Questions tagged [signal]

A signal is a stream of information in the form of a varying quantity. Usually in electronics, signals can be in the form of voltages, currents, or radiated electromagnetic fields.

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58 views

Inverting 5V switch with minimal amount of current drain

I want to invert a 5V switch. I = when 5v(switch closed) is applied to the input 0v is received out of the output. I know a transistor can be used by having the switch short circuit the gate and this ...
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1answer
50 views

How can I generate an exponential signal in simulation software?

In Multisim, I can generate a few signals using the function generator like sine wave, triangular wave, square wave. Can I generate a signal like \$i(t)= 2e^{50t}\$ in Multisim software or any other ...
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2answers
51 views

Confusion about the “leading edge” and “trailing edge” and “clock cycle” terms in SPI

This question refers to the Wikipedia page of SPI, to the section about Clock Polarity and Phase. I've read what's written there and got pretty confused about these terms. My question is: Is "...
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2answers
624 views

Counting signal switching between floating and LOW in Arduino

I have a rotating contact (contact breaker of an ICE) that switches between being not connected to anything (floating) and being connected to the case of the ICE. The engine case is connected to ...
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39 views

6 Pin USB Type c connector issues

I want to use a Type C connector to send signals from a simple switching circuit. I am totally new to using USB, I ordered a 6 pin female Type c connector. I am not able to find out proper pinouts for ...
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52 views

Is there an official symbol for noise generator? [duplicate]

I was wondering if there was a specific symbol for drawing a noise generator in a signal processing schematic.
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2answers
95 views

How Mobile Phone Call Works [closed]

This may be a noob question, but I'm having a hard time and confusion finding the answer. How does a mobile phone call work in the mobile phone itself so that analog data (voice) is transmitted out of ...
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1answer
46 views

MUX chips only happy with one of the inputs

I have two MAX4533 quad SPDT chips, all outputs are behaving the same. NOn - a PWM pulse train at 25% generated by an Arduino Mega. NCn - a 5kHz square wave from a AD9833 signal generator. Switching ...
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5answers
225 views

Analog Is Digital? [closed]

As I started reading a bit about analog vs digital signals, I keep returning to this thought. This could be something pretty obvious to the pros out there, but is it safe to assume that underneath it ...
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32 views

How to calculate RSSI empirically?

can we calculate RSSI? is RSSI and power received are same? From research papers i found this PL(d; n; o) = PL(d0) + 10nlog10(d/d0) + Xo RSSI=Pt-PL(d). but on the ...
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Help decoding a non-standard serial signal [duplicate]

I'm trying to decode a serial signal from a car audio unit but struggled as it seems the signal is using non-standard baud rates. Could you please help me decode the signal ? I attach here-in captured ...
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2answers
105 views

Square wave from comparator drifts and the integrated square wave doesn't yield a triangle wave

I am trying to make a function generator. The generator runs on 16kHz, the rails are +12/-12V for test purposes. I basically obtain a sine wave with an oscillator, drive a comparator (LM311) with the ...
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982 views

Control one relay via multiple 12 V DC signals

I'm seeking help designing a circuit wherein we would have multiple 12 V DC signal inputs, with the goal of: ...
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61 views

Why TL071 Does'nt Act As a Comparator?

I am trying to obtain a square wave using a comparator and a sine wave signal. Sine wave has adjustable peak to peak amplitude with +10/-10 volts as limits. TL071 runs with +12/-12 volts. Sine wave ...
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1answer
112 views

Laplace transform problem

Can you help me with these laplace problems ? I'm having trouble understanding how to do it. ( u(t) is heaviside step function )
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Finite-duration signal in the time domain, means what exactly in the frequency domain?

I'm trying to understand exactly what restrictions a finite duration time domain signal has on its Fourier transform. I found a helpful table in The Fourier Transform and its Applications by Ronald ...
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1answer
74 views

Can I connect GNDD with GND to get stable result?

