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Questions tagged [square]

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values. The square wave is a special case of a pulse wave which allows arbitrary durations at minimum and maximum. The ratio of the high period to the total period of a pulse wave is called the duty cycle. A true square wave has a 50% duty cycle (equal high and low periods).

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69 views

Average of flipped square wave

So I need to find what will be the average of a flipped square wave. I know that the high amplitude is 15V and the low amplitude is -9V and the average of the original signal is 2V. What will be the ...
84 views

How to find mean value of square signal

I have a comparator circuit and I need to find the mean value of the output square wave. I have calculated it like this: $Vmean=1/T*integral(U*dt)$ from 0 to T and I got $Vmean=-0.7896V$ Can ...
118 views

Square wave generator won't work

I'm trying to generate a square wave at 21kHz (+13V,0V) using this schematic: I used formulas and this website to find the correct values for my components but it doesn't seem to work on Simetrix. ...
92 views

Arduino not outputting square wave with 50% duty cycle

I’m currently using an Arduino and my main goal is to output 2 signals from 2 digital pins. Pin 1 (D7) would output a 1 kHz signal with a 50% duty cycle and pin 2 (D8) would output half of pin 1's ...
90 views

Sine to square on complex wave?

What are the required parts on a circuit to get a square wave out of a sine one following the constraint shown in the image? Schmitt triggers seem to work on continuous sine wave but as you can see, ...
81 views

1v square wave generator

I'm trying to create a square wave form from a single AA battery, say 1v. I came across an IC which is essentially a low voltage 555 timer: Semtech SX8122 however it is marked obsolete. I would like ...
68 views

Comparator Undesired Behavior

The following circuit is a comparator, which compares input square signal at non-inverting pin with fixed reference voltage at inverting pin of integrated comparator circuit LM393 ($R$ is collector ...
79 views

Oscilloscope displaying two voltage levels (on the same channel) for square wave

Please excuse if this is stupid, I've been searching to see if I can find an answer to this on Google, but it seems I'm facing the issue in which I don't know how to describe the issue I'm trying to ...
43 views

Old motor with unknown pulse generator signal

I have been building a new controller unit for a ~20 years old gate opener because it was never reliable, and eventually stopped working entirely. So far, I have got everything working except from ...
44 views

IR Light Transmission Delay Error

The following circuit consists of two IR (Infra-Red) LED diodes; one as light transmitter (IR1) and other as light receiver (IR2). They are spaced for approximately 4 cm, so distance is not the issue ...
103 views

Is an FPGA the best tool to generate a continuous flow of square pulses with arbitrary amplitude?

I need to generate a train of rectangular pulses, with positive and negative arbitrary amplitude. Ideally, I would like to have the generation electronics connected with a computer, and I would like ...
82 views

Filtering a Square Wave into a Sine Wave

I am trying to Filter a +-4V odd inverted square wave into a sine wave. How should I go about doing so? So far I have computed the Fourier series of my particular input signal to be: Which I ...
99 views

How Much Current is Usually Used with IR Transmitting LEDs, in Remote Controls?

If you take various Remote Controls from your home, such as for a TV, Audio System, TV Box, etc, and measure the current that is supplied to the IR LED in the remote, what would be common current ...
59 views

sine wave to square wave using LT1017

I am trying to convert sine wave of 50 Hz and 10 mV to square wave of 10 mV of positive side only. I used the following circuit. But the square wave has higher voltage compare to my requirement. ...
757 views

How do I design a circuit to convert a 100 mV and 50 Hz sine wave to a square wave? [duplicate]

I have a sine wave of 100 mV and 50 Hz. I want to design a circuit that converts this sine wave into a square wave as shown in a figure.
42 views

TENS spike smoothing when using a relay

I'm currently messing around with a TENS unit and would like to block/unblock the signal from reaching the muscle (Alterations to the TENS unit circuitry aren't possible). The unit uses a 2 mm jack ...
119 views

0-12V square wave to -6 +6 sine

We're working on a car where we've replaced most of the electrical system. We've also replaced the transmission, and the new gear box doesn't have a speed sensor that we can use for the instrument. ...
55 views

How do I calculate the voltage across a capacitor when the source is a square wave?

I have a series RC circuit with R= 2.2K Ohm and C=100 nF, and the voltage supply is a 2.5V peak square wave. And I'm not sure how to calculate the voltage across the capacitor.
172 views

How to make a piezo speaker louder with 5V?

I have connected a tiny piezo pc speaker (https://sktechworks.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Speaker.jpg) to an arduino and used to tone command to play a simple melody in repeat (square wave only ...
60 views

How can I turn off automatically, say after a fixed number of cycles, a 555 in astable mode?

I looked at the answer to "How to turn a 555 in astable mode into a decaying square wave" but this is really for an input to a speaker. I want the input to go into a counter to count the number of ...
99 views

Stepper driver sine wave

I have a TB6660 Stepper driver and I gave pulse from an Arduino board. According to the TB6660 datasheet, drier should out a sine wave that created by using give square wave from Arduino. But, when I ...
83 views

Why does this “square wave” have what seems to be a charging action on it's leading edge?

I'm trying to produce a basic square wave output across a resistor from an ATMega328P Xplained mini. VCC is 5 V. Setup: Code: (Stuff with DDC/PORTB is just to control the onboard LED) ...
363 views

Why does the op amp output in this circuit have low slew rate?

I have the following circuit on a bread board (with the exception of using AD820 instead of AD822 - the main difference based on the datasheets seemed to be one versus two op amps in one package). ...
726 views

Square wave autocorrelation integral

Given the following square wave signal g(t) : I'm trying to find the $R(\tau)$ of this signal, but I'm confused about how to solve the integral. In the signal above, the red square wave is the ...
692 views

Why can we hear the full range of square waves from 1 Hz-20 kHz, but not sine waves of the same frequencies?

