Questions tagged [signal]

A signal is a stream of information in the form of a varying quantity. Usually in electronics, signals can be in the form of voltages, currents, or radiated electromagnetic fields.

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49 views

What does GSM 900/1800 mean?

I was looking at old Nokia 3310 phones, which have GSM 900/1800. I did some research online from a government website, along with some Google searches, to understand what GSM 900/1800 means. I got a ...
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1answer
624 views

RMS value of fundamental harmonic vs RMS of third harmonic

If we have a periodic signal (square wave) with amplitude of 100V. Then what would the RMS value of the fundamental harmonic be compared to the RMS value of the third harmonic? After some suggestion ...
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200 views

Creating a 1PPS signal froma a 10 MHz CMOS Output Signal

Is it possible to "create" a 1PPS signal using an Agilent 8165A signal generator? We currently don't have a way of testing a 1PPS signal directly, so we're looking at "making our own&...
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1answer
58 views

Inverting 5V switch with minimal amount of current drain

I want to invert a 5V switch. I = when 5v(switch closed) is applied to the input 0v is received out of the output. I know a transistor can be used by having the switch short circuit the gate and this ...
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1answer
50 views

How can I generate an exponential signal in simulation software?

In Multisim, I can generate a few signals using the function generator like sine wave, triangular wave, square wave. Can I generate a signal like \$i(t)= 2e^{50t}\$ in Multisim software or any other ...
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51 views

Confusion about the “leading edge” and “trailing edge” and “clock cycle” terms in SPI

This question refers to the Wikipedia page of SPI, to the section about Clock Polarity and Phase. I've read what's written there and got pretty confused about these terms. My question is: Is "...
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1answer
38 views

Advice on Noise in Square Input Signal

I am reading the following signal from an open drain output, and trying to read the signal frequency. However, I am getting short spikes in the wave as seen below, and this is messing with the reading ...
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2answers
626 views

Counting signal switching between floating and LOW in Arduino

I have a rotating contact (contact breaker of an ICE) that switches between being not connected to anything (floating) and being connected to the case of the ICE. The engine case is connected to ...
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1answer
494 views

Find the total gain from the following Signal Flow Graph

The signal flow graph for a system is given in the figure. Find resultant gain.
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40 views

6 Pin USB Type c connector issues

I want to use a Type C connector to send signals from a simple switching circuit. I am totally new to using USB, I ordered a 6 pin female Type c connector. I am not able to find out proper pinouts for ...
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52 views

Is there an official symbol for noise generator? [duplicate]

I was wondering if there was a specific symbol for drawing a noise generator in a signal processing schematic.
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95 views

How Mobile Phone Call Works [closed]

This may be a noob question, but I'm having a hard time and confusion finding the answer. How does a mobile phone call work in the mobile phone itself so that analog data (voice) is transmitted out of ...
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1answer
188 views

Cable for MEMS Accelerometer

I am using a MEMS Accelerometer (ADXL1001), along with the EVAL board and an NI 9234 DAQ module to acquire the signal. I am using a RG58 coaxial cable to connect the sensor output (2 connector pins, ...
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1answer
46 views

MUX chips only happy with one of the inputs

I have two MAX4533 quad SPDT chips, all outputs are behaving the same. NOn - a PWM pulse train at 25% generated by an Arduino Mega. NCn - a 5kHz square wave from a AD9833 signal generator. Switching ...
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1answer
891 views

How to tell whether a line coding scheme has DC component or not

I'm new to EE, trying to understand things as a non technical audience. My textbook says one of bipolar encoding schemes called alternate mark inversion (AMI) has no DC component and we can think ...
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5answers
229 views

Analog Is Digital? [closed]

As I started reading a bit about analog vs digital signals, I keep returning to this thought. This could be something pretty obvious to the pros out there, but is it safe to assume that underneath it ...
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1answer
1k views

Common audio signal voltage range on Line out connector

What is typical audio signal voltage range on Line out connector of consumer electronic devices? (Vmin/Vmax) I need specify Input voltage range to calculate op-amp. ...
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0answers
32 views

How to calculate RSSI empirically?

can we calculate RSSI? is RSSI and power received are same? From research papers i found this PL(d; n; o) = PL(d0) + 10nlog10(d/d0) + Xo RSSI=Pt-PL(d). but on the ...
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2answers
161 views

Free/Open Source alternative to TekScope Anywhere?

