Questions tagged [square]

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values. The square wave is a special case of a pulse wave which allows arbitrary durations at minimum and maximum. The ratio of the high period to the total period of a pulse wave is called the duty cycle. A true square wave has a 50% duty cycle (equal high and low periods).

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Triggering a relay with a 0.7 - 2 Hz pulsating DC voltage between 0 and 12 V

50% duty cycle. I would prefer if there was a passive solution to this but it's not a necessity. The relay needs to turn on when the signal is pulsating and to turn off when the signal is no longer ...
0 votes
2 answers
90 views

Producing a sawtooth wave from a square wave

I am trying to produce a sawtooth wave from a 2 MHz square wave. For this, I am using an LT1800 op-amp. I want to get a -5V to 5V sawtooth wave shape. I did not do this in LTspice. I made the ...
2 votes
3 answers
671 views

Why is my op-amp pulse generator (LF353) delivering way less voltage (±2 V) than the voltage supplies of the amplifier (±15 V)?

I had to design the following circuit as a pulse generator so that if I vary the resistance the frequency will vary as well. It's defined by the frequency expression: $$f=\frac{1}{2R_4C_1\ln(3)}$$ ...
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Power and energy calculation of square (or rectangular) wave signals

I have to calculate the power of my square (actually rectangular :D) wave signal, and then the energy of it. I have amplitude, current, duty cycle, and frequency parameters. For example: Amplitude: 2....
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1 answer
34 views

Stretch duty cycle of square wave where amplitude changes

I have a signal coming from a photodiode detector, the pulse is really short, so the integration time is very small, and the total power measured is very small (very close to the noise of the detector)...
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46 views

Full H-bridge unwanted surge in output square wave

I'm designing a H-bridge driven by two IR2110 mosfet drivers and using four NMOS (IRFS SL7440) transistors. Below a picture of my schematic. I am using 98uF bootstrap capacitors, and apply two ...
3 votes
2 answers
103 views

Rewriting piecewise voltage function using Heaviside?

Recently I've had an idea to create an assignment where we have low-pass filter connected to the voltage source which is described by piecewise function. I've already dealt with periodic functions ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Square wave inverters for running water immersion heater elements [closed]

I am lead to believe that cheap square wave 230V inverters are generally considered not much use as they can damage sensitive equipment. Do kettle elements count as sensitive equipment? I would like ...
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2 votes
1 answer
64 views

How to deal with incorrect optical encoder waveform?

Summarize the problem: TLDR: I am having trouble reading the signals from an optical encoder to track the position of a stepper motor(I know that it’s redundant to use encoders on stepper motors. It’s ...
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Clock Generator with Variable Pulse Width Design Help

I'm working on a design that requires a clock generator with variable pulse width. The pulse width is controlled by a potentiometer, and the clock speed is controlled by another potentiometer. It's ...
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0 answers
48 views

Square waves (Hall-effect sensor)

I'm replacing the gearbox of my truck. Both gearboxes (the old one and the new one) have speed sensors in the output shaft, but they don´t produce the same signals. In order to make the new sensor ...
4 votes
5 answers
560 views

Impedance, square waves, and duty cycle

Will a coil present a different impedance to a 10 kHz sine wave as opposed to a 10 kHz square wave with a 10% duty cycle? I could not find a way to calculate it, are there any formulas available?
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How to measure rising and falling edge of square wave using c-code block

I have a problem in understanding how to incorporate a c-code block in order to measure the rising and falling edges of a square wave signal in Simulink. I am using a signal generator to generate a ...
2 votes
1 answer
139 views

Correcting the lower output level of a square wave generator

I have assembled a square wave generator following this schematic from an old book. R1 and R2 are both 1 kohm, C1 is 68 pF, and C2 is 2.2 nF. The author of the book claims that this combination is ...
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1 answer
92 views

AD8611 comparator at 60 MHz

I'm trying to process a sinusoidal signal into a square wave at frequencies above 1 MHz. This is my first time doing this so it doesn't work properly. If anyone can help with an explanation, I would ...
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1 answer
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How to optimally decide modified square wave duty cycle for an inverter?

Some high-end inverters synthesize a sine wave with high speed pulse width modulation and low-pass filtering, but most cheaper inverters use a square wave or a modified square wave. Modified square ...
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1 answer
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Why could a cheap electricity consumption meter break on modified square wave inverter?

