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Questions tagged [solid-state-devices]

Refers to solid devices built on silicon wafers or ceramic substrate. Materials used could be silicon, germanium or gallium arsenide with copper conductors and oxide based insulators. Doping is the addition of performance enhancements compounds such as gold or germanium. Includes transistors of all types and logic, analog and special purpose devices such as CCD sensors. When done devices are sealed with plastic or ceramic compounds.

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Thermal generation of electron-hole couples and reverse biasing

I'm studying the PN junction and I have some problems figuring out thermal generation of couples electron-hole in reverse biasing. The analysis is the standard one (for example, one can find it in the ...
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Circuit simulator for a musical tesla coil?

I want to make a musical tesla coil. But I want to do some experimenting with the values of the voltage, turns ratio and the audio input. So I need a circuit simulator so that I can fixate on what ...
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BJT: why does Ic increase when temperature increases? [closed]

When the temperature of an BJT increases, the thermal voltage $$ V_T = \frac{k_BT}{q} $$ where \$k_B\$ is the Boltzmann constant, \$T\$ is the absolute temperature of the junction, \$q\$ is the ...
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50 views

On what inherent parameters does the speed of mosfet depend in a SRAM cell circuit?

I want to design 3D IC with 2 stages for a simple SRAM cell. Some of the MOSFETs will be on the top stage while some on the bottom stage. The MOSFETs on the top stage are supposed to be degraded in ...
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121 views

So why do SSD disks have a reputation for power efficiency?

Why do SSD disks have a reputation for power efficiency? I've just looked at some the spec sheets for SSD and mechanical hard disks. In a lot of cases, the even during idle state, SSDs use slightly ...
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High frequency switching applications

I was reading that for high frequency switching applications with semiconductors, the ratio of the electron to hole mobility should be high. Why is it so? Is it a necessary condition always? Or ...
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205 views

How do phosporus atoms affect the conductivity of a doped semiconductor?

Free electrons come from electrons in the Phosphorus atom when it excites to the conduction band. This leave an ion, what effect does this positive ion have on the flow of electrons?
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41 views

Enhancement type MOSFET - channel formation

In an enhancement type MOSFET (an n channel one assumed here), when a positive gate to source voltage is applied, the holes of the substrate near the gate move deeper into the substrate away from the ...
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62 views

Question on MOSFET - small signal model

In the small signal model of a MOSFET, the current from the drain to the source (for an n channel MOSFET) is a function of the gate to source voltage only. But, if a positive voltage was not applied ...
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156 views

Why do tube amplifiers have such (relatively) small reservior capacitors?

In learning about guitar amps, I've been studying the schematics for solid state and tube amplifiers, and I found a pattern that I've never seen an explanation for. If you consider any of the main ...
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49 views

Three-wire Control

Is it true that the three-wire control identifies the number of wires between the contactor and the control push buttons? I have been looking through the entire book, but can't seem to find a concise ...
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Why conductivity increases in semiconductor when doped?

I know it depends upon the concentration of electrons and holes . So if we add donor atoms, even though electron concentration in conduction band increases , hole concentration decreases due to more ...
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Why in semiconductor studies, we are only concerned with reduced zone representation of e-k diagram?

Does electron transition from conduction band to valence band takes place only in first Brillouin zone? Or can it happen in any other Brillouin zone?
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Why carriers move when Electric field is applied on Haynes-Shockley experiment

I would like to know why excess carriers/minority move when an electric field is applied at the Haynes-Shockley expirement
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1answer
167 views

Confusing regarding measuring barrier potential of a pn junction using a voltmeter

I have been trying to understand why we can't measure the Barrier potential existing in an unbiased pn diode but on seeing the answers I am quite confused. There seems to be two answers to this ...
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65 views

on-state voltage

I am trying to study an ever-on IGBT. in other words, IGBT is tried to be on in a long time. To this purpose, a +15V constant dc voltage is applied to the gate-emitter. But, when connecting a +2V ...
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52 views

