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Questions tagged [saturation]

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BJT saturation question

For the following question, how do we find \$I_B\$ and \$I_C\$? Would it be $$I_C = \frac{V_{in}-V_{BE}}{80k}$$ and $$I_B = \frac{12-0.12}{5k}$$
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NMOS/PMOS Saturation

If I recall correctly, saturation occurs if \$V_{GS}>V_{TH}\$ and \$V_{DS}>V_{Dsat}\$ for NMOS. But is there an upper limit for the voltage? Like, when does a transistor not saturate after ...
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32 views

Double BJT circuit with one BJT off and one in saturation

In the circuit below, due to the base voltage, the circuit becomes a common-emitter setup. However, assuming a reasonable value for the base current the BJT should be in saturation. However the value ...
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41 views

How can a magnetic circuit with an airgap have a higher e.m.f in the secondary coil than the same circuit without the air gap?

I have a magnetic circuit with the same configuration as in the image, the primary coil has 203 turns and the secondary has 406 turns, how do I get a higher eletromotive force when there is an air gap ...
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168 views

Self-made Schottky transistor doesn't behave as I'd expect

For a project of mine I need to generate UART-like signals with higher voltage (up to 18V) and a baudrate of 115200 bps and later possibly 250000 bps. I tried a basic BJT level shifter which worked as ...
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150 views

BJT: Equation of Vce for Saturation Region

In Sedra and Smith: Microelectronics Circuits (6E), it is mentioned, on page 185: Recalling that the CBJ is much larger than the EBJ, the forward-voltage drop \$v_{BC}\$ will be smaller than \$v_{...
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161 views

Differential amplifier circuit, problem with saturation

I have a homework problem regarding differential amplifier. We have a differential amplifier with symmetric supply (i.e. \$V_{CC}=-V_{EE}\$). Emitters are connected to a perfect current source \...
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2answers
161 views

OPAMP saturating when output is negative, simulation is OK

The schematics: It should convert 0-3.3V input from the DAC to -4.1 + 4.1V (roughly) The positive part works great, the negative output voltage saturates at -2.95V. Is it ok? The simulation looks ...
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59 views

Saturation Cascade MOSFETS (Need Help from EE Experts)

this is a very straightforward question. I'm running a Harmonic simulation on ADS where I need to design a cascode amplifier of two NMOS and one PMOS, that have a gain higher than Av > -100. The ...
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1answer
182 views

Problem with output swing in LM358

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I am working on a battery charger with indicator. I am using a LM358 to compare the voltage of my battery with a reference voltage of ...
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1answer
72 views

Do we have a voltage drop across this ideal current source?

Additional info includes Vss=0V, Vdd=3V. Also assume saturation (since we have Vd=Vg) and λn=0. We also know the reference current but not the Resistor. I know Vgs and thus Vds but I am looking to ...
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142 views

Why collector current is small in value in saturation mode?

Why is the collector current smaller in value when a transistor is in saturation mode of operation? My guess is that although both the junctions are forward biased, the (forward) currents are '...
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1answer
89 views

JFET saturation current

Is it possible to analytically calculate Idss for JFET? I tried by setting voltage gate-source to zero, and then finding the drain current, but it doesn't seem to match with the given value?
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1answer
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Why this operational amplifier is saturated?

my problem is that in this circuit: Where \$\pm V_{cc} =\pm 15V, R1=1k\Omega, R2= 10k\Omega\$, if I introduce a signal like: \$ v_i(t) = 2 \cos{(2\pi 1000 t)}\$, the output voltaje is this: Where ...
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1answer
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Simulating Chua's circuit in LTspice with a saturating transformer-based nonlinear resistor

Chua's circuit is one of the simplest circuits known to exhibit chaotic behavior. It consists of resistors, capacitors, an inductor, and an active nonlinear resistor. One implementation of this ...
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1answer
85 views

Photodiode amplification works with LM258N but doesn't with LF356N

The circuit is as follows I'm powering the op-amp from a 9V battery. It gives me constant 3.6V at the output and it doesn't change with changing the illumination of the diode. I tried replacing the ...
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0answers
102 views

Saturation due to opamp offset

I have built a non inverting integrator with a THS4631 op-amp. The circuit schematic is shown below. Without any input the output of the circuit should saturate to supply voltage. However, the output ...
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2answers
510 views

What is the difference between “Collector-Emitter” and “Base-Emitter” Saturation Voltage?

