Questions tagged [signal-processing]

the analysis, interpretation and manipulation of signals

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Opamp current source - Impedance matching to a laser diode - MHz range current modulation

I want to modulate the current through a laser diode with the output of a (FPGA into R2R DAC)source. I am using an opamp to do voltage to current conversion as shown in the circuit diagram. The laser ...
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30 views

Trigger falling signal on hi/low chatter

I want to use one of those tilt-ball switches on an interrupt with a microcontroller that can only trigger an interrupt on a signal FALLING from high to low, in a low power circuit. The tilt ball ...
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Cleaning PWM input signal to reduce heating of H-bridge

I'm using a BTS7960 H-bridge to regulate a fuel pump´s RPM. Currently, I'm facing the challenge of extreme heat production. I think the reason is an inaccurate PWM-input signal (picture below.) ...
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Problem with solder-able Breadboard

I'm having a very strange problem with a solder-able breadboard circuit I built. I'm trying to track the frequencies received from a speaker with a microphone. Microphone from Digikey I've built a ...
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-1 votes
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Confused about the method of plotting complex signal in matlab

I am trying to solve the Question No. 2-c-iii. of the following problem: I'm a beginner to Matlab and signal processing & I'm having problem plotting this kind of complex signal. I've only dealt ...
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1 answer
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Can we use an integrator circuit as a Hilbert transformer?

I want to know about the hardware implementation of Hilbert transform. Can an integrator circuit be used to introduce a -90° phase shift to the input signal?
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1 answer
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How do you bandlimit a continuous-time signal?

I wish to avoid aliasing as a result of taking the FFT of a signal. The signal isn't band limited. My understanding is that I should band limit the continuous-time signal first. How do I do this? EDIT:...
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2 answers
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How to handle metastable input using a microcontroller? [closed]

I have a metastability problem and I want to know how to best handle it using the C language. The problem I have two GPIOs that define the state of my system. Because of the conditioning circuit, they ...
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Difference between voltage measuring from induction motor junction box and VFD output terminal

I want to measure stator voltage of VFD fed induction motor. It's common to measure from juction box, which should be the exact stator voltage of induction motor, but I wonder if it's possible to ...
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4 answers
96 views

Signal Modulation with Carrier Wave?

Image B shows the frequency of an FM signal is changing, yet I know a single broadcast station on FM is specific to a single frequency. Is the pictured FM signal again modulated with another fixed ...
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2 answers
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How to construct a 4 input AC AND logic gate?

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I have four different safety switches connected to four different devices. If one of those safety switches trip then I want a signal to ...
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1 answer
113 views

Unexpected Amplifier Warm Up

The following diagram shows the signal processing stage of an audio system that I've recently implemented on a perfboard. The images of the circuit board are given below: The circuit starts with a ...
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1 answer
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Time invariant system with sinc impulse

Given said system, the impulse responses for the LTI systems \$H_1,H_2\$ are : $$ h_{1}\left(\tau\right)=\frac{\sin\left(\omega_{1}\tau\right)}{\pi\tau}d\tau,h_{2}\left(\tau\right)=\frac{\sin\left(\...
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Range Profile in Radar System

I am slightly confused on the range profile I am obtaining from my SCFW radar dataset. I am understanding of how fftshift works in shifting positive and negative frequency components to be centered ...
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6 votes
1 answer
248 views

Analog television: What is the difference between the first IF and second (demodulated) IF?

I am trying to understand what kind of changes occur to a signal in the chips which sit between the tuner and, for example the FM audio demodulator. Take the attached example - the TDA2546A. It takes ...
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Frequency Response of Antennas

Electromagnetics and antennas are not my main area of expertise. However, I have a specific question about antennas that I want to get right in order to make sure my signal processing is right. What ...
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How do you sketch a signal given by x(t) = A(t/T) for time period 0 to T? Does t/T simply denote that the signal covers entire duration of T?

Does t/T simply mean that the signal has magnitude A over the entire "T" duration? Or does it mean that it covers only a fraction? How will it look? I tried assuming A to be some magnitude ...
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2 answers
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What is the relation between a signal and its generated audio?