I'm trying to analyze a signal I got out of a scope on my PC and a program like TekScope Anywhere looks like it will do what I'm after. How can I get plots and data of the scope?
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0answers
55 views

Help decoding a non-standard serial signal [duplicate]

I'm trying to decode a serial signal from a car audio unit but struggled as it seems the signal is using non-standard baud rates. Could you please help me decode the signal ? I attach here-in captured ...
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2answers
105 views

Square wave from comparator drifts and the integrated square wave doesn't yield a triangle wave

I am trying to make a function generator. The generator runs on 16kHz, the rails are +12/-12V for test purposes. I basically obtain a sine wave with an oscillator, drive a comparator (LM311) with the ...
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5answers
991 views

Control one relay via multiple 12 V DC signals

I'm seeking help designing a circuit wherein we would have multiple 12 V DC signal inputs, with the goal of: ...
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1answer
286 views

Suggestions for accelerometer signal conditioning

I want to use an adxl326 accelerometer to measure vibration in one plane only. The accel is fed 3.3V and returns 1.65V at 0G's +/- 57mV/G What I want to do is remove the 1.65 bias to get an ac signal ...
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1answer
112 views

Laplace transform problem

Can you help me with these laplace problems ? I'm having trouble understanding how to do it. ( u(t) is heaviside step function )
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61 views

Why TL071 Does'nt Act As a Comparator?

I am trying to obtain a square wave using a comparator and a sine wave signal. Sine wave has adjustable peak to peak amplitude with +10/-10 volts as limits. TL071 runs with +12/-12 volts. Sine wave ...
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0answers
39 views

Finite-duration signal in the time domain, means what exactly in the frequency domain?

I'm trying to understand exactly what restrictions a finite duration time domain signal has on its Fourier transform. I found a helpful table in The Fourier Transform and its Applications by Ronald ...
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1answer
74 views

Can I connect GNDD with GND to get stable result?

I am using JY-S60 Signal conditioner (SC) (click here to see datasheet, giving amazon link, could not find specific link for datasheet) with small load cell click to see load cell datasheet. I have ...
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0answers
32 views

Zero-state response/Zero-input response vs forced and natural response

I'm having some confusion regarding the differences between the zero-input response and the natural response. And also between the zero-state response and forced response. I read the following but I'm ...
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3answers
538 views

Oscilloscope Run/Stop output signal

Hi, guys. Does anyone know what causes the multiple waves at a time when you run the oscilloscope? But when you stop (pause) the oscilloscope, you get one wave a time (picture on the answer column). ...
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1answer
531 views

Effects of rapidly pulsing DC inductive load on solid state relays

I'd like to use some solid state relays to turn on and off a high voltage, low current DC inductive circuit (120-150VDC, 20-60ma). The SSR would only be switched on and off at a maximum of once every ...
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2answers
2k views

What is the power / energy of a discrete time constant signal?

I know that this is a very fundamental (and maybe vague) question. But I'm not sure what period I should use. I read somewhere that a constant signal doesn't have a fundamental period but is periodic....
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44 views

RF signal detection vs mixer and amplifier noise

What I am trying to do is some sort of amateur radio. But not exactly a radio, for now I will just detect the presence of a signal. I will synthesize an RF signal with a frequency synthesizer, ...
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1answer
192 views

Phase-modulated Noise

If you replace the carrier signal in a phase modulated circuit with noise then presumably the noise will be modulated. What must be considered if we wish to detect this noise modulation? I’ve ...
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2answers
1k views