I have a number of cheap electricity consumption meters of which I used one on a modified square wave inverter I bought. They cost less than 15 EUR per piece so most likely they don't have much ...
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0 votes
2 answers
198 views

Need 64Hz square wave green LED driver for a mosquito zapper

I have several 10 watt COB (Chip-on-Board) green LEDs which apparently are the best color to attract mosquitoes if driven at an ideal pulsing square wave frequency of 64 Hz. I was going to use a ...
2 votes
3 answers
327 views

Why does this circuit produce a triangle wave?

EDIT: Op amp is a UA741CP I built a simple square wave generator on a breadboard as shown in the picture below. C = 1 μF R1 = 1k R2 = 10k R3 = 10k Supply voltages are +/- 12V The circuit produces a ...
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1 answer
232 views

Square wave distortion at low frequencies, high-pass filtering, AC coupling

This is an update on my previous question. As Hearth suggeste, I changed to DC coupling on my scope. This is what I got: That's a clear change. Not a perfect square waves but I guess it is because of ...
0 votes
1 answer
299 views

Square wave distortion on low frequencies

I have this old Soviet low frequency sine and square pulse generator "G3-36A". I ran into an interesting problem. When I try to generate square pulse under 100Hz I get a distorted wave. ...
1 vote
1 answer
59 views

Using a square wave function to select output

Im new here! I been having some trouble thinking about a circuit wich selects one of two outputs based in the value of a square wave function like this To put some numbers Freqs Vin=1Hz Vout1=1kHz ...
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6 votes
4 answers
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Rail to rail +12/-12 V square wave generation with microcontroller

I need to generate a +/-12 V square wave, +/-0.4 V tolerance is allowed. The purpose is to drive the pilot signal of an electric vehicle level 2 charger, for those curious. EDIT (clarification): what ...
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Sort of square wave shift or cleanup

I have a wave I want to feed into an Arduino to measure frequency. I need the wave to hit zero to measure the frequency, I think. A nice clean square wave ideally. I am using a simple 4.3V Zener ...
-1 votes
2 answers
185 views

Converting square wave into a sine wave [closed]

I am trying to convert a 1 MHz square wave into a sine wave of the same frequency. What's the best way to achieve this?
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3 answers
667 views

Why do 1st order low-pass filters on a square wave look like this?

I know that low-pass filters only allow voltages at low frequencies to go through the circuit and block out voltages that come in at high frequencies. With this in mind, how does the graph display ...
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3 answers
140 views

Does the 555 timer 50% duty cycle capacitor discharge not affect the output voltage?

I'm new to the 555 timer and I'm trying to understand the configuration shown in the image below. The tutorial mentions that the capacitor C1 now charges and discharges through the resistor R2. The ...
2 votes
3 answers
272 views

1 Hz ring oscillator not working

Inspired by this project I built a ring oscillator that outputs a 1 Hz signal. Using their formula, I decided to use 1K for R1 and R2, and 558 uF for C1. I used a CD4069UB CMOS inverter that has a ...
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2 votes
3 answers
682 views

Frequency of square wave generated by Wien bridge oscillator

I have designed the wien bridge oscillator circuit for 20Hz square wave generation. It gives a 20Hz sinusoid as output when I keep the non-inverting amplifier gain 3V/V. But when the non-inverting ...
2 votes
0 answers
55 views

Is there a single word term for doubled amplitude of square wave?

The IEC60050 (103-07-02) tells that the amplitude is "maximum value of a scalar sinusoidal quantity". So the peak-to-peak voltage is a doubled amplitude. Is there a single word term for a ...
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2 votes
2 answers
389 views

555 Timer with 50% duty cycle

I've seen below 555 circuit which produces a square wave of 50% duty cycle. I am quite new to electronics and I saw Ben eater's 555 timer tutorial where he used discharge pin for capacitor discharging....
3 votes
2 answers
78 views

Photodiode square wave positive duty cycle lower and lower

I drive an IR LED with a 50% duty cycle square wave and receive its signal with a photodiode. If I take the photodiode farther and farther from the LED, the signal's positive duty cycle is lower and ...
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210 views

Timer 555 AC square wave

Im currently trying to build a square wave circuit using the 555 Timer (see picture). Currently it is producing a square wave between 0 to 5V, duty cycle is about 50% and a frequency of about 50kHz. (...
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1 answer
107 views

Why does my output get supercompensated?

