Questions tagged [signal]

A signal is a stream of information in the form of a varying quantity. Usually in electronics, signals can be in the form of voltages, currents, or radiated electromagnetic fields.

199 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
3
votes
0answers
39 views

Finite-duration signal in the time domain, means what exactly in the frequency domain?

I'm trying to understand exactly what restrictions a finite duration time domain signal has on its Fourier transform. I found a helpful table in The Fourier Transform and its Applications by Ronald ...
3
votes
2answers
161 views

Free/Open Source alternative to TekScope Anywhere?

I'm trying to analyze a signal I got out of a scope on my PC and a program like TekScope Anywhere looks like it will do what I'm after. How can I get plots and data of the scope?
3
votes
0answers
39 views

Does this digital line-encoding/keying scheme have a name?

"1" is a single low pulse of length T, followed by a single high pulse of length T "0" is a single low pulse of length 2T, followed by a single high pulse of length 2T This is similar to BFSK, ...
3
votes
0answers
104 views

What is the signal-noise model of laser induced fluorescence?

The following image is an example of a fluorescence signal trace from the photomultiplier tube detector (PMT). Each spike represents one fluorescently labeled cell. This signal model is definitely ...
2
votes
1answer
123 views

STM32 Encoder Mode, CNT don't count

I'm using STM32L476RT. I've got encoders based on TLE4946-2K. I can't get it to work. I'm attaching my code and config below. I'm kind of stuck at this point - I tried to lower the voltage by divide ...
2
votes
0answers
53 views

Convert complex number to phase shift in simulink

I am currently modelling some dynamic phenomena, combining pure simulink blocks and simscape blocks. I have measurements (real-valued) on which I perform computations with complex-valued matrices, ...
2
votes
0answers
169 views

Mixed sensitivity controller design

I am defining a controller using the mixed sensitivity approach, and I have the following specifications: a low frequency attenuation of 60 dB a maximum resonance peak of 2 and I have chosen to use ...
2
votes
1answer
121 views

How to extract the switching noise component for this signal data?

A servo accelerometer when powered by batteries has a clean output, but when used with this SMPS supply its output seems like have switching artifacts from the power supply(the datasheet says its ...
2
votes
0answers
258 views

Vanishing of Gibbs Phenomenon in MatLab

I was trying to represent a square wave with its Fourier series in Matlab. But as I increased the number of terms in Fourier series expression, the Gibbs phenomenon vanished and the edges of the ...
2
votes
0answers
40 views

Parasitic Passbands in distributed filters

it is known that if we realize a filter (for instance a low pass filter) by using distributed elements (transmission lines), there will be some parasitic passbands (which moreover show a behaviour ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Common audio signal voltage range on Line out connector

What is typical audio signal voltage range on Line out connector of consumer electronic devices? (Vmin/Vmax) I need specify Input voltage range to calculate op-amp. ...
2
votes
0answers
1k views

Low pass filter for differential signals

I'm building an adc and amplifier circuit for sensing a differential signal out of a pressure sensor. My plan is to use a circuit very similar to what is seen below: The total differential output ...
2
votes
0answers
599 views

Which serial protocol or encoding scheme does this scoreboard use?

I am trying to decode a signal stream coming from a Nevco scoreboard controller: Packets like this are sent every ~2.7 ms. I suspect it is some sort of UART signal because it is on the RX line of a ...
2
votes
0answers
147 views

Precision Tracking filter required

I don't mind if it's a band-pass or low pass filter (although I think low-pass will give a better result). Input operating frequency range is 100Hz to 1kHz. Input amplitude will be about 1Vp-p and ...
2
votes
1answer
150 views

Does the feed line contribute to the function of a PCB patch antenna?

First let's make sure I've got my terminology right. The following are both 2.4GHz antenna: The first is a simple coaxial antenna that's just cut to the appropriate length for the relevant ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

How to setup STM32F103C8 encoder triggered output signal

I have a project where I need to read the encoder phase A&B to output the pulse so I can drive a motor, I did some research and saw this picture where it is exactly what I wanted to do: output a ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

What's wrong with my experiment to observe harmonics caused by receiver saturation and non-linear behavior?