As you can see on the datasheet below for the 2n2222a NPN transistor, the "Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage" and "Base-Emitter Saturation Voltage" are defined respectively as 0.3 to 1.0 and 1.2 to ...
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1answer
84 views

Cannot find “reverse saturation current” of base-emitter junction in the data-sheet

Regarding the reverse saturation current \$I_{ES}\$ aka \$ I_{EO}\$ of an NPN transistor, according to Ebers–Moll Model: \$I_E = I_{ES} (e^{V_{BE}/V_T} -1) -\alpha_RI_{CS}(e^{V_{BC}/V_T}-1)\$ ...
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2answers
135 views

Saturating magnetic field in an inductor without heating

I am building an RL series circuit with a toroidal inductor that I am winding on my own. The toroid is made of steel (low carbon, I believe, but not 100% sure) and has about 280 turns of 22 gauge wire....
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Why do we want gap in the core material while designing inductor?

In some cases it is necessary that core of inductor should have a gap, unlike with transformer core. I understand the reason with the voltage transformer core; there is nothing to worry about core ...
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4answers
613 views

Negative voltage for Vce - BJT NPN

I was wondering what happens when VCE voltage becomes negative? suppose I am forwarding both junctions (no resistors). I know that saturation happens when VCE is between 0.1V- 0.3V but what happens ...
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1answer
846 views

Vce saturation voltage confusion

I finally finished my first transistor circuit and looks as follows: For the LED to light up properly, I assumed a forward current of 70mA and a voltage drop of 1.3V. The datasheet of the PN2222A ...
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3answers
643 views

How to determine the saturation level when an opamp schmitt trigger starts worknig?

The Opamp inverting schmitt trigger is constructed as shown. The output signal is So I ask why is the output at the start of operation saturated to positive? Also, if the input voltage is moved ...
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2answers
188 views

Powering an LED with transistor in saturation mode

I currently try to design my first transistor circuit to switch an LED on and off. So I came up with this circuit diagram: I have to use the following components: PN2222A NPN BJT IR LED TSAL 6200 ...
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2answers
250 views

Current increase in induction motor

I have an induction motor which is fed by a three phase inverter. I am trying to use vector control with d-axis aligned with the rotor flux vector. I have a load which increases its torque as the ...
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4answers
2k views

NPN Circuit simulation doesn't agree with book

I'm trying to understand an exercise reported in Microelectronic Circuit Design by R. C. Jaeger & T. N. Blalock (4th ed, p.237). $$\beta_F = 50, \beta_R = 1$$. I don't agree with the discussion ...
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1answer
92 views

Opamp circuit problem

BJT Circuit Problem I have already posted a similar problem in the link above. I am facing the same issue in this circuit. What will be the state of the 2 BJT's Cutoff, Saturated or Active ? Please ...
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2answers
331 views

BJT Circuit Problem [closed]

I am facing problem in solving such mixed circuits with bjt, diode, opamp and Zener diode. In the above problem 1.zener can have 3 states (ON, OFF, Reverse ON) 2.diode can have 2 (ON, OFF) 3.BJT ...
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2answers
405 views

How to conclude region of operation for a series combination of MOSFET

I understand that M1 is on and for M2 to be on the intermediate voltage(drain on M1 and source of M2) should be less than 1.5V. Also if M2 is ON then M2 is in saturation since Vds>(Vgs-Vt) for M2. Now ...
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1answer
245 views

Inductor Inrush Current Rating

I am experimenting with the simple circuit shown below and was wondering how to ensure that the inductor used would handle the inrush current. My reasoned solution is the following: I solved for ...
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2answers
342 views

Current gain characteristics versus Collector Emitter voltage. Where is the transistor saturated? Can a transistor be saturated with a VCE of -10V?

I'm fairly new to transistor usage and determining stages of operation for a BJT. However, from what I've learned, in order for a BJT to be saturated, both junctions need to be forward biased, and ...
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1answer
36 views

Is possible to get Q2 saturated with the VI voltage?

I´m having trouble with this circuit. Is it possible to get Q2 --> saturation using the VI voltage? When VI = 0; the VCE2 = 14.457 V. By calculations I know that Q1 and Q2 cannot be on saturation at ...
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2answers
365 views

Why are the transistors in logic circuits used in saturation region for ON state?

