Questions tagged [signal]

A signal is a stream of information in the form of a varying quantity. Usually in electronics, signals can be in the form of voltages, currents, or radiated electromagnetic fields.

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How does one get ticks of a clock from an atomic clock's microwave signal?

I understand that in an atomic clock there is a microwave signal that is locked to the frequency of the atomic rotation. However, if one wants to extract time ticks from the microwave signal: v(t)=V0[...
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47 views

Digital 5V signal through a long copper cable with EMI noise

I'm designing a zigbee switch with additional capabilities in order to give it some flexibility. The main idea is to put this design in the interconection boxes that are in my walls. So, this PCB ...
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17 views

How to analyze amplifiers using signal flow diagram

I have the following two basic amplifier configurations and do not understand how to use the flow diagrams to obtain the parameters in the flow diagram and hence the transfer function. I understand ...
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Why does probe request signal varies significantly in the same second?

I’m doing a crowdsensing experiment and I'm capturing a handful of probe requests packets in my Raspberry Pi 3B in my vehicle. To test them, I capture a handful of packets of my own phone. Whenever I ...
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Figure out connections on a trackballl and spinner controller

I have a controller for an arcade, that mount a spinner and a trackball. From what I read online; the trackball has usually 5V, GND and the X and y signals; while the spinner has only 5V, GND and the ...
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1answer
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Would submerging a 100% waterproof hotspot device increase network connectivity?

I have this portable hotspot device (9cm*6cm*1cm*) in which I insert a simcard and keep it within 10m when I am using it. Let us consider that it is water cannot damage it even if I submerge it. Would ...
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46 views

Response of a RC circuit and Frequency Response Theorem

let's consider this important result of control theory for linear systems, called "Frequency Response Theorem" (reference): Briefly, it says that under the hypotesis of stability and linearity, if ...
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41 views

DAC output signal

Image showing the electrical characteristics of two signal. Can anyone explain what is meant by these electrical characteristics of signal?
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1answer
77 views

I would like to regulate LED brightness with audio signal tone 1khz

I'm working on school project where I need to control LED strip brightness with audio input... The stereo signal is playing some music on left channel and LED is suppose to react to generated 1khz ...
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2answers
55 views

Why/How alternating currents through coaxial cable do not interfere with each other?

I know that cable TV use coaxial cable with alternating current frequencies varying from 5 MHz to 750 MHz. Why/How a alternating current of, for example, 5 MHz , 10 MHz, 20 MHz, 100 MHz, 300 MHz, 500 ...
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1answer
30 views

Regulated Low voltage signal creator

I am trying to mimick a sensor on a car that supplies 0.7 V to the car’s computer. So what I would like is a circuit diagram to build a unit that would use the 11 to 14 V input from the car battery ...
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1answer
44 views

High gain and high modulation frequency photodetectors

I have been reading more into the gain of a photodetector and how the system works. We are picking up extremely small signals and need to use a detector with a gain of around 1.0 × 10^7 but preferably ...
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Detection of signals buried in noise

This is more of a general question to see which methods are the most common to improve the detection of a signal which is buried in noise. Currently, we are building an optical system for medical ...
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1answer
101 views

How to send a signal over long wire that is pulsing 9kV DC (agricultural electric fence)

Maybe a signals person can help me with this. I'm looking at building a circuit that can be remotely controlled, using an electric fence as the comms bus or antenna. I've seen this working in a ...
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38 views

Is it possible to transfer a bluetooth signal via something else?

Problem: For example, I have 2 devices communicating with each other via bluetooth. But there is a thick metal wall between these devices and this makes a difficulty between them. To fix it, can I ...
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1answer
30 views

Receiving a 4 to 20mA signal with R Click board

I have this sensor that is supplied with 12V and gives out a 4 to 20mA signal. Would this 4 to 20ma receiving board be capable of reading the signal? I wasnt sure if the 12V would blow the board.
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74 views

How to parse this protocol with an arduino?

