Questions tagged [saturation]

Saturation applies to two things in electronics; core saturation in a transformer or inductor, AND transistor saturation in a BJT or a MOSFET.

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Detecting AC current using saturated current transformer — variation in saturation ampere-turns of magnetic cores

In another question someone asked about using a transformer (in current transformer mode) to detect current through a power line. The purpose of circuit was not to measure the current, but was only ...
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64 views

Understanding the VI output characteristic of NPN transistor in the saturation region

I have trouble in understanding the VI graph of the output current (collector current \$I_C\$) in the NPN transistor. More precisely the common base one (this is the first type of transistor I came ...
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40 views

Buffer Clipping Below Negative Supply Voltage

I'm trying to understand op-amp operation, starting with the buffer circuit. I have simulated the voltage follower using an LM324 in Multisim Live. I was trying to simulate output saturation by ...
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84 views

Can an inductor lose its characteristics permanently after short saturation?

I was testing a SMPS (boost) where I had an overcurrent due to overload for a few seconds. The inductor saturation current is 2A. Although I could not measure the current, I am quite sure that the ...
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273 views

one-sided saturation with op-amp and RC high pass filter

I am working with a photodetecting circuit built as follow: When I drive an LED ON and OFF, I get the following waveforms: Blue indicates that the LED is turned on when a voltage is high and turned ...
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654 views

Passive harmonic filter: Why Immensely Hot and Humming

I encountered a passive harmonic filter, PHF with highly non linear loads, i.e. variable frequency drive, VFD (most of the time running 50Hz) serving an induction motor. I believe that it is a ...
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438 views

Op-amp: Floating input (Multisim)

I found this circuit from Encyclopedia of Electronic Circuits Volumes 1 by RUDOLF F. GRAF I used Multisim to simulate. When switches S1 and S2 are open (U1A@3 and U1B@6 are floating) and I measured ...
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879 views

Unexpected saturation with the rail to rail instrumental amplifier AD623

I'm trying to use the rail-to-rail instrumental amplifier AD623. Here the datasheet. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab First experiment: AD623 set as a voltage ...
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50 views

Can I use a laminated silicon steel transformer core as a low frequency boost converter core?

Since laminated silicon steel is used in low frequency transformers, can't I also use it as an inductor in a low frequency boost converter, at maybe 100Hz, theoretically shouldn't this work as well as ...
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18 views

Conditions for a JFET transistor to saturate

I have come across the relations: vDS > vGS – VP for n-channel JFET vDS < vGS – VP for P-channel JFET The two are given as the conditions for JFET to be in saturation. How can I arrive at these ...
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59 views

Collector Emitter Saturation Voltage

Lately I have been studying the BJT and its respective Transport/Ebers-Moll models with the equations for the Base, Collector and Emitter currents. Assuming an npn transistor, applying a constant ...
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29 views

Inexplicable curve shape of short circuit current measurement on synchronous machine

I'm doing some experiments on a synchronous machine with follwing data: nominal power: 5kVA nominal stator voltage: 380V phase-phase nominal stator current: 7.6A nominal frequency: 50Hz / nominal ...
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48 views

Preventing opamp from possible saturation maybe

I am trying to simulate a gyrator circuit for implementing capacitor as inductor in LTSpice. While simulation I am encountering the following problem : It seems that top left opamp undergoes ...
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52 views

How does forward biasing of both junctions in BJT leads to saturation?

As far as I know, for an NPN-BJT, when both (base-emitter and base-collector) are forward biased; we consider the operation to be in saturation mode. Here, the transistor functions as a short circuit ...
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85 views

The meaning of constant current source in BJT

Taking a sample from TAOE Ch.2 Figure 2.9 for example. The book suggests that BJT constructs a constant current source for the LED and \$\beta\$ is subject to change from multiple parameters thus ...
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49 views

op amp saturation

I have this circuit which is acting with negative resistance. However when increasing the voltage well above saturation it produces a weird distortion on the output as seen below. can anyone explain.
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4answers
590 views

What are these transistors doing and how are they working in this VU Meter?

I was thinking of making KITT's voice box from Knight Rider, which is essentially a VU meter. I did some researching and found an appropriate IC, LM3916, http://www.mouser.com/ds/2/405/lm3915-443929....
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136 views

Instrumentation Amplifier Saturation to Rails

I am working with a TI INA821 Instrumentation Amplifier to try to amplifier a 0-5mV (delta) analog signal off a strain gauge. To reiterate, every DC analog value between the delta of 5mV represents a ...
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123 views

Channel shape of NMOS in saturation

According to the Sedra/Smith Microelectronic Circuits textbook, 6/7 eds., increasing \$v_{DS}\$ beyond \$v_{OV}\$ has no effect on the channel shape and charge. Why is that? It seems as if (...
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90 views

BJT Differential Amplifier deliberately saturated?

Happy New Year! I've recently completed a metal detector project (see my recent questions) and I've been going back over some of the parts I didn't fully understand first time around. This question ...
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256 views

How does the source voltage change with and without channel modulation?

The description here seems big, but it's only a two minute read. I'm stranded, desperately need help. The variable resistance R in the figure is set to 10K ohms. The first question was to find the ...
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1answer
792 views

Collector current decreases with the increase of base current in saturation mode of bjt

I'm new to BJT and i'm trying to understand the characteristics of bjt in different modes of it. In my book they explained that in saturation mode of bjt the collector current decreases even if i ...
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430 views

how does a Avalanche photo diode[APD] recovery time depend on TIA

in one my of low light pulse detection project i want to sense a very low light of 1mW/m2 so for this kind of scenario an APD is a device with its internal gain can give me abundant current to detect ...
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83 views

Horowitz lab 4.4

I have a problem doing lab 4.4 from Horowitz's student manual for the Art of Electronics. Here's the circuit and here's what I get from LTspice simulation, which corresponds to hardware circuit ...