# Questions tagged [square]

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values. The square wave is a special case of a pulse wave which allows arbitrary durations at minimum and maximum. The ratio of the high period to the total period of a pulse wave is called the duty cycle. A true square wave has a 50% duty cycle (equal high and low periods).

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### Amplifying pulse from 4 V to 24 V

I currently have a problem where I want to amplify a 4V square pulse signal to a 24V square pulse signal, for a Q-switch input. I tried using op-amps (LM358N) in a non-inverting amplifier ...
3answers
225 views

### How to create square wave circuit

I wanted to create a square wave that alternates between positive and negative voltage with a full cycle time of 8ms and a 50% duty cycle. So is there a way I could make a circuit that takes in 0V and ...
1answer
38 views

### TimerBlox LTC6992 PWM variable clock generator at 2.3MHz… out of tolerance or used incorrectly?

The TimerBlox LTC6992 (https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/LTC6992-1-6992-2-6992-3-6992-4.pdf) is a PWM chip specified to have a master output frequency maximum of 1MHz,...
0answers
47 views

### Back to back MOSFETs and current sensing

I am looking into a circuit which has to do the following. A square wave goes in and a square wave goes out. I need to measure the current of the outgoing side because it is likely that the the load ...
1answer
54 views

### Use of coupling capacitors in transistor biasing

I'm trying to use oscillator circuit to switch on the MOSFET and using coupling capacitors to isolate the DC biasing. Below is my circuit and graph I'm not able to understand the DC biasing here. ...
1answer
44 views

### Generate Square Wave with Fast Rise Time for Testing

I'm looking to economically generate a 1-2 GHz (configurable) Square Wave with a rise time of 200ps (or faster) to test the performance of various active scope probe designs. I don't need to be able ...
1answer
34 views

### LFO Triangle to Square wave peak distortion

I put together an LFO based off the one in the link below. I swapped out the op amps in the schematic for 741 op amps. Everything works fine, except for the square wave. This is supposed to be the ...
1answer
33 views

### Output a pulsing signal when input is high/low

So I have a proprietary system that outputs high when there is an error, and low when there's not. I want to put this signal onto a D flip-flop clock, so that if theres an error, my system clocks a ...
2answers
192 views

### Phase shift a square wave

I have an application where I would like to derive a secondary square wave from a primary one but with a continuously variable phase shift. I would like to know if this is possible to achieve in a ...
0answers
39 views

### How can I use a square wave to interleave 2 LEDs with an arduino?

I have a PCB that drives a camera. I want to flash 2 LEDs in time with the camera's framerate using an Arduino. After some examination I found a CLK pin on the PCB that I think might correspond to the ...
7answers
2k views

### Why can a square wave (or digital signal) be transmitted directly through wired cable but not wireless?

Like ethernet cable, optical fiber. We have a square wave signal, do we just send that squre-wave signal directly down along the cable? If we do send it directly, why we can not send the square-wave ...
1answer
259 views

### How can I explain the unexpected negative voltage in the output signal obtained from half wave rectifier?

I observed the output signal of half-wave rectifier sending sine wave and square wave for an experiment. The rectifier was built with a 1N 4001 diode and a 100 ohm resistor. The output signal across ...
3answers
148 views

### What is the reason the output signal I obtained from full-wave bridge rectifier has changing amplitude?

I observed the output signal of full-wave bridge rectifier sending sine wave and square wave for an experiment. In both of the output signals it is clear that each cycle shows one of the two different ...
1answer
57 views

### Square wave from high voltage power supply (5kV)

I working on a project involving dielectric elastomer actuators and need to generate a square wave from a 5kV power supply (SRS PS350). The operating frequency will be 0-50Hz. What's one circuit I ...
1answer
52 views

### Obtaining frequency of 550 Hz from Simple Triangle and Square Waveform Generator Circuit

First time asking a question so sorry if I miss some things. I'll try to be thorough and straightforward. I'm trying to design a square wave from a triangle wave-square wave generator circuit. The ...
3answers
115 views

### How do a generate a clean, precise pulse wave electronically without jitter?

I am trying to build a simple pulse generator circuit for electrophysiological stimulation purposes. It seems to be surprisingly difficult to generate a square/ pulse waveform where the pulses have ...
0answers
75 views

