Questions tagged [signal]

A signal is a stream of information in the form of a varying quantity. Usually in electronics, signals can be in the form of voltages, currents, or radiated electromagnetic fields.

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42 views

Does my signal generator's ground need buffering?

I have an AD9833 signal generator (sorry I mislabeled it in the diagram as an AD9388) whose output is fed into a unity gain buffer, see picture below. The output is then passed into various materials ...
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2answers
94 views

What kind of op-amp circuit is this?

I am trying to understand the circuit have shown below. As far as I tried, it seems a differential amplifier for me. So, I tried to solve it in the way we deal with DC signals. But I failed to solve ...
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33 views

How to synchronise two signals using IRIG-B or with a clock signal

I have two oscillators in different rooms, connected to a central circuit, each giving me 100 kHz logic signals. I want to synchronise these two signals in the central circuit therefore I can account ...
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34 views

Convolution of positive and negative functions?

I am trying to do convolution for the function below The correct solution is as follows: I tried solving the problem, below is my attempt: Can you please advise me where is my mistake?
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19 views

Probability and Stochastic Processes for Engineers Helstrom Solution Manual [closed]

Does anyone know if there was ever a solution manual published for Probability and Stochastic Processes for Engineers by Carl W. Helstrom ISBN 0-02-353560-1. thanks
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2answers
61 views

Is my Inverse z-transform solution method accurate?

The question is as follows: The book answer is as follows: However, my approach is as shown below I even cross checked my partial fraction and it was correct. Please tell me where is my mistake? ...
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1answer
33 views

What is the difference between Continuous-Time and Continuous Value in signals?

I do not understand the difference between Continuous Value and Continuous-time. Discrete-time and discrete value. Can anybody offer a clearer explanation?
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1answer
54 views

How to ensure signals from multiple different clocks are in phase?

I am designing a pcb where I have a signal of 10 MHz logic signal with 50% duty cycle that might be coming from different clocks. I will be using a pll frequency synthesizer to turn this into a 50% ...
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1answer
53 views

Why X0 equals zero?

The question is as shown below: The answer is as shown below: Everything is clear except based on what did he assume that X0 = 0? Below are the reference for formulas Below is my trial:
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1answer
36 views

Confusion with serial controlled mux devices

I have 8 channels each with 3 possible unique inputs, see diagram below. I would like to be able to select which input each output connects to. The inputs are signals from ranging from a simple step ...
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1answer
63 views

Spectrum of FM signal?

If a carrier (\$f_c\$) is FM modulated by a single sine wave (\$f_m\$), its spectrum is composed of frequencies at \$f_c + kf_m\$ (\$k \in \mathbb{Z}\$) whose amplitudes are weighted by \$J_n(\beta)\$,...
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1answer
63 views

What is the stability of a digital signal processed by a filter with z-transform?

I have a question from the book FE Electrical and Computer Review Manual by Michael R. Lindeburg page# DE X-1 with its answer as follows: I tried to solve it as follows: I don't understand why is it ...
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2answers
34 views

555 timer Theremin - capacitor choice, and question about mixing signals

I'm trying to create 555-timer based Theremin, but I have a few questions that I don't quite understand. For now, I'm building it on a breadboard (yes, I know it's not the best option), but I don't ...
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2answers
60 views

Why did cars switch from infrared key fobs to radio-wave key fobs? [closed]

Is an RFID key fob less likely to have its signal blocked? Or is it longer range? Or can it be made smaller, or cheaper? Also, how do infrared devices generate an infrared signal? With an infrared-...
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2answers
138 views

Determine the maximum value reached by the system output signal

Consider the 2-order system, without zero, whose transfer function is $$H (s) = \frac{51}{s^2 + 2s + 17}$$ An input signal $$u(t) = 4\varepsilon(t)$$ is applied to this system Determine the maximum ...
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1answer
46 views

Fourier coefficient and resolution in simulators

I post below two fourier graphs of the same signal, simulated for two different transient durations: The time domain function is a sine with 60Hz frequency. Transient duration 40ms gives the ...
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26 views

Advice on Noise in Square Input Signal

I am reading the following signal from an open drain output, and trying to read the signal frequency. However, I am getting short spikes in the wave as seen below, and this is messing with the reading ...
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0answers
109 views

Ratio detector FM demodulator

The aim of the exercise is to design a ratio detector FM demodulator circuit. This is what I did in LTspice: I'm not sure how to check if the circuit is designed correctly. Below characteristics: FM ...
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2answers
45 views

How do causality and stability affect the response of a linear time-invariant system?

