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Questions tagged [signal]

A signal is a stream of information in the form of a varying quantity. Usually in electronics, signals can be in the form of voltages, currents, or radiated electromagnetic fields.

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33 views

Decoding Signals from an Unknown Port on Spectrometer

We have a Thermo-Nicolet Nexus 670 FT-IR Spectrophotometer, made in the USA around 2000. It was the work horse of the infrared spectroscopy community. The instrument sends out signals to a proprietary ...
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4answers
49 views

What is the difference between using an USB Logging Software and Logic Analyzer for signal sent to the printer?

In my recent pursuit in exploring the workings of an inkjet printing head, I need information like the default firing voltage and waveform set by the printer's manufacturer for different instructions ...
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3answers
62 views

Quartz Crystal Electrical Model

I need some explanations about the electrical model of a Quartz. Everywhere I search the definition of quartz I find that it is a crystal that starts oscillating mechanically if it receives a ...
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0answers
53 views

Detect if a CAN node is Transmitting or Receiving [migrated]

I am not an electrical engineer or EE student, I'm a diagnostic technician. AFAIK a CAN transceiver receives bits by measuring voltage between the network and it's ground/low reference.(high ...
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1answer
63 views

How to transmit a signal to a point [closed]

I have a signal generator (Digital Dual Channel Funktion Signal Generator) and want to generate two signals (530 and 550 Khz signal) and want to transmit these generated signals to the points on a ...
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0answers
47 views

is tu(t) an energy or power signal [closed]

After reading that either energy or power must be finite in a power or energy signal, I calculated that E and P are both infinity. Is it neither of them?
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53 views

Condition a 0-10V signal to a 0-5V differential 24bit ADC [closed]

I am looking to condition a 0-10V signal for a 0-5V differential ADC. I have been scoping differential amplifiers to convert the 0-10V signal into differential 0-5V signals. However, almost every ...
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0answers
15 views

Parasitic Passbands in distributed filters

it is known that if we realize a filter (for instance a low pass filter) by using distributed elements (transmission lines), there will be some parasitic passbands (which moreover show a behaviour ...
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1answer
37 views

Convering bandwidth (frequency) to bit rate without knowledge of the modulation?

How would i convert a bandwidth of say 30kHz to bps if I only know the number of bits per sample (4)? (and I was using a two chanel system). I am assuming it is simply 30KHz * 2 * 4 but this may be ...
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0answers
74 views

Filtering out OLED electrical noise

I have an OLED display and a high gain op-amp on the same circuit. When OLED is powered on and displaying something, it creates a electrical noise on the output of the opamp. Here is what I tried: ...
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1answer
78 views

Protecting an IO pin from a spike

I am building a circuit which communicates with an external Power Supply via UART. One of the IO pins from my MCU is connected to an optocoupler I have 4 relays on my PCB, they are separated ...
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4answers
135 views

Does a poor mobile network signal cause faster battery drain? [closed]

Quite a simple question actually, does a poor mobile network signal cause faster battery drain? If so, is there a difference between 2g/3g/4g/5g in the speed at which the battery drains.
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1answer
72 views

DC Filter for DC free transmitting

I have a sine signal with Vpp = 5V, DC Offset = 2.5V. Now I am asking myself how to remove this offset in order to have a DC free transmission.
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0answers
17 views

How does electrical noise affects signal and distribution power?

What is electrical noise and mechanical noise How does it interfere with power? - signal power - Power distribution/ transmission
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1answer
51 views

Phasors and Fourier Transform

I have always been told that for a sinusoidal variable (for instance a voltage signal), the fourier transform coincides with the phasor definition, and this is the reason why the analysis of ...
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0answers
26 views

Find impulse response for given difference equation

I have trouble understanding this. I am given this difference equation: $$y[n+2]-3y[n+1]+2[n] = 2u[n+1] -2u[n]$$ and I need to find the response for Kronecker delta function. I can do z transform ...
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4answers
1k views

Why do OOK transmissions have bandwidth?