### How to improve a high frequency square wave for laser imaging

I am trying to create a current source for laser direct imaging and I have a problem in the circuit I cannot solve. The laser is a 120 mW 405nm diode and I use it in a laser module from a laser ...
5answers
481 views

### High Frequency Square Wave Generator

I want to generate square wave but there are some challenges. Rise time should be less than 2ns as well as fall time (for 0V to 5V). Duty cycle is not so important it should stay high like 40 ns. I am ...
1answer
124 views

### Rise time of 6N136 opto-coupler

I am trying to use below circuit for convert 24VDC high speed pulse to 5VDC pulse that can interface to a stepper driver IC. I have used 6N136 opto-coupler and according to its datasheet it can handle ...
3answers
187 views

### Precision amplitude 600kHz square wave generator

I'm looking for a circuit that creates a precision amplitude square wave of 600kHz (50% duty cycle). The amplitude of the square wave needs to be 3Vpk-pk +/-10mV, but can be DC offset. The output of ...
3answers
127 views

### Using LC oscillator to create square wave AC [closed]

A full wave bridge inverter lookslike this: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab However this isn't practical because we have turn on/off the pairs of switches every time ...
1answer
183 views

### how to give dc offset to the square wave from 2.5 v to -2.5 to 5 to 0 volt?

a)I want to change my square wave signal from -2.5 to 2.5 volt to 5 volts to 0 volts? actually this will be given to MOSFET driver ir2110. b) In the first picture, it is my original square wave coming ...
2answers
189 views

### How do I calculate the root mean square voltage of a square wave (with drawing)?

I need to find the root mean square voltage based on this drawing, knowing that the period (T) is equal to 6 seconds, and the voltage (V) is equal to 14 Volt. I know that the rms can be calculated ...
2answers
301 views

### Square wave oscillator on PSpice simulation

I'm new to PSpice and here I was trying to simulate a square wave oscillator using a LM193 on PSpice. Here is the circuit that I've created there: Edit: The capacitor C1 has an IC set to 0 However, ...
1answer
46 views

### How to convert any periodic signal to a square wave signal using the Schmitt Trigger?

I had to make a kind of frequency meter, and what made me stuck was the signal formatting. I couldn’t build a circuit containing the Schmitt Trigger, which will allow me to convert any periodic signal ...
2answers
44 views

### how to tune wave to obtain a specific harmonic seriers

I wanted to know what is the relationship between a square wave and its harmonics, in other words can i change a square wave features (frequency, duty cycle etc) to obtained a desired fundamental ...
3answers
108 views

### How do I amplify a square wave pulse of 4 to 8 periods at 3.5 MHz from +-2V to +-60V or more?

I am working with ultrasound sensors optimized for 3.5 MHz signals, and I want to test these using my PicoScope 5000 with integrated signal generator. The PicoScope is able to generate arbitrary ...
2answers
94 views

### Weak signal via pull up resistor?

I am trying to trigger a camera from another primary camera. The circuit diagram provided is as follows: The signal to the input is suppose to be a positive square wave. So 0V..and a peak to peak of ...
3answers
345 views

### Modelling a low-pass filter on LTSpice to filter an input square wave at 50kHz to obtain a sinusoidal output at 50Hz

I'm trying to create a filter that filters the output of an inverter at 50kHz PWM (from reading the comments, I'm not sure if I should be calling this the switching freq?) to a sinusoidal one at 50Hz ...
2answers
128 views

### Scope says 59.9 Hz .. yet I can't measure turntable speed

I needed to measure a turntable's number of revolutions per minute, but didn't have any incandescent lamps around. So I rigged an LED to an ESP8266 SOC and programmed it with delays to output a 60hz ...
0answers
35 views

### My Square Wave from my PIC24F got twice the intended period

I am doing a program where I am toggling an LED at a PIC24F Development Board an Explorer 16/32 development board with a PIC24FJ1024GB610 microcontroller attached to it. Explorer 16/32 got an LED (D3)...
1answer
118 views

### Does this circuit convert sinewaves to square waves?

As part of a graded assignment on diodes, I was given this question. I ended up designing this circuit :- simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab However, I only got ...
0answers
99 views

### Understanding RLC series circuit fed with a square wave

I'm simulating a RLC series circuit fed with a 60Hz 3.3V square wave coming from a microcontroller. The inductor series resistor is 100 ohms, so the total R= 110 ohms. According to the simulation, the ...
3answers
336 views