General classifications of amplifiers

Some general classifications of amplifiers are wrote down below. Voltage Amplifier -> Voltage-Controlled-Voltage Source -> Device: OP AMP Current Amplifier -> Current-Controlled-Current-Source -> ...
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MOS Capacitor Band Edges

I am trying to understand the MOS-Capacitor band edge shapes. When negative voltage is applied for gate, why does the band edge across the insulator shift upward (and linear decreasing band edge)? ...
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2answers
60 views

semiconductor equilibrium and steady state

Why should equilibrium imply steady state? For example, there is a process whose rate increases with time and this process can be exactly balanced by an inverse process whose rate also increases with ...
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1answer
63 views

What is the maximum output current for a practical operational amplifier? [closed]

We have been given a table of electrical characteristics containing the values for the ideal and practical values of operational amplifiers but it does not include the maximum output current. What is ...
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113 views

Electrons and Holes in a semiconductor

In an exercise I have an un-doped silicon I find that p=1.80e+11 ,n=6.60e+10 , should the numbers be more close to each other? (for example in GaAs I find 1.10e+14 and 1.60e+14)?? (also p number of ...
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544 views

Applying KVL on PNP Voltage Divider Bias BJT

The circuit above is a PNP Voltage Divider Bias BJT. From the book, to get the emitter current, the circuit was transformed first into a Thevenin equivalent circuit then applied KVL from base to ...
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559 views

Why is Junction Temperature called so?

Why is the silicon die temperature inside a semiconductor device referred to as "Junction" Temperature ? Though this name may make sense for minority carrier devices where there is maximum power ...
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1answer
399 views

Difference between Vth and Vge?

What is the difference between the threshold voltage (Vth) and gate-emitter voltage (Vge) for IGBT devices? How can I calculate Vth of an IGBT chip?
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Temperature-Dependent Electrical resistance Si and SiC

In a power electronics device, it seems that silicon carbide (SiC) has a higher variation of electrical on-state resistance with temperature in comparison to silicon (Si). Does anybody know the reason?...
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118 views

A question about the exact formula for the collector current

Regarding the collector current Ic equation in the below figure: The above figure tells: Ic = Is * (exp(Vbe/Ut)-1) But I thought it should be: Ic = α * Is * (exp(Vbe/Ut)-1) + Icbo 1-) Is α and ...
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104 views

how does SSD non-volatile storage work

Is it because of the charge present in floating gate that SSDs are able to store information without power? If so, how long would the charge remain in floating gate without electricity?
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Why can't I light a LED with a 1.5 V battery?

The LED I am using requires a higher voltage to light than I have supplied, and as a result, it doesn't light at all. I would expect at least a dim light, but light is not generated. Why this ...
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1answer
29 views

Effect of hole conc while doping with donor

Recently i saw a lecture on YouTube there it said that the hole conc is affected by the donor atom and The fermi energy of hole changes due to doping... But since the donor impurity is immobile it ...
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1answer
211 views

Space charge width in a pn junction

There is this formulae we use to determine the space charge width of a pn junction forward biased by Veb and phi-oe represents the built in potential. Now what happens to the space charge width when ...
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2answers
3k views

Does doping always increase the conductivity of a semiconductor?

The conductivity of a semiconductor is given as (if extrinsic): \$\sigma = qnu_e + qpu_h\$ where \$\sigma\$ is the conductivity, \$u_e\$ and \$u_h\$ are the electron and hole mobilities. But does ...
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1answer
424 views

Modelling and simulating multiple-collector/emitter BJTs

I occasionally like to try to understand how well-known integrated circuits work by building them up in a simulator and observing how they respond to changing conditions. However, I keep coming across ...
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1answer
317 views

Solid state circuit breakers

I'm trying to design a Solid state circuit breaker for a 3phase AC system with a rating of 690V, 1000A. As, the stray inductance contributes to the voltage peaks in the system I'm trying to protect ...
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2answers
2k views

MOSFET Depletion Region Widening

I do understand why when drain voltage (\$V_D\$) increases, the channel carriers decrease (the channel narrows), specially near the drain island, eventually reaching pinch-off phase. What I don't get ...
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381 views