This is a beginner question. I know how the logic gates with BJTs work basically to provide ON and OFF switching action. OFF state occurs when the transistor is blocked in cut-off region, and ON state ...
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1answer
126 views

DC Shunt Generation Ascending/Descending Terminal voltage Saturation Curve help?

In a DC Shunt Generator we increased Field Current from 0 to 2.0 and calculated the Terminal Voltage, we then decreased field current from 2.0 to 0 and collected our field current again. When plotting ...
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1answer
320 views

Avoiding opamp saturation - working with apd

i have avalanche photo diode with which i am trying to digitalize the current from TIA through a comparator, the diode biased using a HVDCDC the source is being a 20ns laser with a PRF of 3Khz the ...
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1answer
183 views

Setting optimum base current for saturation and power dissipation of a BJT

Regarding the following circuit example, I want to find the optimum current for saturation of Q1. By saturation I mean the safe one. For simplicity I didn't bias the transistor and I'm assuming beta ...
2
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1answer
44 views

Some questions about BJT in saturation region

In below circuit I sweep Vb from zero to 5V Vcc. And I obtain the following plots for the currents: I have a bit problem with understanding two things in saturation region: 1-) Why/how does the Ic ...
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0answers
125 views

Pulse generator with independent control of high level and low level of the pulse

I want to design a pulse generator with independent control of high level (0 to Vcc) and low level (0 to Vcc) of the pulse (maximum from Vcc to -Vcc). I have used an AB class push-pull amplifier, as ...
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2answers
1k views

A confusion about the formula for transistor Vbe Ic characterisitcs

Below is NPN BJT transistor Vbe Ic characteristics and the formula: Many texts approximate this equation as: Ic = Is*e^(Vbe/Ut) and following this they say when Vbe=0, Ic becomes equal to Is. ...
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1answer
143 views

Does a saturated inductor radiate more?

Background: I am using a shielded inductor in a switching power supply, and am investigating an EMI issue. My hypothesis is that since the inductor is saturated, the magnetic field is no longer ...
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2answers
641 views

Is inductor saturation current frequency dependent?

The wiki article explaining inductor core saturation talks about magnetic domains lining up with the external magnetic field to concentrate the magnetic flux. This sounds similar to electric ...
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0answers
172 views

Rail-to-rail opamp clipping/saturating, audible recovery time

The input circuit: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab The output circuit: simulate this circuit I'm working on a signal conditioning circuit for an AD/DA converter. I ...
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3answers
400 views

How to measure the inverse saturation current of a diode?

I'm trying to measure the inverse saturation current of a diode, for using it in the schockley equation. I would like to know what is the best circuit for doing this. I already tried the following ...
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1answer
192 views

Questions regarding BJT saturation for a circuit

I have the following circuit which converts weak sine signal to pulses: I have tried it on breadboard and it seems it works fine. In my application freq. is between 1Hz to 30Hz or max 100Hz. And the ...
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1answer
330 views

Why does the reverse saturation current not vary with the reverse voltage?

I can understand that in the depletion region of a diode more covalent bonds are broken(more electrons goes to conduction band) with more temperature hence we say that the reverse saturation current ...
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1answer
2k views

Resistance of a MOSFET in saturation mode

I have been studying MOSFETs and have a question regarding saturation mode. To my understanding, the drain current is constant in saturation mode. Does this mean that the drain-source resistance ...
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2answers
849 views

Why Does Op-Amp Output Voltage Always Saturate (in a Non-Inverting Amplifier Circuit)?

I am trying to amplify the voltage measured across a shunt resistor (Rs). I am using a non-inverting amplifier circuit (as shown in the figure). The expected voltage across the shunt is in the 0-50mV ...
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0answers
108 views

Saturation mode of BJT (physics point of view)

I am studying for a test in electronics. And I could really use some help. I think I understood completely bjt regions of operation, except saturation. I tried finding answers on internet, but ...
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1answer
265 views

How a switching PSU inductor overcomes the problem of saturation current?

If you open a switching step down converter like the one used in your desktop computer, you will only find that a relatively small torroidal transformer ultimately provide the power to the user. Sure,...