I am using JY-S60 Signal conditioner (SC) (click here to see datasheet, giving amazon link, could not find specific link for datasheet) with small load cell click to see load cell datasheet. I have ...
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31 views

Zero-state response/Zero-input response vs forced and natural response

I'm having some confusion regarding the differences between the zero-input response and the natural response. And also between the zero-state response and forced response. I read the following but I'm ...
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43 views

RF signal detection vs mixer and amplifier noise

What I am trying to do is some sort of amateur radio. But not exactly a radio, for now I will just detect the presence of a signal. I will synthesize an RF signal with a frequency synthesizer, ...
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2answers
76 views

What is the purpose of negative frequencies? [duplicate]

Below you can see the frequency spectrum of a square pulse. But what exactly is the purpose of the negative frequencies? Lets say I have a square pulse with a width of 10ns (f=100MHz) and I want to ...
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2answers
50 views

Read 4wire pressure transducer via a differential amplifier

I have been trying to read a 4wire pressure transducer (M3021-000005-01KPG) with a microcontroller, but problems keep arising. First of all, I realized that the signal (0-100 mV) is differential, ...
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2answers
113 views

What does clock/signal speed actually do?

This is may be a silly questions but I am curious. I know that in circuits power lines are at speed near light but why are signal lines so different? Let's say I use I2C(MCP23017) I can choose between ...
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1answer
47 views

What does hₖ[n] mean here?

Is the impulse response different from the output y[n]? Is the input x[n] all the delta function at different values of n? From Signals and Systems by Robert Oppenheim, Linear Time Invariant systems
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1answer
61 views

single zero in z-domain transfer function calculatio

I am designing a filter with two poles at DC and one zero at fs/10. For simplicity I choose fs=1; So my z-transfer function looks like: (z-z1)/(z-1)^2. Since z=exp(jwT)=cos(wT)+j*sin(wT). So if I want ...
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1answer
37 views

GPIO signals from Raspberry, read by Arduino

I'm working on a program on Arduino to control the Raspberry. My plan is using a button to make Raspberry Pi 4 switch on by pressed button (if i pressed a button for 3 seconds, raspberry will switch ...
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1answer
51 views

İnput signal of op-amp

Where I am confused is that the signal coming to the opamp should be superimposed on dc, or could it only consist of ac? Because when we want to make a filter consisting of a few transistors, we need ...
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1answer
45 views

Simulink scope changes value depending on simulation time

I am making a co-simulation in Simulink for a circuit that I made in ORCAD, and I saw this problem that appears: If I put the final stop time for simulation 10s the signal looks like in first picture ...
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1answer
25 views

Simulate the sum of signals on PROTEUS

Is there any way to simulate (show on oscilloscope ) the sum of more than two periodic signals on PROTEUS?
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1answer
110 views

how to find transfer function of this filter

how can i find the trans. function of this circuit , is there any way to find the total impedance , i don't want to use Laplace transform . and can i find the bode diagram for this circuit ?
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37 views

Is it safe to leave the GND from an antenna jack unconnected from an active antenna amplifier?

I need help with trying to use properly this circuit, the original idea came from the late Tony Van Roon who designed it. According to the article it seems that the logic behind it is that the dim ...
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0answers
21 views

How to setup STM32F103C8 encoder triggered output signal

I have a project where I need to read the encoder phase A&B to output the pulse so I can drive a motor, I did some research and saw this picture where it is exactly what I wanted to do: output a ...
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0answers
37 views

What's wrong with my experiment to observe harmonics caused by receiver saturation and non-linear behavior?

I've been trying to devise an experiment to produce a third order harmonic in radio receiver that's been saturated, but I'm not seeing the expected results. My understanding of the theory is that when ...
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2answers
67 views

Pseudo Periodic Signal

I am reading a research paper Eyer 1999 in which they used these terms so I want to know about them since there is no source on which I can learn about these terms so that's why asking it here, it ...
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1answer
48 views

Temperature compensation equation?

I'm looking for the correct temperature compensation equation to use on our project. We are measuring the output of a detector who's signal is very sensitive to temperature drift. Any external ...
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1answer
75 views

Parallel Termination in a Transmission Line

Suppose we have a parallel termination like this on a high-speed trace: If the line impedance \$ Z_o \$ and \$R \$ are matched, then there are no reflections from load to cause any ringing at the ...
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1answer
55 views

is using both Nyquist's and Shannon's Theorem possible?

