# Questions tagged [signal-theory]

Anything related to signal theory, i.e. the branch of applied mathematics and engineering studying the properties of signals and the mathematical tools used to manipulate them.

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### How do causality and stability affect the response of a linear time-invariant system?

Suppose that there's a linear time-invariant system with the following transfer function: $$H(s) = \frac{1}{3(s-2)}-\frac{1}{3(s+1)}$$ If the system is causal and stable, I can determine $h(t)$ by ...
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### Evaluate signal power between two amplifiers

Let's consider this cascade of amplifiers: Consider the intermediate node, and suppose there our signal has voltage Vx. How can I evaluate that signal power (for instance to calculate the SNR, ...
16 views

### Parseval Theorem and RMS

I was just thinking that when we have $$\overline{|v(t)|^2}=\frac{1}{2t}\int_{-t}^{t}|v(\tau)|^2 d\tau$$ we couldn't apply Parseval theorem, for it is normalized. For applying Parseval Theorem, we ...
29 views

### About discrete time model for wireless channel

I am trying to understand Section 2.2.3 of the book "Fundementals of wireless communication" by Tse and Viswanath. In this section the authors explain how to go from the continuous time ...
71 views

### How to modify zeros and poles in a delta-sigma modulator loop?

In this specific case, I am modelling a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter with a basic loop in which the output V is fed back with unity gain to be subtracted from the previously sampled input U ...
23 views

### Calculating the Running Corrleation of two signals in Matlab

I am currently using https://www.eecs.umich.edu/courses/eecs206/public/lab/ to advance my matlab skills. Sadly I am stuck at lab2 task 2. First, i cant run the pcode file to get the proper solution ...
1k views

### Why is power of a signal equal to square of that signal?

Is there any logic as to why the power of a signal $\mathrm{x(t)}$ is taken as $\mathrm{x^2(t)}$? I searched everywhere and there's no clue. My professor told: "It's a standard result so shut ...
2k views

### Is Gaussian noise equal to white noise?

If noise on a signal is randomly fluctuating in time domain around its mean following a Gaussian normal distribution (Gaussian noise), would this be equivalent to an constant intensity in the ...
146 views

### Why frequency of a DC signal is chosen as zero? If the period can be anything, isn't it same for frequency?

This is a page from Oppenheim. We can assume a DC signal as a repetition of 10 strips per 10 seconds/10 strips per 5 seconds. Like that, if we choose different periods, we get different frequencies ...
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### Time Reversal Operation for discrete time signals

For a discrete time unit step signal 'u(n)' , if time reversal operation is performed then it becomes 'u(-n-1)'. Is it true for ANY discrete time signal 'x(n)' such that time reversal operation makes ...
95 views

### convolution vs correlation?

Apparently this question looks better for DSP SE but I am posting it here to get answer in simple words for those EE graduates who didn't studied signal processing in undergrad. Apparently as far as ...
110 views

### Aperiod vs Period waveform Fourier Transform: How does nature understand which is the case?

Today I reviewed the theory behind the Fourier Transform, and I asked myself a question that I couldn't answer to in the process. Theory: A periodic waveform has a Fourier series which can be seen ...
95 views

### What is the math behind high FM frequency components being more noise prone? [closed]

what is the math behind the phenomena that higher frequencies are more prone to noise? The use of pre-emphasis to boost the higher frequency components to get a better S/N ratio. Can you provide ...
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### Doubt on singular value decomposition

I am studying control systems and I am studying the topic of Singular Value Decomposition(SVD). I have found a transfer matrix of a systemm, and computed its DC gain. Then I have performed the ...
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### inclinometers signal bandwidth

the answer here suggests that inclinometers are low bandwidth devices by design. But how low is low ? Or what difference will there be between a 6.25 Hz signal bandwidth device and a 62.5 Hz one ?
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### Why does a pole at high frequencies attenuates noise?

I am trying to understand the concept of realizability for an improper transfer function, and I am struggling to understand some concepts. I know that if I have an improper transfer function, for ...
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### How to construct a signal with only unit functions?

