digitalize the current from TIA through a comparator, the diode biased using a HVDCDC the source is being a 20ns laser with a PRF of 3Khz the ...
0
votes
1answer
224 views

Setting optimum base current for saturation and power dissipation of a BJT

Regarding the following circuit example, I want to find the optimum current for saturation of Q1. By saturation I mean the safe one. For simplicity I didn't bias the transistor and I'm assuming beta ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

Some questions about BJT in saturation region

In below circuit I sweep Vb from zero to 5V Vcc. And I obtain the following plots for the currents: I have a bit problem with understanding two things in saturation region: 1-) Why/how does the Ic ...
0
votes
2answers
2k views

A confusion about the formula for transistor Vbe Ic characterisitcs

Below is NPN BJT transistor Vbe Ic characteristics and the formula: Many texts approximate this equation as: Ic = Is*e^(Vbe/Ut) and following this they say when Vbe=0, Ic becomes equal to Is. ...