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Questions tagged [signal]

A signal is a stream of information in the form of a varying quantity. Usually in electronics, signals can be in the form of voltages, currents, or radiated electromagnetic fields.

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Passing usb data traces underneath of DCDC converter

RKZ0505D is a DCDC converter which has maximum 85kHz internal switching frequency. It is placed as large surface of it placed directly on PCB. If USB data lines pass under plastic package of DCDC ...
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1answer
53 views

High PWM frequency weird shape

Using a STM32F407 if I generate a 200 Hz signal it looks like this: If I want a higher frequency, for instance 10 kHz I get this: I am using a PicoScope 2205A, resolution 8 bits at 200Ms/s, ...
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39 views

Analog signal exchange between microcontroller and PLC

Overview I need to create an analog voltage of 0V-24V for the PLC ( s7-1200) with a microcontroller with operating voltage 5V. Approach I've been doing this research since yesterday. I'll share ...
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2answers
90 views

How to detect a partial discharge in a noisy signal?

I am working on a competition where we are required to detect partial discharges in given signals. Each signal represents a measurement of some power-line voltage. I know that partial discharges ...
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46 views

NMI Input circuit on a MCU

This circuit is connected at the NMI input of a MCU. The 'J2s' pin is connected to an external signal. Is it some sort of delay circuit or some filter circuit? Edit: J2s is digital signal coming ...
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2answers
33 views

How to decrease nrf24l01 transceiver range?

I've just got my Nrf24l01 but then I found out that the working signal range for the module is 100m and above. Our real intention for the module is to let the nrf24l01(Receiver) out of range for about ...
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1answer
56 views

Desktop PSU registering signal from 220ac input [closed]

Question: Do "current+old" generation desktop pc's have any built-in means of registering a signal that is modulated on a (220v) AC power output? Application/context: Suppose your energy company ...
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1answer
53 views

Random Noise Voltage

I have a signal I am interested in obtaining power from. The best way to describe the signal is that it is random. In the graph, the voltage fluctuates from negative to positive with an RMS of 0.5 ...
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3answers
89 views

Ground Plane Tips for Beginners

I have made a few PCB's over the past few months as I have started to learn about design. All of the circuit boards have been Arduino based, so nothing to powerful. I design them up in Eagle and I ...
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3answers
75 views

How to configure NPN transistor as switch and adjust current flow?

Consider the following circuit: As signal a 100 kHz square wave (between 0 and 5 volts) generated by an Arduino. I want to control the transistor so it will let the current from the supply pass ...
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1answer
59 views

Unnamed bus connections in schematics

I thought I could read schematics, but I have this problem: sometimes there are unnamed signals connected to buses and I don't know where they are supposed to be connected. Example: IC3 pis 14...23 ...
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3answers
406 views

Difference between analog signal and battery voltage

I want to find out if using an analogue sensor is feasible in my noisy environment by running some signal integrity tests before I buy it. Because I don`t have the sensor yet, I need to simulate its ...
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5answers
113 views

Please explain this formula for the relationship between bandwidth and the temporal response of a photodetector

I am reading "Optoelectronic Sensors" by Didier Decoster and Joseph Harari. At section 1.8.2 they start explaining the relationship between rise time and bandwidth, and they give a very weird formula ...
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1answer
115 views

Analogue (or digital) signal integrity with multiple sources of noise

tldr: Can I transmit an analog signal through a noisy environment without it being corrupted, or should I use a digital signal instead? My requirement is to transmit a signal from a MA3 absolute ...
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3answers
107 views

Is there any way to obtain linear or angular distance proportional to a voltage signal?

If we have a programmable arbitrary function generator as a voltage signal source and if we are able to output any waveform like a sine or exponential decay as output voltage versus time; how can this ...
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0answers
18 views

Circuit which converts audio-input to clock signal [closed]

I'm new to DIY modular synthesizers and I'm planning now what to build. I came to an Idea, that i build a module, which takes an amplified audio signal in, checks the bpm and outputs a clock signal ...
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2answers
38 views

Voltage Equation in Time Domain

When we describe a AC signal (voltage is this case) in time domain we use an equation something like this below: \$v(t) = V_m \mathrm{sin}(\omega 𝑡 + \phi)\$, where 𝜔 is the angular frequency of ...
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1answer
65 views

Creating a custom playback device

First of all, let me apologize if this isn't the correct place to ask this. This is the one of the best places for my question that I've seen so far. I've been designing a box for on my desk that ...
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4answers
139 views

Can I electronically substract an audio signal from an other one?