With on-off keying, you have a single carrier wave at a constant frequency transmitting its presence or absence. Now I understand that the crystal will not be perfect so you will have some minimal ...
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1answer
49 views

Gilbert Cell Output Current

I do not understand the basic of a Gilbert cell. I see that as its output we consider the output differential current Io. But I do not understand it. Is the load connected between the points 1 an 2? ...
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2answers
44 views

Determining whether signal meets the 12 dB SINAD voltage

The specification for the sensitivity of a certain radio receiver says: Typically 12dB SINAD NBFM for 0.15uV at 145MHz. If I understand correctly, this means that the received radio wave should have a ...
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0answers
20 views

How conventional DFE (Decision Feedback Equalizer) works?

There are a lot of variations of DFEs online. But I couldn't find a step by step explanation on how for example the 2-tap DFE works. Can you provide an explanation with a scheme ? I looked for some ...
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1answer
70 views

Cascading Op Amps for Phototransistor Output Conditioning

I am working on a project in which I am using an IR phototransistor to detect changing low levels of light. Currently with very high load resistance I can get a reading of 40-60 mV but I would like to ...
4
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2answers
1k views

Voltage Balun 1:1

somewhere I have seen that it is possible to build a Balun by using a transformer in the following way: The explanation I have found is that the fact that the ground is only at the primary coil will ...
0
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1answer
33 views

Harmonic detection using lock-in amplifier

Can a third harmonic of a signal be detected using a lock-in amplifier under the same parameters fixed for collecting the fundamental or the parameters needs to be adjusted.Here by parameters I mean ...
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1answer
57 views

How to calculate the 3dB point?

I understand this until the final two lines. How does he get from 27.8766 to 1149.8hz and 7224.7rad/s?
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0answers
51 views

LMV321ILT based amplifier : Variations in output signal

I have built the circuit shown in the image and obtained the output given below when the circuit was tested. The input test signal was the audio signal generated using the online generator found in ...
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3answers
66 views

How to interpret this timing diagram?

I am very confused on how to interpret this timing diagram?
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1answer
33 views

Create array of std_logic_vector in VHDL with increasing bit-width based on generic parameter

I have following scenario I[n] = nth Data Input, where n=1 to N W = bit width of I[n] A[k] = output of a signed adder, where k = 1 to N-1 I want to use my signed ...
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2answers
54 views

How protect analog input connected to thermistor through long wires

I'm developing a data acquisition board for 8 thermistors hooked up through 3 feet wires. The board is gonna be installed inside a package unit air conditioning. In there, we have compressors, fan ...
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1answer
25 views

Rf Module Receiver With Pt2272 always gets signal

I am just trying to on and of an led with rf module. I have tried lots of module but my works end up with same result. When I feed my receiver, with led connected to data out, it always powers the ...
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2answers
38 views

Distortion is introduced when speaker is connected to the output of the amplifier

I have a circuit that implements a guitar amplifier (I ordered a couple LM386 but in the meantime I used an OP484). The following figure represents my schematic: (cap C2=10uF as well) The signal from ...
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1answer
64 views

WiFi signal strength distibution

I wonder how wrong is it to assume that in general case for a non-directional antenna the wifi signal level distirubiton can be described with the function \$y(x) = b - \frac{k}{(x+a)^2}\$, where x is ...
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1answer
34 views

Is the following system time-invariant or time-varying?

I was wondering if the following system is time-invariant or time-varying $$ y(t)=e^{-t}\int_{0}^{t}e^{\sigma}x(\sigma+1)d\sigma$$ I know that it's not causal, and I think it's time-varying because of ...
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2answers
70 views

Reducing noise that grows with frequency

I have a project in university where my professor gave us the following problem: There is a transducer generating an AC signal with amplitude of 7.5mV and a frequency range from 50Hz to 150Hz. This ...
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1answer
37 views

Contradiction while using the convolution sum for a non-LTI system

In a recent quiz, we were given the following problem: The cascaded LTI systems \$\mathcal{T}_1\$ and \$\mathcal{T}_2\$ respectively have impulse responses \$h_1 \lbrack n \rbrack = \delta\lbrack n ...
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0answers
27 views

What is the DC component of the sum of phasors?