### What is the maximum frequency of CMOS level triangle wave?

What is the maximum frequency of CMOS (3.3V) level triangle (or square) wave that I can achieve with serial discrete ICs (for example: discrete PLL or DAC + OpAmp cascade)?
0answers
162 views

### How to find the Fourier series of an output given input and transfer function

I have an input rectangle pulse, $f(t) = rect(t/\tau)$ and a transmission line whose transfer function depends on frequency. The transfer function of the t.l. is the transmitted wave divided by the ...
2answers
249 views

### Generating 40 kHz square wave using ATtiny13

I'm using an ATtiny13 running at 1.2 MHz and would like to generate a 40 kHz square wave on PB3 and PB4. The signal on PB4 should be 180 degrees offset (inverted) from PB3. I know that I need to set ...
3answers
495 views

### Converting a square wave into a sine wave

I have been researching methods for converting a square wave into a sine wave, but I cannot seem to reach a conclusion. Is it possible to preserve the amplitude and frequency of a square wave when ...
1answer
1k views

### How to remove DC offset (and make average DC value 0V) from ADS1261 square wave AC-excitation circuit

I am attempting to remove the DC offset from the 1 kHz, ± 2.5 V, AC square wave output pins of an ADS1261 (http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/ads1261.pdf). However, when measured on the oscilloscope (...
2answers
70 views

### Non-sinusoidal waveforms: relationship (resistance, capacitance)$\xrightarrow{\text{affects}}$ (amplitude, frequency)

During the laboratory we have analyzed the following two non-sinusoidal generators: square-wave generator triangular-wave generator Sadly we didn't have enough time to complete the last task. My ...
0answers
71 views

### Logic-level square wave to transformer

I try to power EL wire at a chosen frequency. For this I have a microcontroller generating a square wave signal at the given frequency; this signal oscillates between 0 and 3.7V and the current is ...
2answers
342 views

### How to clamp opamp output to +-12v when supply is +-15v

I have the following circuit. It's purpose is to take a 0-3.3v signal from an MCU and provide a square, -12v to 12v wave across R3, R4 and either R5 or R6. The idea is to read +-9v when only R4 is ...
4answers
346 views

### FFT of a square wave

I'm generating a square wave as PWM whose frequency is set to 25 Hz. On the oscilloscope, I've got: The data referred to the image above was stored and maniputed, then I plot it using jupyter ...
3answers
2k views

### What would cause a square wave to become rounded?

I have a square wave going through a thousand feet of cable. The cable has $120 \,\Omega$ characteristic impedance. I measured the capacitance and inductance of the cable and they are pretty close ...
2answers
92 views

### Simple Square Wave Amplification Technique?

I have a square wave that is 5v peak-to-peak. I need a circuit that can amplify this square wave up to any given supply voltage between 9 and 50v. I don't need much current, nothing more than 100ma ...
4answers
535 views

### Offset when trying to convert square to triangular wave

Hi I constructed a circuit to create a 1Hz square wave with LM741 Opamp. The first part makes that and it makes it perfectly. But I need to convert it to a 8Vpp triangular wave. Without any offset, I ...
4answers
570 views

### Simple circuit to light a LED only if I have a square wave

I have a simple circuit with a transistor that accepts an input 3.3V square wave (50Hz) and amplifies it to a 20V output inverted square wave. I'd like to have a LED that lights up if the square wave ...
2answers
159 views

### 65V Square wave Switching Circuit

I am trying to generate a 65V square wave very similar to the post found here: Mosfet PWM signal not square My load is in a slightly different configuration (i've tried them both ways), but the ...
3answers
476 views

### Best way to amplify 3.3V square wave at 1MHz to 10V square wave at 1MHz

I am trying to build a bus transmitter complying to 1553 standards. Its input is a 3.3V square wave at 1MHz (CMOS data) and it has to be amplified to 10V or higher at the same frequency. The load ...
4answers
77 views

### Average of flipped square wave

So I need to find what will be the average of a flipped square wave. I know that the high amplitude is 15V and the low amplitude is -9V and the average of the original signal is 2V. What will be the ...
3answers
158 views

### How to find mean value of square signal

I have a comparator circuit and I need to find the mean value of the output square wave. I have calculated it like this: $Vmean=1/T*integral(U*dt)$ from 0 to T and I got $Vmean=-0.7896V$ Can ...