I encountered a little tricky situation in one of my project. I have two audio signals, A and A+B on two different wires. I would like to know if there is a solution to electronically retrieve the B ...
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2answers
58 views

Graphical nature of signal energy

In signals, we learn that the energy of a signal is the integral of its square. E.g. \$E=\int_{-\infty}^\infty x^2(t) dt\$ We know that integrals are the areas under the function in a graph. But ...
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2answers
26 views

Signal Comparisons: “Orthogonal functions”

When comparing two vectors, if the angle between them is 90 degrees then they would be seen as orthogonal and Cn= 0 where Cn is the correlation between these two vectors representing a signal. What ...
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3answers
78 views

Delaying rising edge of input signal - 3.3v logic

I'm new here and I need help with my project. I working on my DIY home automation and I need to delay rising edge of the input signal. Trigger is faling edge. I need to delay it 100 - 500ms and I use ...
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2answers
67 views

Device that transmits signal to computer [closed]

How would I be able to send a notification or email/msg of some sort to my computer after an event has taken place from elsewhere. To be more specific, when a tripwire is tripped, (LDR/Laser beam) how ...
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2answers
46 views

Testing the RF properties of an enclosure

I need to measure RF (cellular) blocking properties of an enclosure. Is there an off-the-shelf set of tools for doing this? I'm assuming a MHz signal generator and an oscilloscope with an antenna ...
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1answer
85 views

How to test if the USB data lines are being passed to the port?

We have an white label manufactured Android tablet that snaps into a dock made by the same vendor. A USB port on the tablet is replicated to the dock, which has a Type A port that we plug an RFID ...
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2answers
42 views

Comparing differential-ended and isolation amplifier outputs for an “unbalanced” source input

I tried to simulate the effect of common-mode interference on unbalanced sources for three different inputs: single-ended, differential-ended and isolated. Below I inject a 1V common-mode voltage to ...
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2answers
78 views

Long (500ms) Pulse Extender

I have an SPST momentary tactile switch and want the pulse, whatever length, to be extended to 500ms (unless of course the button is pressed for longer than 500ms but we can ignore that if we hold the ...
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1answer
84 views

Linear Voltage Reduction Device

I need to lower a 12v, 100mA signal voltage to a 5v signal voltage of any current rating. Here's the catch: I need that 7V drop to be constant with any input voltage. For example, since it is a signal ...
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2answers
21 views

Signal response and settling time graph analysis

I have come across a datasheet of an instrumentation amplifier. I have a difficulty in understanding the signal response vs settling time graphs. Can someone please explain figure 28(page 10) of the ...
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2answers
169 views

Can I convert a mini guitar-amp into a portable auxiliary speaker?

Being a guitar player, my brother got me one of those guitar shirts for Christmas that has a board with pressure sensors attached to it and an actual miniature amplifier. When the sensors on the board ...
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0answers
29 views

trigger a circuit using one time signal

I'm really new to electronics and I need help. Say I have Line A. I need to control Line A to set it as HIGH or LOW using a one time signal through one input line X or maximum through two lines X and ...
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0answers
47 views

A simple sawtooth signal generator

I have been given a circuit like this: Which will produce a sawtooth signal: Now I have been given an additional adjustable DC voltage source. The question is to design and draw a new circuit ...
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0answers
57 views

High data rate (~1-5 Mpbs) Point to Point Radio

I'm working on a rocket project at my University, and am trying to find a point to point / point to multipoint radio capable of a hopefully 1-5 Mbps data rate between a ground station a directional ...
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0answers
285 views

How is it that two electric currents can travel in opposite directions on the same wire, at the same time, without interfering with each other? [duplicate]

An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise, by John R. Pierce, says the following: While linearity is a truly astonishing property of nature, it is by no means a rare one. ...
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1answer
93 views

Amplifying heavily filtered attenuated stopband signal

The picture is of a noise analysis, but a signal that may be present in V1 would be filtered in the same way as the noise. At 100 KHz, the noise is attenuated by about 42 dB, from 568 uV to 4.7 uV. ...
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3answers
3k views

If one sends short bursts of electric current that abruptly turn on and off, why does the receiver receive a smoothed-out current?