I connected the output (50Ω) of a function generator to a 35 watt 5Ω speaker. When I sent square wave signals of 1 Hz-20 kHz to the speaker, my friends and I were able to hear them. But ...
1k views

Create a blinking LED circuit with a z-diode and a capacitor

I was searching for the most simple LED flashing circuit. On a webpage (http://cappels.org/dproj/simplest_LED_flasher/Simplest_LED_Flasher_Circuit.html) I found the following circuit with a transistor ...
61 views

Variable frequency of an astable

I have to make the frequency variable of an square waveform generator built with the help of an astable. I modified a circuit a found on the internet and everything seems good with only one exception: ...
308 views

Gibbs phenonemon in real life

If I feed a square wave into a first order, passive, low-pass filter (resistor and capacitor), I get the following results on an oscilloscope (sorry, I don't know how to scale and rotate images): Why ...
5k views

How to check (with DIY methods) if an Inverter returns a Square or a Sine Wave?

I do not have an Oscilloscope, but I want to check if my 12V DC to 230V AC inverter does produce a sine or a square wave. Any way to verify that? I know how a sine wave and a square wave sound, so ...
1k views

How to change duty cycle in square wave

I'm using AD9833 to generate sine, triangle and square wave. Square from IC has 0,65V amptlitude and 50% duty cycle. I would like in simple way change duty cycle this square signal from 0-100%. Using ...
297 views

Can I detect the absence of square wave?

Can I build a circuit to set the output high if there is a square wave at the input and set it low when missing the square wave (the input become low)? Edit: The signal is 2 kHz, +5/0 V. It's not ...
655 views

how to find impedance of inductance with square wave input

I know the impedance of the inductance is: 'jwl'; but this is correct with sinusoidal input; now my question is: how to calculate the impedance when the input is the periodic square wave(like a ...
272 views

What's the simplest high voltage AC square wave oscillator?

I'd like to have such an AC square wave oscillator putting AC through a load - which can go to 60 VDC and deliver no more than 50 mA with sharp, fast rise times and very "square". I would hope a ...
295 views

How generate a square wave from a DC voltage to power on LCD crystals?

I got a small LCD and I would like to power it to show the LCD crystals turning to black. I would like to show at which voltage the LCD crystals start to turn black. I did some research about LCD ...
154 views

Making a square wave which has two different kinds of pulse width

I am going to make a square wave which has two different kinds of pulse width.At first,i think i can use the digital logic gate to finish it,however,after taking lots of time for trying,i still can't ...
67 views

How to set up signal generator in lab to obtain an output voltage?

In one of my laboratory assignments, I am to study how to work with square signals in RC circuits (low pass filter). Please keep in mind this is an introductory Electronics course. Basically, I am ...
128 views

galvanic isolation for lm555

Hi guys I am trying to implement galvanic isolation for my lm555 square wave generator. I am designing a marx generator so this is essential. I am new with transformers, at the moment all I want to ...
2k views

EAGLE Square hole

I want to make a square hole in the middle of my PCB, but when I choose to make a drill or hole is only a circle! Isn't there a option or a ULP file that allow me to do a square hole? I can't find ...
147 views

Sine to Square only with a MCU

I know several topics already talks about this but I didn't find my answer yet. Is it possible to convert a sine wave to a square wave only with a MCU ? Both wave are only a matter of changing ...
268 views

I need a circuit able to calculate Vmax-Vmin of a squarewave

As already written in the title, I need to evaluate the voltage excursion of a certain signal. Vmax and Vmin could be both positive and negative (therefore two peak detection circuits cannot be used, ...
359 views

The logic schematic which can change the duty cycle of input

Is there a logic schematic can change the duty cycle of input ? I mean if input is a square wave with duty cycle is equal to 50%,and the output is also a square wave but its duty cycle become lower or ...
734 views

How can I multiply square wave circuits?

I would like to generate a signal that consists of a 1 kHz signal, which switches to a 100 kHz signal, flipping from one to the other at a rate of 10-100 Hz. I have access to signal generators to ...
89 views

Square Wave (w / Pulse Missing) Generation

this is probably a simple one for anyone with some electronics design experience (which I do not have). Can anyone tell me how to build a simple circuit which generates a square wave but has every nth ...
151 views

A question about interpreting and reducing high frequency noise in a low level square wave

As a part of a circuit the output section of the circuit is as follows(C1 is actually 10u): The input is a 1kHz 0V…5V pulse train coming from the output of a 74HC74, and the output is a square wave ...
81 views

Problems with a passive network setup used with a microcontroller

Here is the circuit in my mind before I ask my question: The microcontroller outputs 0..5v pulse train at 3kHz. First of all, the setup between the points A and X needs to be fed by a 3kHz ...
170 views

Active Filter and Sine to Square Conversion Issues

Background: I am currently using a SparkFun Electret Microphone and am needing to both filter and amplify the signal before turning it into a square wave to be interpreted by a FPGA. The mic itself ...
314 views

Square Wave with Overshoot

I'm generating an AC square wave output waveform with the 555 timer circuit below. However, I'm getting these obvious overshoots. Can anyone help me? R1 is 8.2K ohm R2 is 68k ohm C1 is 0.1uF
2k views

Phase Shift Square Wave

Is it possible to shift the phase of a square wave (which is generated by an arduino ) with passive components? I have a 0 to 12v square wave that I would like to split into several phases. The idea ...
I understand a square-wave will be made up of a sum of sine waves in the form $$\frac{1}{n}sin(nf_0)$$ So when a squarewave is input to a LCR circut designed to be a bandpass filter, it will ...