I don't understand the solution to this problem. How can I write a ramp function in the form of a step function?
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### Cellular communications queuing

Not sure if this is the right place to ask but this is a homework question. Consider a base station in a cellular network. The base station has the resources to handle 7 calls at the same time. The ...
4k views

### Why do microwave ovens use magnetrons?

With a lot of advancement in solid state electronics and signal manipulation, isn't it easier to simply take high amplitude signals with frequencies near 1 MHz and multiply the signals using diodes ...
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### Draw the graph of differential of the following graph

Is is like this? I think there should be impulse signal also in the graph am i doing wrong?
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### Represent the given signal in mathematical form

Is this the mathematical form? I highy doubt myself $$-2r(t+3)+2r(t)+16u(t)-r(t)-2u(t-3)+5/2r(t-3)-5/2r(t-5)$$
61 views

### Draw even and odd parts of following signal

I think my odd signal is wrong because odd signal cannot be symmetric about y axis
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### Calculating steady state output using Laplace transform

I've tried to obtain the the steady state output with the help of final value theorem and multiplication properties of Laplace transform.But I'm not sure whether I've solved the problem correctly or ...
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### Confusion regarding step responses of integrator and differentiator?

I am using matlab to study about step response of integrator and also of differentiator using transfer function modelling technique But i have two confusion, one in case of integrator is that step ...
66 views

### Determine the output signal given the input and inpulse response

It's been a while since I've worked these types of problems, but I've been working out the following problem for a while now and can't figure out a few details: And here is the solution: ...
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### Is diode reverse recovery time related to diode capacitance?

The title. Is there some relationship between the two parameters? For example, fast diode recovery time indicates low capacitance, or even farther, can one be calculated from the other? Thank you in ...
234 views

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### Minimum Shift Keying

"Overall frequency excursion del-f in MSK is minimum frequency spacing between symbols 0 and 1 that allows their FSK representation to be coherently orthogonal". What is meant by being coherently ...
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### Do I need to maintain source of a signal till it reaches the destination?

If I send a signal through a wire having delay of 10ms, then should I need to maintain the source of the signal till it reaches the destination or can I change after, say, 2ms and send the next signal....
226 views

### Why can't all data be sent across 4 wires?

I am aware that USB uses a positive, negative and D+/- wires in order to transmit data. The twisted pair are used to negate the effects of interference and electronic noise. I also understand that a ...
814 views

### Is there any relationship between frequency of signal and distance it travels?

I'm currently researching 5G technology. Many videos/articles on this topic claim that 5G is designed for communicating on lower distances (than 4G), because of higher (than 4G) frequency. So to build ...
260 views

### Long Distance High Speed Wireless Data Transfer

What kind of device can I use to transmit data at a rate of 1MB/min up to a distance of 100 miles? If that's not possible, what's the farthest distance to which I can transmit the data.
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### Why microstripline is compulsory to generate high frequency signal in the range of 2 Ghz or more

I would like to understand why the UHF (Ultra High Frequency) band in the range of 1 Ghz or more like 2.4 Ghz or 2.6 Ghz require microstripline to generate such signal frequency? Is there any ...
101 views

### Find admittance( G ) matrix of a resistive circuit

I am taking Signals And Systems class where I have to calculate the admittance parameter of a given circuit. A given circuit for example: This is tedious and calculating the parameters takes so long....
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### How do you visualize the frequency spectrum for a digital waveform? [closed]

How does the mathematics of a single or periodic rectangular pulse help us quickly visualize the frequency spectrum for a digital waveform? Develop the ideas behind this. My professor posed this ...
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### What is the signal-noise model of laser induced fluorescence?

The following image is an example of a fluorescence signal trace from the photomultiplier tube detector (PMT). Each spike represents one fluorescently labeled cell. This signal model is definitely ...
83 views

### Is a voltage signal we observe on scope made up of only cosines?

Pardon me for the dumb looking question but I'm trying to comprehend a "signals and systems" subject and relate it to voltage or current signal. A periodic signal is made up of sinusoids which is a ...
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### Does a splitter still reduce signal if only 1 of its ports is used?

I'm using a Wilson Electronics signal amplification system to try to get phone signal in my house. I'm going to attempt using a coaxial splitter like this one to split the amplified signal to multiple ...
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### How can I determine the order of filter?

This is my first study about signal analysing. I'm very confused about filter order. My problem is how can I know whether its 4-th order, 12-th order, or 2nd order like the book says so? I'd like to ...
37 views

### What effects limit throughput of a short channel?

In a short channel, e.g. a 1" long Ethernet cable, which effects are most likely to reduce throughput and why? What would the nature of the throughput reduction be? Specifically, I am wondering about ...
308 views

### What is the difference between SNR of a wideband system and the SNR for a narrowband system

I was reading Wireless Communications by Andrea Goldsmith in the book the author has stated that the Noise power for a wideband system with Bandwidth B is (B*N/2). Could someone help me understand why ...
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### General questions about the telephone line a.k.a “last mile” [closed]

Before the digital data gets conveyed over the "last mile", it passes a modem, which converts this digital data into audio signals (Which is often called analog) (but the binary system still is there, ...