Suppose that there's a linear time-invariant system with the following transfer function: $$H(s) = \frac{1}{3(s-2)}-\frac{1}{3(s+1)}$$ If the system is causal and stable, I can determine \$h(t)\$ by ...
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1answer
76 views

How do you decide on having more than two layers to have on a PCB?

I just started writing my bachelors thesis. I have been working as a junior hardware designer for a little less than a year now. All the boards I have designed until now have 2 layers. For my thesis I ...
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3answers
106 views

Is any signal ever one way

I am trying to confirm a suspicion/understanding about electrical signals, and especially One-way CONTROL signals i.e. specifically NON-Power type signals in electronics like, Trig/Echo pin in ...
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2answers
110 views

Self-adjusting analog signal translator

I think this question is best asked on concrete-ish terms, so, here it goes. Let's say we have 4 wires, all with common ground: A) ≈9V-20V, varying. B) ≈3V-6V, varying. C) A low frequency analog ...
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55 views

Tracking location with GSM tower triangulation

I want to track location with GSM tower triangulation. I searched and I found this API for GSM positioning. ...
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0answers
26 views

Measuring SNR on a mulltiplexed coax power and data cable

Please excuse the basic knowledge I have in this field. Within my workplace, we constantly use long 300m-6km coax cable which carries HV (Up to 400VDC) and DSL data. We have encountered problems ...
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1answer
45 views

Total noise in an amplifier with multiple noise sources

I have some doubts about how to evaluate the total noise in a circuit. The noise evaluation theory is well explained on the web, there are not specific practical examples similar to that I need. I'll ...
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1answer
32 views

what is a unit sample response ? It is denoted by h(n) , is it same as the impulse response? [closed]

what is a unit sample response ? It is denoted by h(n)in discrete , is it same as the impulse response?
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61 views

Audio Signal ground to earth ground?

I have a NAIM amp (some audio amp) working very well. Recently, added a ARCAM phono preamp (some pre-amp for turntable) to it. Once the phono preamp is connected to NAIM amp, there will be clear buzz ...
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1answer
26 views

Evaluate signal power between two amplifiers

Let's consider this cascade of amplifiers: Consider the intermediate node, and suppose there our signal has voltage Vx. How can I evaluate that signal power (for instance to calculate the SNR, ...
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1answer
57 views

Decoupling channels on an oscilloscope?

I have 2 x AD9833s programmable waveform generators running off the same SPI bus. Generator A is on channel 1 (yellow in the picture below) and is a sine wave set at 1 kHz. Generator B is on channel ...
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2answers
74 views

Assistance with Level Shifter

I have a front end module that generates an ECG signal that varies from +/- 1.5 V. I need to shift this signal so it goes from 0-3V. I have looked at some other threads to try and understand the ...
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1answer
38 views

How to decide on laying out copper area when working with Wifi/RF chips & how to use a guard ring?

I have seen on several designs that the designer has avoided pouring copper around the RF signal lines and all signal lines in general. Such as seen on the following example. He has also added a "...
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2answers
37 views

How to get USB-mouse output from capacitive touch panel?

I have this 7" capacitive touch panel overlay that I want to attach to my Raspberry Pi 4B. I don't know what kind of data comes out of that FPC cable, or even what its pinout is. Is there a well-...
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1answer
37 views

Average amplitude and DC component

While I read my college book in signals, I got stuck with some basics: DC component is component of zero frequency. With no DC component, a signal has an average amplitude of zero, with a DC ...
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6answers
1k views

When we can say 0 and 1 in digital electronic?