I'm analyzing a signal from my building's intercom system to my tenant station. Intercom has two wires, +24V/0.27ma, and ground. Every 10 seconds, the system sends a "heartbeat" signal to the tenant ...
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1answer
36 views

Determine location using IR transmitters and receiver

Let's say I have multiple IR transmitters with known relative locations. Each transmitter emits a unique frequency. I also have an IR receiver in an unknown location surrounded by the transmitters. ...
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22 views

LVDS25 LVDS33 and LVDS18

I am a little confused about the definition of LVDS_18, LVDS_25 and LVDS_33. I thought LVDS simply had a VCM of 1.2V. If a clock calls for LVDS25, can I run an LVDS clock from a part that is being ...
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32 views

How to display Keyboard's binary to Digital waveform

How can I display to a monitor a digital waveform of any key when pressed in a keyboard? I was thinking to use an arduino or a raspberry. For example, when I press the small letter 'a' on a keyboard (...
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1answer
50 views

Test transformer with signal generator and oscilliscope

I would like to see how well a sine wave would pass thru a transformer. (from primary side to secondary) Is it possible/practical to test small transformers which you might find in small low powered ...
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1answer
71 views

Two Wire Cable: Two Inputs to one output

[partially reposting from Music Stack Exchange (I was told to go here)] NOVICE QUESTION My question is simple: If I open up a guitar cable (which uses two inner wires: signal and ground) and connect ...
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74 views

How to measure -170 dB GPS signal with spectrum analyzer

I'm looking for a way to measure noise signals (probably MCU harmonics) that affect the performance of my GPS receiver (Ubox sam-m8q-0-10). Can anyone point me to the right direction? I own a ...
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1answer
79 views

What sort of filter is in this old TI application note?

I'm trying to analyze a circuit from the ~40 year old TI TMS9928/29 Interface to Color Monitors application note. It shows how to convert the (almost) Component video straight from the graphics chip ...
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1answer
57 views

Questions regarding design problem

My instructor in electrical circuits has given me the following creative problem: Construct a communication chain, that follows the drawing below: The input is an AM signal, \$V_{send}=...
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Discrete Time Signal Fundamental Period

If we were given a discrete signal like \$cos(\pi n^2)\$, does this have a fundamental period? How does the square term affect anything? I know that if the square weren't there, we can pull \$w\$ out ...
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1answer
42 views

Doubt on singular value decomposition

I am studying control systems and I am studying the topic of Singular Value Decomposition(SVD). I have found a transfer matrix of a systemm, and computed its DC gain. Then I have performed the ...
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inclinometers signal bandwidth

the answer here suggests that inclinometers are low bandwidth devices by design. But how low is low ? Or what difference will there be between a 6.25 Hz signal bandwidth device and a 62.5 Hz one ?
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131 views

How to properly convert a balanced (line level) audio signal to unbalanced?

I want to connect a balanced line output of a pro grade mixer to a consumer grade power amp that only accepts unbalanced RCA aux in connectors. The mixer has balanced TRS (tip-ring-sleeve) 1/4 inch ...
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2answers
78 views

Why does a pole at high frequencies attenuates noise?

I am trying to understand the concept of realizability for an improper transfer function, and I am struggling to understand some concepts. I know that if I have an improper transfer function, for ...
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1answer
50 views

What is a non causal system?

I am stydying control systems, and I am trying to understand better the topic of causality. I know that a system is causal if the actual state depends only on the past states and on the present ...
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3answers
59 views

signal eye voltage level too high USB 2.0 Upstream near end

I am using the ‘Allion USB HS Device Electrical Test Fixture’ with a Lecroy oscilloscope (4 GHz, 40 GS/s) in order to make a USB upstream Near-End Signal Eye measurement (for High Speed Measurement). ...
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1answer
66 views

RHP zeros in control systems

In the slides of the following link is expressed the concept I am trying to understand : slides I am studying control systems. I have seen that if I have a zero in the RHP, by using decoupling I can ...
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1answer
42 views

Fractional Frequency Divider

let's consider a fractional frequency divider, which is defined (wikipedia) in the following way: A fractional-n frequency synthesizer can be constructed using two integer dividers, a divide-by-n ...
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3answers
70 views

Thermal Noise autocorrelation and time domain analysis

I have some doubts about the termal noise of a real resistor. The equivalent model of a noisy resistor is this one (here the reference): Here there is the model of a noisy resistive network: I ...
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3answers
55 views

What could be the reason to use a current source for potentiometric vane measurement?