Assume we have a simple AM signal, which is a mix of the carrier wave and upper/lower bands. If I were to plot its time domain graph, I would get a graph with Y being its amplitude and X as time, ...
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How to modulate the amplitude of a square wave at high speed (MHz)?

I want to build a modulator for driving a laser. I want the laser to produce square pulses with varying amplitudes. Hence I built a 1 MHz square wave oscillator (relaxation oscillator with an opamp.) ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Interpolating a Discrete-Time High Pass Filter

I am currently working on a project on MATLAB, and I need to use interpolation and decimation on various low pass, band pass and high pass filters with sampling frequencies of 10kHz. There was no ...
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1 answer
111 views

How do I connect a female EEG electrode to a breadboard?

Electrode output end: EEG electrode: I'm trying to connect the output of EEG electrodes to a breadboard as input. How do I connect the electrode to the breadboard? Usual jumper wires don't seem to ...
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3 votes
0 answers
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Creating a Range Profile

I am relatively new to the radar/signal processing community. However, my team has been struggling in developing a range profile in our programming. Here are the details for a NI LabVIEW forum I ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Filter signal on oscilloscope using math functions

Is there a way to do a time domain low pass filter, in software, on a Siglent SDS2000X Plus series oscilloscope using these math functions? The ones that stand out the most are ...
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1 answer
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How to characterize an input signal?

I'm planning on doing some signal processing on my electric guitar with an MCU and I was wondering how I can characterize my input signal so I know if and what kind of pre-amp/ADC I'd need or if the ...
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1 answer
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My Chebyshev filter band pass filter produce tiny values

I am using a Chebyshev band pass filter: Fs = 50 wc =[0.1,0.9] Ap = 0.025 filter_order=2 z, p = signal.cheby1(filter_order,Ap, wc, 'bandpass',analog=True) The ...
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Help Deciphering Encoder Pin-Out After Differential Comparator Circuit

I am trying to interface a translation stage with a different non-proprietary motion controller. Trinamic's TMC4671 seemed appealing due to cost and functionality, especially the evaluation kit. ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Trying to understand Integral nonlinearity in DAC/ADC

So here's the definition of INL: it is mentioned (underlined in red) that one of the lines can be a line drawn between the end points of the transfer function but in (a) that line appears to pass in ...
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Can I reconstruct the channel impulse response from OFDM least square channel estimation?

I'm working on a successive interference cancellation (SIC) project for an OFDM system. I used pilots and least square channel estimation to estimate the channel frequency response (CFR.) It works ...
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Adaptive Particle Filter: unknown process Equation

In my design and implementation of a SIR particle Filter, I don't have the state process equation of the actual system, which would have given a very good estimation of the real signal. I was ...
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2 answers
103 views

Gigabit Ethernet 1000BASE-T and Fast Ethernet 100BASE-T

I have this basic question. Gigabit ethernet has two things - 1000BASE-T and 1000BASE-TX. And Fast Ethernet has 100BASE-T. Ethernet has 4 twisted pairs. Can someone tell me which are half duplex and ...
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Vernier TDC: how to adjust every stage time differential to achieve 1 TLSB?

How do we get td1 - td2 = 2ns? I have no idea about how to adjust delay cell.
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2 votes
0 answers
160 views

Monte Carlo Analysis in LTspice: Gaussian or Uniform distribution for the tolerance of resistors?

I am running 1000 simulations in LTspice to do Monte Carlo Analysis of the output voltage signal on a circuit with 3% tolerance resistors. Firstly, does LTspice assume the resistors' values are ...
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Timing Arduino response with ADXL345 accelerometer's data rate

I'm currently working on a system that calculates the velocity by integrating the values of the acceleration. I'm using the ADXL345 accelerometer with a ESP32, and so far, everything's going good, i'm ...
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Question about filter

I'm studying filter. I saw the filter in book. Therefore, I designed the circuit in the LTSpice for understanding the circuit. However, I do not clearly understand whether the filter is bandpass or ...
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51 views

Help me understand if discrete time signal is periodic or not?