I've been trying to devise an experiment to produce a third order harmonic in radio receiver that's been saturated, but I'm not seeing the expected results. My understanding of the theory is that when ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Way to mitigate parameter dispersion in NMOS attenuator

I am building an automatic gain control for a subMHz signal, which comes in the 30-120mVpp range, using a NMOS as VCR. At the output, ideally, signal should be 'compressed' around +-Vpeak_detect_th . ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

opamp single supply output AC (audio) voltage limit

I build non-inverting op amp with single supply voltage cca 9V. The basic scheme is shown in the figure below: How to limit output AC signal if the base DC voltage is at half the supply voltage 4.5 V ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Signal path / configuration help for a PLL for AWG

In our system signal path, there is a clock signal being sent from the FPGA noted as SCLK. This goes to each component not including the MCU. The way I understand this is that the PLL receives the ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Single Fault Pulls up Both AND Gate Inputs

I have a situation where I have 2 inputs to an AND gate coming from 2 sensors (passing through a comparator before). If both signals exceed some predetermined value (let's say 2.5 V for sensor 1, and ...
1
vote
1answer
111 views

FMCW radar FFT(Fast Fourier Transform)

I am trying to design a simple FMCW radar for the ideal case. Below are steps I planned. Transmit signal, Tx = cos(T) receive signal, Rx = cos(R) Mix transmitted signal and received signal, Sx1 = cos(...
1
vote
0answers
142 views

Ratio detector FM demodulator

The aim of the exercise is to design a ratio detector FM demodulator circuit. UPDATE: I changed the circuit: This is my transient analysis in output: I found the information about AC analysis and ...
1
vote
2answers
121 views

How to get USB-mouse output from capacitive touch panel?

I have this 7" capacitive touch panel overlay that I want to attach to my Raspberry Pi 4B. I don't know what kind of data comes out of that FPC cable, or even what its pinout is. Is there a well-...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Arduino sensor labels: “s” vs “out”

On many Arduino sensors, there are most likely a port for, gnd, vcc, and signal/s. On some other sensors, I see there is an "out" replacing an "s". This confuses me because "s&...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

state equation from given signal flow graph

I was solving a question in which I have to write state equations from given signal flow graph ,but I wanted to clear some basic doubts regarding general problem like this I thought it can we solve ...
1
vote
0answers
68 views

Modem Chip vs DSP

I've recently been researching how to implement a method of demodulating radio frequencies. After doing some quick searches on Mouser, I came across two different apparent methods of accomplishing ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Why do sensors or biosensors use AC excitation signal and not square wave signal?

I have recently started looking into transducers to measure a natural physical phenomena. The sensors I read about, especially electrochemical sensors like interdigital electrodes use a sinusoidal ...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

Re: attenuating amplitude of a signal

I need to attenuate a signal which outputs from a function generator. The minimum amplitude of the signal from the function generator is 1mV. What would be the best method to attenuate the signal from ...
1
vote
1answer
891 views

How to tell whether a line coding scheme has DC component or not

I'm new to EE, trying to understand things as a non technical audience. My textbook says one of bipolar encoding schemes called alternate mark inversion (AMI) has no DC component and we can think ...
1
vote
0answers
95 views

Is it possible to transfer a bluetooth signal via something else?

Problem: For example, I have 2 devices communicating with each other via bluetooth. But there is a thick metal wall between these devices and this makes a difficulty between them. To fix it, can I ...
1
vote
0answers
98 views

How to parse this protocol with an arduino?

I'm analyzing a signal from my building's intercom system to my tenant station. Intercom has two wires, +24V/0.27ma, and ground. Every 10 seconds, the system sends a "heartbeat" signal to the tenant ...
1
vote
0answers
95 views

Need to branch USB data lines… what to do with unused ends?