I am preparing for the written test conducted by IISc Bangalore for admission into their graduate program. I happened to come across a sample paper from 2016, I think. I am struggling to understand ...
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3answers
273 views

Series resistor on digital signal lines [duplicate]

I have seen many schematics using 22 ohm resistor in series with digital signal lines. I was wondering is this always a MUST or there are there some special scenarios where we don't need them since ...
1
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1answer
129 views

Does this criss-crossed GND plane look like it will function properly?

I'll be using it at 12 MHz and... not the best parts placement resulted in this board layout. So I am asking more experienced people if it will definitely not work or maybe it will. Thanks! edit I ...
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0answers
37 views

Impedance Matching and Reflection Coefficient

Consider a real signal generator (Voltage Source Vs, output impedance Zs, reflection coefficient Γs) and a load Zl with reflection coefficient Γl. I was told that we have maximum power transfer when ...
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2answers
69 views

How to get the 741 op amp to work as a linear amplifier?

I'm trying to run the 741 as a non inverting voltage amplifier. I did the circuit in proteus simulation and it works well to get 2x the input signal. For example, if input voltage is 1V, then I get ...
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1answer
56 views

Improve 134.2kHz PIT tag RFID reader range

I need to scan 134.2kHz PIT FDX tags from a range of 5cm to 10cm. So far, I have built custom reading circuit. It has the standard R+L+C in series driven by 134.2 kHz square wave and the output is ...
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1answer
43 views

How is the power calculated for Si(t) in the picture?

The formula I've seen is to multiply the signal by its complex conjugate, then integrate across the time period interval, and then divide by the period. But when I do that I don't get A^2/2
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4answers
111 views

Sampling Theorem and reconstruction

I do not understand a concept about the Nyquist - Shannon sampling theorem. It says that it is possibile to perfectly get the original analog signal from the signal obtained by sampling if and only ...
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0answers
75 views

Measuring a small distance via capacitance

I am interested in measuring a small \$d\$ between two objects shown below by measuring the capacitance between the Terminals denoted as T0 and T1: The distance \$d\$ is roughly 1mm +/- 0.5mm ...
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1answer
64 views

Shield ground to metal body or signal ground?

I have a question about grounding. I will have two short shielded cables with signal wires inside, located at the top of a tower. The cables have a grounding wire inside shorted to their foil shields ...
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1answer
30 views

Manipulating SPL

I've performed an experiment on guitar tone - ive used a fourier analysis to find the different frequency components. The idea of this is to find the sound pressure level of the consonant intervals ...
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2answers
474 views

What is signal ground

I encountered signal ground symbol while studying 555 IC Please explain why isn't a simple ground connection used and how does signal ground differ from normal ground. I am a first year undergraduate, ...
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1answer
63 views

Modifying a PWM signal

I have PWM signal from a computer motherboard to control 2 fans, one of them is rated for 3000 RPM, and the other one is rated for 2000 RPM. I'm trying to run all of them at the same speed(for ...
1
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1answer
50 views

3 wire signal to 4 core shielded twisted pair

So I have some flow sensors, which have a 3 wire interface. The three wires are 5V, signal, and ground. Signal is pulse output that varies between 5V and ground at a maximum frequency of about 200 Hz....
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4answers
922 views

How is it possible to drive VGA displays at such high pixel clock frequencies?

I'm working on a digital circuit using discrete components to drive a 640x480 VGA display in a 80x30 text mode. For a 640x480 display, the pixel clock is 25.175MHz, which has a period around 40ns. I ...
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0answers
41 views

Remove Sensor Voltage Offset ADC [duplicate]

I've got a pressure sensor and a flow sensor. Both have a 5V span, but have a (different) null offset i.e. at zero pressure (gauge) or zero flow they read ~2V and ~1V respectively. I am using an ...