Questions tagged [signal]

A signal is a stream of information in the form of a varying quantity. Usually in electronics, signals can be in the form of voltages, currents, or radiated electromagnetic fields.

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How can I generate a sawtooth waveform?

I am trying to generate a sawtooth waveform with either an integrated circuit or by building my own circuit. I need to be able to vary the frequency.
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How is this possible: Crystal filters for FM signals?

I am trying to make my own superhet reciever. I have achieved downconversion and I am trying to build a crystal filter that will only allow the crystal's resonant frequency through. In doing so, I had ...
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Difference between open drain and push-pull modes

The figures show diagrams of line signals: the first in the open-drain + pull up mode, the second push-pull + pull-down. There are several questions: Why does a push pull output have a faster slope ...
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Combining audio signals without backfeeding the original signal

I'm building Audio tracks looper on Raspberry Pi, which records audio signal from Keyboard / Guitar (Jack plug) and plays it along with the original input on headphones. but this scheme is faulty, I ...
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Assert and de-assert in reset

I'm reading linux reset controller driver codes and found assert and deassert: ...
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2 answers
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Logic analyzer gives me much more pulses than expected

Let me start the question by saying that I am using a logic analyzer for the first time, so I am probably doing something wrong. I sniffed the signal that goes to a speaker. The signal is probably PWM....
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3 votes
1 answer
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Simple Diode Mixer Help

Edit: Thank you for your input @Kevin White, much better results with 100 ohm injection resistors, a 1K resistor for a DC pathway and a 1K bias resistor from Anode to +5V. I am an RF enthusiast that ...
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Digital input conditioning?

I'm designing a schematic with opto-coupled digital inputs (BNC). For better noise/ground loops immunity/reflections should I add 50 ohm resistors on both input lines, signal(+) and GND, along a ...
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Instrumentation box, digital input signal conditioning [duplicate]

I'm designing an instrumentation box with opto-coupled digital inputs (BNC). For better noise/ground loops immunity/signal reflections I added 50 ohm resistors and 1n filtering capacitor (if needed). ...
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How to isolate (and transmit) a 0-5V DC analog signal using an optocoupler circuit

I am trying to isolate control signals that are used to remotely operate a variable frequency drive. One is a 0-5V analog voltage signal that give the VFD its set point. I understand that optocouplers ...
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Can I get rid of my Arduino board and control a solenoid with a square signal generator?

I am using an Arduino board right now with two dials - one controls length of time open and the second controls the duration between openings. I would like to simplify the design and just use a square ...
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How to get I and Q components from echoes of a Chirp signal?

The Bandwidth of the signal is 10 MHz, the central frequency is 20 MHz, sampling frequency is 26.6 MHz. So, if to get the Quadrature component I have to shift the signal of 90°, how do I get the phase ...
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How do you sketch a signal given by x(t) = A(t/T) for time period 0 to T? Does t/T simply denote that the signal covers entire duration of T?

Does t/T simply mean that the signal has magnitude A over the entire "T" duration? Or does it mean that it covers only a fraction? How will it look? I tried assuming A to be some magnitude ...
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What is the relation between a signal and its generated audio?

Assume we have a simple AM signal, which is a mix of the carrier wave and upper/lower bands. If I were to plot its time domain graph, I would get a graph with Y being its amplitude and X as time, ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Low power way to extend a short pulse [closed]

How would I extend a short active high digital pulse (around 1 us) to about a couple of ms with few uA of current consumption? The exact time of extension isn't important. I am working in the 3.3V ...
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Transistor as a switch driven by a square wave

I'm trying to understand how to use a transistor as a switch. I'm sure I am not doing this right. The input signal is a simple 30 kHz square wave, 3.3 V amplitude. There is a second gate signal which ...
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Transistor for Signal Attenuation

I've been considering a circuit that could be used as an equalizer for an audio signal. Specifically, I'm planning on using a set of filters (a cross-over) to split the input into respective channels,...
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Radiated signal from loft antenna?

I have the following home setup in the UK: The antenna is used for receiving free-to-air TV transmissions. I just want to know if it's possible for the signal from the HDMI to DVB-T box to radiate ...
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Why is time division multiplexing (TDM) used in the physical layer?

We know that in the physical layer, we don't use any multiplexing, and Ethernet is a baseband channel which carries a digital signal, but I read in the Wikipedia article that TDM is used multiplexing ...
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Best way to decompose addition of waveforms?

I am searching for a way to decompose the exact components of additions of known waveforms. For example, lets say there is a waveform that is sum of multiple sinc functions. The sinc function's ...
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Multiple conductors used for the same signal

I've inherited a design that has a pair of PCBs mated with two-row mezzanine connectors (0.5mm pitch, 2.5mm mated height) There are two differential pairs that travel through the connectors (RX and TX)...
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Rising edge of signal missing

I've simulatated this circuit with Multisim and obtained an output that seems correct: I built the same circuit on a breadboard and analyzed it with an oscilloscope: The output of the real ...
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Digital data to digital signals with Non return to zero(NRZ)

NRZ codes share the property that voltage level is constant during a bit interval. High level voltage = bit 1 and Low level voltage = bit 0. A problem arises when there is a long sequence of 0s or 1s ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Signal Dimensions in Simulink

I'm using R2022a, in Simulink I can not find the Display tab to access Signals & Ports>Signal Dimensions. Could someone point me in the right direction please?. Also, in the figure below the ...
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How Ethernet uses full bandwidth of the link if one host is sending more than one frame for different hosts? [closed]

I followed from this question. We know that modern Ethernet is full-duplex. At the same time, we can send or receive the signal. Suppose I consider one LAN where multiple hosts are connected by ...
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1 answer
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On the design of a multi-purpose programmable KVM switch

Sorry if this a very basic question for you here. My background in electrical engineering is self-taught only and quite limited. Basically, I wanted to design a simple device which does allow me to ...
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Line coding - The purpose and advantages [closed]

I'm reading about the line codes and probably confusing them with combining data and clock. I've read the answers to this question and a few others along with Wiki pages but unable to get a clear ...
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Clock recovery circuit in 100base-t / 1000base-t

I'm trying to understand the ethernet interface. My understanding is that Ethernet is an asynchronous interface since there is no explicit clock signal transmitted along with data. So, when there is ...
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What is faster than a relay?