Electron concentration in an intrinsic semiconductor at room temperature

For a Si atom, band gap energy is around 1.1 eV which means that an electron in valence band needs at least this much energy to jump to conduction band. Also, at room temperature, typically energy of ...
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7answers
749 views

Tube and SS amplifier Power

I have heard a lot (!) of misconceptions and anecdotal explanations for why 100w of tube amp is way louder than 100 of solid state (SS) amp. Now, knowing that 100w is always 100w, why is a 100w tube ...
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0answers
293 views

Refrigerator relay has a circuit board?

My fridge stopped cooling and kept hearing a click noise every 2-4 minutes. Researching led me to understand the start relay is nothing more than a PTC resistor that cuts the start winding once ...
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1answer
121 views

Component/design recommendations for high power RF switch IC for 1-50 MHz [closed]

In trying to design the circuit, I've been researching the components that are available, and most appear to be focused on the 1-4 GHz range, but some work with lower frequencies. Is there a solid ...
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2answers
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A query regarding Thermal Voltage V = KT

I read thermal voltage = KT ; K in ev/K and T in Kelvin. By substituting we get V = 8.620 * 10^(-5) ev/K * 300K = 0.0259 ev But where ever I read, Thermal Voltage is given as 26 mv but It has to ...
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1answer
69 views

How are few-nanometer multigate MOSFETs fabricated?

Intel and IMEC came up with multigate MOSFET designs with channels as narrow as new nanometers. Which methods/techniques/machines are used to pattern/fabricate such small features? (source) (source)
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422 views

Silicon controlled rectifier P-type gate connection and layer doping

1). In SCR the gate terminal is connected to the P type semiconductor layer. Can it be connected to N type SC layer? 2). The outer most two layers of the SCR should be highly doped as compared to ...
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1answer
2k views

Why the current across a diode is zero when the forward bias voltage is less than barrier potential?

In the I-V characteristics of diodes under forward bias , I have seen that the current starts increasing from zero only after reaching the barrier potential , say 0.7 for silicon. As far I understand ,...
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2answers
385 views

Do devices on AC currents have flicker on and off?

For current to alternate between positive and negative it must be zero for a split second. Does that mean devices receiving AC current are flickering on and off? This seems like it would have some bad ...
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1answer
52 views

Solar Cell functioning [closed]

I am confused about the operation of solar cell. Maybe its because i still did not quite understand the effect about the voltage drop across a solid state device. We operate in quadrant 4 where ...
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1answer
105 views

How to classify devices into photodiodes, photodetectors and photocells?

Is there a clear differentiation between the three? For example in terms of efficiency (induced current/incident power)?
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108 views

What are promising battery technologies for longer battery life? [closed]

Most electrical devices lack the capacity to work for longer time (e.g. smart phones work only for a day) without recharging. This is mostly as a result of low energy storage capacity in current ...
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1answer
1k views

Why does the MOSFET drain current increase abruptly when Gate voltage is greater than the threshold voltage?

As far I've understood, channel formation takes place because of the induced negative charge on the semiconductor side of the gate capacitance. So shouldn't the charge concentration increase linearly ...
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1answer
1k views

Fast switching (microsecond to nanosecond) voltage using 10V signal pulse

I have an application where i need to be able to switch from a 20V supply to a 40-50V (variable) supply in a very small amount of time. Ideally this changeover needs to be prompted with a signal pulse ...
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2answers
525 views

What extra circuitry is recommended for a plain micro SD card adapter

I intend to use an SD card to record the movement (X,Y,C) of an animal for a research purpose. I am using the Texas Instruments ARM Cortex-M4 TM4C123GH6PM launchpad along with a Sparkfun Micro-SD ...
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3answers
8k views

Effect Of Electronic Devices In Close Proximity

From reading other posts, it seems like electromagnetic induction is the greatest threat to electronic devices these days with either traditional HDDs or newer SSDs. Since current in a wire creates ...