I have a USB 2.0 low-speed connection design with an unusual constraint. On the host side the D+ and D- lines have a branch, a requirement of the connector and this cannot be changed. On the device ...
1
vote
0answers
68 views

Zero - IF receiver main limits

I was reading these slides about receivers architectures, and I have some questions about Zero - IF receivers: Precisely: Why is the spectrum around the carrier (i.e. the 2 "side bands") mirrored ...
1
vote
0answers
338 views

Meaning of “ramp time”?

I have read that ramp means slope but what is the meaning of "ramp time" ? For example,if we have a saw-tooth wave,what will be its ramp time? Please kindly explain with figure/graphics
1
vote
0answers
87 views

Composite video signal detection problem?

I have an android headunit and I installed a reversing camera to it. The problem is that the headunit does not seem to detect the camera signal if the environment is too bright. It just shows black ...
1
vote
0answers
123 views

Foster - Seeley FM Demodulator Explanation

Consider this Foster Seeley Demodulator If I have correctly understood, its basic working principle is the fact that at the secondary coils (L2) of the Balun there will be two signals equal and ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

Decoding Signals from an Unknown Port on Spectrometer

We have a Thermo-Nicolet Nexus 670 FT-IR Spectrophotometer, made in the USA around 2000. It was the work horse of the infrared spectroscopy community. The instrument sends out signals to a proprietary ...
1
vote
0answers
123 views

Measuring a small distance via capacitance

I am interested in measuring a small \$d\$ between two objects shown below by measuring the capacitance between the Terminals denoted as T0 and T1: The distance \$d\$ is roughly 1mm +/- 0.5mm ...
1
vote
0answers
104 views

Determining required signal SNR (beat signal from FMCW RADAR)

I'm trying to determine the SNR required for signal outcoming from FMCW Radar. This is the chain: signal will created by "24 GHz VCO and PGA with 2-Channel PA Output" by triangle shape frequency ...
1
vote
0answers
168 views

Reducing electromagnetic interference in underwater acoustics cables

Our college underwater robotics team has a passive acoustics system with four hydrophones that provide an analog signal typically between +/- 200 mV corresponding to the sound wave at that point in ...
1
vote
1answer
97 views

Spectral analysis of spectrum analyzer

Using measures from a spectral analyzer, I am a bit confused on how to properly compare the power of each spectral line with the fourier coefficients (Parseval). Take this signal: Take its spectrum: ...
1
vote
0answers
123 views

Rubidium standard mystery output?

I've been playing with a frequency counter (Racal 2202R) that has a built-in rubidium standard. It has two outputs, "Rb OUT 1" and "Rb OUT 2". I could not find any documentation at all, but the ...
1
vote
2answers
306 views

Period Measurement

I am reading a book about the measurement in communications. There are a lot of information about how to measure frequency and period of signals. OK, i have understood that we should measure the ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

How to set up signal generator in lab to obtain an output voltage?

In one of my laboratory assignments, I am to study how to work with square signals in RC circuits (low pass filter). Please keep in mind this is an introductory Electronics course. Basically, I am ...
1
vote
2answers
811 views

Autocorrelation: zero crossing

I am trying to calculate the fundamental frequency (pitch) from autocorrelation method. Below is the figure of the signal I have. The autocorrelation that I calculated by the following code in python ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Implementing Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE) with real data

I have a set of data contained in an excel file that I wish to compute the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator. I understand the assumption of the signal observed must be x[n]=S[n]A+W[n], where S[n] is the ...
1
vote
0answers
83 views

How to drive an HDTV with an 8 bit MPU?

Is it possible/reasonable to generate a 480 x 270 image with an 8 bit MPU, store the image in external memory, upscale the image to 1920 x 1080, and generate an HDMI signal for the upscaled image? ...
1
vote
0answers
626 views

Small Signal Pi Model Current Mirror

The issue I'm having is with Part C. I've rewritten the circuit with the Pi model as such: I can't figure out how to get an iout/i relationship. I can only think of writing the current laws, but it ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

How to prevent signal waveform from going towards negative side when increasing gain

I have managed to design a circuit: that is able to read an ECG signal where the signal is then acquired through a DAQ called TiePie. From there, the signal is then digitally processed (HPF,50Hz ...