SNR and Attenuation Question

Hello, I have a question above from random material and tried to solve it. Here, I assume signal power to be S1(dB) and noise power to be N1(dB) at input, and S2(dB) and N2(dB) at output. So below ...
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2answers
51 views

Read 4wire pressure transducer via a differential amplifier

I have been trying to read a 4wire pressure transducer (M3021-000005-01KPG) with a microcontroller, but problems keep arising. First of all, I realized that the signal (0-100 mV) is differential, ...
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2answers
76 views

What is the purpose of negative frequencies? [duplicate]

Below you can see the frequency spectrum of a square pulse. But what exactly is the purpose of the negative frequencies? Lets say I have a square pulse with a width of 10ns (f=100MHz) and I want to ...
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3answers
2k views

What component to use for audio signal switching?

I'm looking to build a guitar pedal switcher based on a Raspberry Pi or Arduino (have not yet decided, but I have an unused Raspberry around and I lean towards that). Anyway, digital logic. Now, I ...
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2answers
113 views

What does clock/signal speed actually do?

This is may be a silly questions but I am curious. I know that in circuits power lines are at speed near light but why are signal lines so different? Let's say I use I2C(MCP23017) I can choose between ...
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1answer
61 views

single zero in z-domain transfer function calculatio

I am designing a filter with two poles at DC and one zero at fs/10. For simplicity I choose fs=1; So my z-transfer function looks like: (z-z1)/(z-1)^2. Since z=exp(jwT)=cos(wT)+j*sin(wT). So if I want ...
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1answer
47 views

What does hₖ[n] mean here?

Is the impulse response different from the output y[n]? Is the input x[n] all the delta function at different values of n? From Signals and Systems by Robert Oppenheim, Linear Time Invariant systems
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1answer
37 views

GPIO signals from Raspberry, read by Arduino

I'm working on a program on Arduino to control the Raspberry. My plan is using a button to make Raspberry Pi 4 switch on by pressed button (if i pressed a button for 3 seconds, raspberry will switch ...
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1answer
51 views

İnput signal of op-amp

Where I am confused is that the signal coming to the opamp should be superimposed on dc, or could it only consist of ac? Because when we want to make a filter consisting of a few transistors, we need ...
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2answers
306 views

Period Measurement

I am reading a book about the measurement in communications. There are a lot of information about how to measure frequency and period of signals. OK, i have understood that we should measure the ...
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1answer
45 views

Simulink scope changes value depending on simulation time

I am making a co-simulation in Simulink for a circuit that I made in ORCAD, and I saw this problem that appears: If I put the final stop time for simulation 10s the signal looks like in first picture ...
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1answer
110 views

how to find transfer function of this filter

how can i find the trans. function of this circuit , is there any way to find the total impedance , i don't want to use Laplace transform . and can i find the bode diagram for this circuit ?
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1answer
25 views

Simulate the sum of signals on PROTEUS

Is there any way to simulate (show on oscilloscope ) the sum of more than two periodic signals on PROTEUS?
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37 views

Is it safe to leave the GND from an antenna jack unconnected from an active antenna amplifier?

I need help with trying to use properly this circuit, the original idea came from the late Tony Van Roon who designed it. According to the article it seems that the logic behind it is that the dim ...
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0answers
21 views

How to setup STM32F103C8 encoder triggered output signal

I have a project where I need to read the encoder phase A&B to output the pulse so I can drive a motor, I did some research and saw this picture where it is exactly what I wanted to do: output a ...
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0answers
37 views

What's wrong with my experiment to observe harmonics caused by receiver saturation and non-linear behavior?

I've been trying to devise an experiment to produce a third order harmonic in radio receiver that's been saturated, but I'm not seeing the expected results. My understanding of the theory is that when ...
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2answers
67 views

Pseudo Periodic Signal

I am reading a research paper Eyer 1999 in which they used these terms so I want to know about them since there is no source on which I can learn about these terms so that's why asking it here, it ...

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