An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise, by John R. Pierce, says the following: The difficulty which Morse encountered with his underground wire remained an important ...
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1answer
52 views

How to reduce ADC noise through PCB routing?

I am routing a PCB board with some through hole IR emitters and transistors and I am trying to figure out placement of ICs/Op-Amps, as well as capacitor placement and route placements to reduce the ...
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1answer
54 views

Issues with HUM on DIY audio signal switcher using a relay

I am creating a rack mounted system for toggling multiple guitar pedal effects remotely through a footswitch. The idea is that I create a signal chain starting with the output of a guitar and that ...
2
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1answer
80 views

Shielded twisted pair balanced transmission line implementation

I want to send a signal from board 1 to 2 through 20 cm line. I have four channel in differential, First I add them, can I send them through shielded twisted pair like this: Do I need a buffer? why? ...
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0answers
40 views

Determining required signal SNR (beat signal from FMCW RADAR)

I'm trying to determine the SNR required for signal outcoming from FMCW Radar. This is the chain: signal will created by "24 GHz VCO and PGA with 2-Channel PA Output" by triangle shape frequency ...
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1answer
64 views

Is it possible to generate user-defined signal using an android phone?

Is it possible to generate an electronic wave signal using an android phone? (Theorically) For example by customizing the firmware can I produce some signals like \$ f(t)=2 \sin 3.2×10^9t+3\cos 5×10^...
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3answers
78 views

Oscilloscope Run/Stop output signal

Hi, guys. Does anyone know what causes the multiple waves at a time when you run the oscilloscope? But when you stop (pause) the oscilloscope, you get one wave a time (picture on the answer column). ...
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1answer
47 views

Pole placement to create a full-state feedback controller?

I am learning about control theory by going through Oagata's Modern Control Engineering. As part of a practice exercise I am trying to design a full-state feedback controller that satisfies my ...
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1answer
86 views

Adding multiple differential signal

As I asked in "Adding multiple analog signal" before, I got that: for adding some signal together, we can only use op-amp, instead of lovely integrated circuit (ough). But the question arise because ...
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2answers
68 views

Adding multiple analog signal

I'm trying to add 4 output of ADA8282 together and create only one analog signal with bandwidth about 6 MHz, I know Op-Amp adder as "How can I add three AC signals?" and "ElectronicTutorial" said. ...
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2answers
60 views

Mathematical model for differential signals and relation with reality

i have a question and i hope is not that strange. i spend some time asking myself how people came out with the mathematical model for differential signals and why is this better in this way?! to be ...
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1answer
49 views

How to determine u(t+1) - u(t-1) as even, odd or neither?

x(t) = u(t+1) - u(t-1) is given. How do we determine if it is an even or odd signal or neither? Do we plot it out or do we use the condition and convert it. and also, is it even or odd?
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1answer
59 views

How can ground bounce be simulated by lumped elements?

I'm trying to demonstrate myself and to some friends how ground bouncing occurs. Is there a way to use lumped circuit with some compients to demsotare it? Something similar to simulating inductive ...
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1answer
49 views

How phase modulation changes spectrum?

I'm studying amplitude,frequency and phase modulations for an exam. I just studied amplitude and frequency modulations, however i didn't succeed in understanding how the phase modulation changes the ...
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1answer
43 views

Frequency response of the waveguide

So, I have signal in the waveguide that is transmitted by two modes of radiation, for which the delay is for example \$\tau_1=6\,\text{ns},\, \tau_2=6.5\,\text{ns}\$, respectively. And the energy ...