I need help identifying if the following discrete-time signal is periodic or not. \$ x[n] = \cos(9πn^2) \$ \$ \frac {W_0}{2\pi} = \frac {9\pi}{2\pi} \$ which is a rational number so this should be ...
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1 vote
2 answers
97 views

Confused about the similarities between Fourier Series and Fourier Transform

My understanding of Fourier Series was, it is a method that decomposes a periodic signal into sum of signal given by infinite number of sines and cosines. And in case of Fourier Transform it was, that ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Current mode vs Voltage mode signal conditioning [closed]

I am working in sensor design and would like to compare the signal conditioning of current output sensors vs voltage output sensors about advantages and disadvantages of each. Can some one point out ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
114 views

Is \$\sin(-t)\$ LTI?

Is \$\sin(-t)\$ LTI or linear time variant? It seems like linear time variant but we know \$\sin(-t) = \sin(t)\$. Then \$\sin(t)\$ is linear time invariant. So is \$\sin(-t)\$ linear time variant or ...
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1 vote
1 answer
34 views

How to measure 10bit SAR ADC 's input Dynamic range after switch 9 time?

I want to know 10 bit SAR ADC , supply voltage 0.5V , Vcm based , after DAC switch 9 times , how to measure DAC input Dynamic range ? I need to know voltage range that I can use Voltage to time ...
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0 votes
1 answer
100 views

How to get RMS voltage and frequency from datapoints read from an ADC?

I have an ADC that samples 4000 times per second or 0.25 ms interval per sample. I would like to extract the RMS and frequency value of the signal being read. How do oscilloscopes and multimeters do ...
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0 answers
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Get alpha-beta plot of Clarke Transform in Python

For a project I'm working on, I want to use the Clarke Transform to detect faults in a power system. To do this, I already wrote a script in Python which returns the sine wave behavior of the Alpha, ...
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1 vote
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81 views

Reverse Engineering Hot Tub Control Signal

I am trying to reverse engineer the control signal that my hot tub's top side control panel uses to communicate with the main panel which controls the heater, water pump, etc. The tub is an older (...
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1 answer
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Need help for the signals question

Assuming that the signal x(t) is an energy-type signal and its energy is Ex= 2, what is the energy of signal -2x (t - 1)? My step was to find the x(t) graph, the amplitude would be 2 due to the energy ...
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5 votes
5 answers
917 views

Half wave rectifier query

This is an ASK asynchronous demodulator In the circuit, we can see 3 differentiated parts: One half-wave rectifier, one envelop detector and a comparator. The circuit receives SIG which is a ASK ...
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-3 votes
2 answers
110 views

Can we say that this system has a memory? [closed]

This unit step response has a memory because of (n+1) but can we say that whole system is not memoryless? If we can, why?
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1 vote
1 answer
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Nyquist's theorem misunderstanding

I have been assigned the following question: From what I understood of Nyquist's theorem for a signal that contains power over a range of frequencies that does not include 0 Hz i.e. over a known ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
118 views

Thévenin equivalent: is this resistor useless?

I am doing a lab project that includes a sensor connected to a signal conditioning module. I am analyzing the circuit to understand more about how it works and I came across this: That voltage source ...
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3 votes
1 answer
127 views

Understanding Euler's formula in different forms

I am a little confused on the form of Euler's formula. I'm taking a signal and signals class where the book uses Euler's formula as: $$e^{j\theta} = cos\theta +jsin\theta$$ $$e^{-j\theta}=cos\theta -...
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1 answer
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Using the autocorrelation of a signal \$f(t)\$ to identify its (longest) period?

Brad Osgood's book on Fourier Transforms defines the autocorrelation of a real signal \$f\$ of period \$T\$ with itself to be $$(f \star f)(x) = \int_0^T f(y)f(y+x)\ dy$$ We can show that \$(f \star f)...
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0 answers
108 views

Why would an ADC produce square wave data from a sine wave signal?

I have a device that produces a 200Hz analog sine wave signal and reads the data in a time delay from the peak of the signal after X microseconds. When using an ADS1015 ADC to read the data at 100us ...
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