I need to find something that is faster than a relay. What I'm trying to build is an electrosurgical generator for acollege project. I want to accomplish something like this: This was the reference I ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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common ground issue in signal transmission?

I am designing a device that output analog voltage in the range of -5 V to +5 V representing a certain measurement (single-ended earth grounded). My plan is to use a regular BNC cable, (earth ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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read multiple digital sensors over protocol

I have 200 digital sensors that I need to read its state from a arduino. What I was thinking about is to make something like digital leds, where i connect 200 IC's in series. the first IC gets a "...
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Does shifting unit impulse break evenness?

My question as we know that unit impulse function is even function as it is symmetric about y-axis but what about when we advance or delay this function is it still remain even function? If not then ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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FPGA output ripple

I'm using the Artix-7 FPGA to output a clock signal which is terminated in a resistor bridge. There is a little mismatch which gives the overshoot and undershoot. My question is, what causes the "...
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3 answers
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Signal Integrity in electronic systems

When I went through EMC testing of some electronic boards, I observed that the frequencies of the EM waves generated by the boards are at the fundamental frequency with multiples of some whole number. ...
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Baseband uses full bandwidth of the entire link or portion of the bandwidth?

We know that modern Ethernet is full-duplex. At the same time we can send Or receive the signal. Suppose I consider one Lan where multiple hosts are connected by different ports of switch. Let's take ...
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1 answer
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Timing Arduino response with ADXL345 accelerometer's data rate

I'm currently working on a system that calculates the velocity by integrating the values of the acceleration. I'm using the ADXL345 accelerometer with a ESP32, and so far, everything's going good, i'm ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Confused about the similarities between Fourier Series and Fourier Transform

My understanding of Fourier Series was, it is a method that decomposes a periodic signal into sum of signal given by infinite number of sines and cosines. And in case of Fourier Transform it was, that ...
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Why is this signal considered odd when v(t) is not equal to -v(-t)?

In the solution of a problem, that asked to find the Fourier Series of the waveform, shown below. The coefficient of cosine part an is taken taken 0, because it is ...
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Pro Mini Broken PWM Output

I am trying to ride a 9g servo with a 3.3V 8MHz arduino pro mini. The servo moves between 0 and 90 degrees so ı decided to investigate. I hooked the set up to an oscilloscope and saw that the pro mini ...
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3 answers
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How are filters able to pass frequencies correctly when multiple signals are present?

I have absolutely no experience in the world of EE but I'm self studying and I have some questions on how filtering works when multiple signals are involved. I understand the graphs of filters showing ...
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1 vote
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Increase voltage of a 1.6MHz frequency

I have a digital signal with voltage of 3V and frequency of 1.6MHz. How can I increase voltage of this signal to 36V? The signal is generated by PWM feature of esp32. EDIT: I'm trying to use this ...
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Signal multiplier circuit using op amp concepts

Design a circuit that from two sinusoidal inputs generates the output \$s(t) = \sin(2π f_1 t) \times \sin(2π f_2 t)\$, where \$f_1\$ and \$f_2\$ are two distinct frequencies between 1 kHz and 10 kHz. ...
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Intercepting Signal and Controlling it with RaspberryPi

Goal: Use transistor as a switch to control an intercepted signal I have a system for which the schematics/information are not available. I refer to it as a Blackbox (also labeled as such on my ...
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2 answers
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Why baseband uses full bandwidth of the signal where broadband uses portion of the bandwidth? [closed]

We know that broadband signal is full-duplex, for example television cable line where all TV channel is used portion of bandwidth not full bandwidth. And modern baseband is also full duplex but all ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Switching crystals circuit

This is for NES clock circuit. I need to find a way to switch the crystal between PAL and NTSC. I have used a normal switch to switch those with no problem. Same goes obviously with a relay, but I'm ...
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1 answer
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NZR signal and multiplexer 74LVC1G157

I'm trying to use a WS2812B addressable LED with a multiplexer 74LVC1G157. I have test code on an Arduino, and if I connect the LED to I0 or I1, the color of the LED changes, but the delay selector ...
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1 vote
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Relative error of power estimation

I'm reading my teacher code for FFT windowing in Matlab and there is one thing I don't understand. When you run the code at the end it says: ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Removing DC offset in MATLAB

My teacher has a demodulated signal and he removed the DC offset with this one line of code in MATLAB: y_dc = y - mean(y) Can someone please explain how this line ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How to switch off the CATV signal on a splitter port

I'm trying to create some automation of switching off the CATV signal on a splitter port. Using a regular 5V Arduino relay module I've tried to interrupt the wire from the center of the coaxial cable ...
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Need help for the signals question

Assuming that the signal x(t) is an energy-type signal and its energy is Ex= 2, what is the energy of signal -2x (t - 1)? My step was to find the x(t) graph, the amplitude would be 2 due to the energy ...
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