For instance, say I have a cable bandwidth of 1 MHz, and a signal-to-noise ratio of 255, how would I calculate the maximum bit rate possible if I were to be transmitting data via this cable using 4 ...
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1answer
35 views

Common ground after voltage dc-dc converter

I have a 7.4V LiPo battery that I use to power an ESP8266, some relays and a servo. The LiPo battery is split into a 7.4V rail and using a dc-dc voltage converter (LM2596) into a 5V rail. The 7.4V is ...
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0answers
40 views

Way to mitigate parameter dispersion in NMOS attenuator

I am building an automatic gain control for a subMHz signal, which comes in the 30-120mVpp range, using a NMOS as VCR. At the output, ideally, signal should be 'compressed' around +-Vpeak_detect_th . ...
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1answer
87 views

Will capacitor in high pass filter pass high frequencies while it is blocking low frequencies?

I thought that capacitors will only act as a conductor while is is being charged and once fully charged it will not conduct any more. I know that current does not actually pass through the capacitor ...
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1answer
82 views

Why does a soldered IPEX MHF4 (WIFI card) connection result in signal attenuation?

In my laptop, the WIFI card was connected to the 2 antennas by IPEX MHF4 connections, which look like tiny coax connectors. Unfortunately the antenna connectors got broken, so I have removed them and ...
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1answer
49 views

How to linearly boost the output of a Gaussian shaping amplifier?

I have a pulse detection set up that takes in analog pulses (with relatively long tails, gamma spectroscopy). This pulse is sent into a shaping amplifier, that removes the tail, and shapes the pulse ...
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1answer
60 views

GND vs COM? Which one should I connect the ground to?

I have a cassette in my car, I was using a cassette-aux adapter to play music through my phone. It looks like this: After searching a bit about how it works, I found out that it's nothing but a tape ...
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0answers
46 views

Identifying and finding a replacement audio signal transformer 50 ohm / 0.5 ohm

I am trying to identify and find a replacement for the attached transformer. The green/white leads with the red center tap have a 50 ohm resistance. The side without the center tap has a 0.5 ohm ...
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0answers
17 views

Mixed Sensitivity Problem

I have plant, $$P(s) = \frac{1-s/5}{(s^2 + s/4 +1/4)}$$ I am taking a mixed sensitivity approach for that I have chosen \$V\$,\$W_1\$ and \$W_2\$ as follows: For bandwidth, \$\omega\$ =1 so I chose M ...
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0answers
44 views

opamp single supply output AC (audio) voltage limit

I build non-inverting op amp with single supply voltage cca 9V. The basic scheme is shown in the figure below: How to limit output AC signal if the base DC voltage is at half the supply voltage 4.5 V ...
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1answer
41 views

How to find the relative bandwidth /frequency of a aperiodic signal?

I have a transfer function with a fixed cut off frequency and I wanted to apply an input proportional to time(x= cont*time), also the condition is to have a frequency greater than the cut off ...
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2answers
198 views

LED not outputting square wave signal

I'm working on a sensor similar to an oximeter that measures light attenuation through a medium. I have an LED on one side, and an IC photodiode with on-chip transimpedance amplifier (OPT101) on the ...
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1answer
115 views

Measuring distance with ~300 m range and at least ~2 m accuracy as cheaply as possible [closed]

[Very new to Electrical Engineering.] So what I am trying to come up with is the following: I want to have a device (receiver) that receives signals and put it in one place, not moving. Other devices (...
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1answer
46 views

AC to DC signal to drive a MOSFET

I need to intercept a 220V AC line to drive a 3.3v MOSFET that activates (for example) an LED. Looking around, a solution could be to use an AC/DC converter but they are meant for powering (so mostly ...
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0answers
35 views

How to be sure the bistable circuit is set completely

Sometimes when input signal is close to 1.4v this circuit is not set completely and the output can stay in the middle of Vcc. How to ensure the voltage at Q1 collector will be 5V, or stay 0v in case ...

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