On page number 507 of this document, there is a signal conditioner for a potentiometric wind vane. It seems like they use a current source but I don't get how the mechanism works. I guess O/P ...
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46 views

Need to branch USB data lines… what to do with unused ends?

I have a USB 2.0 low-speed connection design with an unusual constraint. On the host side the D+ and D- lines have a branch, a requirement of the connector and this cannot be changed. On the device ...
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1answer
104 views

Which signals does a 3-pin mouse switch allow to differentiate?

I am wondering, which signals does a 3-pin mouse switch send. Does it only send "signalled", and "non-signalled" or is it able to differentiate between 3 states: "clicked signalled", "...
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1answer
38 views

Predicting and Evaluating Connector Performance in a Capacitive Sensing Application

I have built a capacitance measuring system using the Texas Instruments FDC2214EVM evaluation module. The system is used to monitor the location of the user's hand in an enclosed space, where ...
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1answer
39 views

How do I find value of gain that stablizes the system from root locus?

Consider the following root locus: which is obtained by the following code: ...
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40 views

Zero - IF receiver main limits

I was reading these slides about receivers architectures, and I have some questions about Zero - IF receivers: Precisely: Why is the spectrum around the carrier (i.e. the 2 "side bands") mirrored ...
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1answer
52 views

Amplifier Circuit as a Signal Adder

Consider two input signals, v1(t) and v2(t). Each has a source resistance of 10 kΩ. We require the output signal to be the weighted sum of the two inputs, vo(t) = 15v1(t) + 20v2(t), delivered to a ...
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156 views

Mixed sensitivity controller design

I am defining a controller using the mixed sensitivity approach, and I have the following specifications: a low frequency attenuation of 60 dB a maximum resonance peak of 2 and I have chosen to use ...
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1answer
47 views

How to generate desired voltage signal in a circuit?

What I am asking is a design or pulse shaping question. We learn about analyzing circuits but not designing them in school. Let's say I have an input signal which is a triangular wave and I want ...
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1answer
42 views

Value of loop gain for steady state oscillations

I was reading on a book (High-Frequency Oscillator Design for Integrated Transceivers, J. van der Tang, Dieter Kasperkovitz, Arthur H.M. van Roermund) this paragraph about the start-up condition for ...
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1answer
60 views

Op-Amp Oscillation

I'm trying to design an inverting amplifier that has a gain of about ~30. It is required to be a two stage design with the first stage being none inverting and have an input impedance of >=500k. The ...
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2answers
67 views

How is the closed loop transfer function defined for an oscillator?

an electronic oscillator is a device which can generate some signals without input signals. It is an unstable system realized with positive feedback, as shown in the following scheme: Now I have two ...
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1k views

How many watts does a 40 MHz radio frequency signal create?

I am new to the study of electromagnetic frequencies and electrical engineering as a whole. I am trying to understand how to convert a radio frequency into energy, or calculate the power density of ...
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2answers
165 views

Triangle wave input with Zener and diode

I've found a problem posted as a question in one of the past exam periods. I've tried reviewing it with my peers, and we all get to different results, which makes me think my understanding is ...
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5answers
491 views

pulsed current with 200 kHz squarewave signal

I use this circuit to obtain pulses as close as possible to the input signal pulses on the 1.5 Ohms resistor. The MOSFET is FPQ50N06 and the transistor is BC239. The circuit gives good results on 25 ...

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