I'm confused when seeing wires contain GND and VCC in a schematic. Mainly their flows. I never confused when see in digital logic wires schematic like logic gates. I understand flows in digital ...
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1answer
66 views

Noise as a source of information?

I was studying a book on signals and systems where it says that noise disturbances which interfere with the transmitted signals are a source of information. And the original signals are not. It ...
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0answers
40 views

Frequency of a load curve signal

I have measured a charge and discharge curve of a capacitor with resistor and I want to calculate the frequency of this signal (for a low pass filter). Am I on the right way if I calculate 1 divided ...
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4answers
538 views

What exactly limits the signal frequency on transmission lines?

In practice, the frequency of a signal seems to have a significant impact on whether or not it can reasonable be transmitted over a line. As an example, consider the IEEE 802.3ab standard on Gigabit ...
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3answers
70 views

How to overdrive a signal?

I am planning to build this circuit below as a electric guitar amplifier. Source And I also would like to add gain control overdrive channel to existing design. I have simulated this circuit on ...
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0answers
36 views

how to apply frequency-dependent attenuation to a signal

Let's suppose a signal like this: the frequency domain plot of such a signal is: Now, What I intend to do is to apply a frequency-dependent correction to the signal. For example, the attenuation ...
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1answer
136 views

C64 composite video out of spec? Upscaler rejects it, but accepts TC-2048

Trying to wrap my head around why a particular CVBS/SVideo to VGA converter I have accepts every composite signal I feed into it, but refuses a C64C CVBS signal (which my 55" Samsung TV doesn't ...
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2answers
64 views

Does the bandwidth at the receiver really affects the noise in digital modulations?

I know that, in a telecommunicacion system, the AWGN power after going through the receiver filter is $$ P_z = KTB $$ where B is the bandwidth of the filter, T is the operating temperature of the ...
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0answers
29 views

Decode a WCDMA signal

I am trying to decode a WCDMA signal on MATLAB and I am having some trouble trying to grasp the concept of it and was hoping for some feedback. I have a row vector, 'scrambleCode,' containing 38400 ...
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0answers
31 views

Replacing the gimble in a drone controller

as far as I understand that drone controller for a DJI phantom pro has some sort of gimble the controls the direction of the drone. I'm trying to replace that gimble and control the drone via a ...
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1answer
81 views

Digital signal in my circuit is too noisy [closed]

I have a very simple digital circuit which I built with 74LS chips. Basically, the Q output of a JK flip flop is fed into a chip in another prototype board through a connector about 30 cm long (the ...
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0answers
28 views

Maximizing signal to noise ratio for very small radiation detector

I have a very small radiation detector that outputs signal of small amplitude. Requires preamplification before going to an actual amplifier. When constructing the system prior to the preamp, would I ...
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0answers
17 views

How to create a function train using the Tektronix AFG 3000

I'm using a Tektronix AFG 3022B to drive a Piezo in a mechanical wave propagation experiment. I would like to define a function that holds a specific frequency, (say 1000Hz) for a predefined amount of ...
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1answer
56 views

why should I use NYQ(Nyquist Frequency) to get the propoer value of the cutting frequency in high or low pass filter? [closed]

I am working on signal processing using filters (basic,IIR,FIR) but I didn't quite got the intuition behind the next operation when I am performing a high pass filter with the cut frequency defined as ...
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2answers
49 views

Complex signals is the same as natural signal [closed]

I am working using a sinuasidal signal along with the complex signal derived form it and when I plot the signals spectrum using FFT I got the same spectrum and it turns out that the signals are the ...
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0answers
12 views

Integration of PSD (Doppler Spectrum)

The expression for received signal PSD corresponding to a simple cosine wave (frequency fC) being transmitted is given as: \begin{equation} S_r(f) = \mathcal{F}[A_r(\tau)]=\begin{cases} \frac{...
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3answers
64 views

Send a signal of 1-2V for a second while circuit is on all the time

I have a circuit that needs a signal for a second to turn on. The signal is a 1-2 volt for a period of 1-2 second. So when the main switch is powered on it needs to send the signal or conduct ...

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