I have almost finished a project that was supposed to output a square wave signal with a certain frequency but when I tried to make a small change to the circuit something weird happened to my output. ...
-2 votes
1 answer
76 views

Variable frequency pulse train generation

I wanted to create a pulse train of such a kind that the first pulse is high for a time=4x, then the next pulse is on for x, and the next for 4x... and so on. (without using microcontrollers/...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Small output offset in square wave generator using LM741

I am building a square wave generator using LM741 just like in this Falstad simulation. My problem is that the output has a small offset and I don't understand where it comes from. When measuring ...
1 vote
2 answers
98 views

Square wave frequency upsample with crystal oscillator

I'm trying to accomplish the following without the use of a microcontroller: Input: A square wave with a 1 Hz period, duty-cycle of 100 ms (10%), normally low. Output: A square wave with a 100 Hz ...
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2 votes
1 answer
309 views

Why does the output of my astable multivibrator using an op-amp turn into a triangular wave?

I've designed an astable multivibrator for square wave generation using the LM741 op-amp, as showen in the following image: Now I've played a little with the frequencies it can output. As shown in ...
0 votes
2 answers
200 views

How to limit the output voltage of an op-amp astable multivibrator

I'm trying to make a square wave generator with an adjustable range of output signal amplitude (between 0 and 5V) using an LM741 op-amp and the following circuit: The thing is, VOUT is limited by the ...
-1 votes
1 answer
192 views

Why is Vout less than Vcc here in a way disproportionate to beta? [closed]

Given: Vcc=9V, duty cycle = 0.5, oscillation frequency=500Hz Note that I am not interested in electronics in any way (I'm planning to continue as a web developer yet need to finish my CCE major) so I ...
3 votes
3 answers
1k views

Precise square wave generator 32768 Hz

I need to create a circuit to generate a square wave with 50% duty at 32768 Hz +/- 5 Hz. The output of the circuit will drive an NPN transistor ( 0.2 A , 24VDC ). The cost of the component is not a ...
0 votes
1 answer
104 views

BJT twin transistor astable multivibrator always outputs high

Noob here (again). I have made this schematic of an astable multivibrator and a Raspberry Pi. I want it to produce a square wave, but it just outputs high constantly. I use the Raspberry Pi as a ...
2 votes
1 answer
196 views

Converting 5V Square-Wave to +-5V Square-Wave

I am a student electronic engineer and was hoping to get some guidance on a project that I am working on. I am using the AD9850 module to output a 5V square-wave at 1.1MHz as can be seen in the figure ...
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2 votes
3 answers
199 views

1 kV square wave generator [closed]

I am looking into building a calibration kit for HV differential probes. The approach I take is to inject the square wave at the input of the differential probe and trim the trimmer caps to compensate ...
-2 votes
1 answer
107 views

Underdamped bipolar square wave with Arduino [closed]

I want to ask about a 30 Hz (decaying square wave) underdamped bipolar square wave.Also this is used for demagnetization. The photo of the output is shown as below. Could you help me to construct? Any ...
0 votes
0 answers
140 views

Tuning Op-Amp Integrator for Triangle Wave Generation

I'm trying to simulate an op-amp integrator that can generate a triangle wave from a square wave. Unfortunately, my waveform is anything but triangular; if anything, it's another square wave with a ...
-2 votes
1 answer
98 views

Need to supply 4 square waves (at 4 different frequencies-600,800,1000,1200 Hz) to 4 IR emitters at the same time using any microcontroller [closed]

I need to design a circuit to supply 4 square waves at 50% duty cycle (at 4 different frequencies-600,800,1000,1200 Hz) to 4 IR emitters respectively at the same time using any microcontroller. Could ...
0 votes
1 answer
187 views

Jump in RC current response to a square wave

Periodic square wave feeding an RC circuit: I am currently studying RC filter response to a square wave input with a period of \$ T_1 + T_2 \$. I have understood about voltage expressions and current ...
1 vote
2 answers
148 views

Playing around with an astable multivibrator

I had a doubt regarding the astable multivibrators using BJTs. This is a typical astable multivibrator. I have been told that if I connect a capacitor to the output channel, there would be no ...
0 votes
3 answers
52 views

Running a signal generator and signal dependent load on the same power supply

I want to use a square wave generator to drive a load in the same circuit but I am confused about how to do so. Here is what my current circuit looks like: simulate this circuit – Schematic ...
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