# Questions tagged [square]

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values. The square wave is a special case of a pulse wave which allows arbitrary durations at minimum and maximum. The ratio of the high period to the total period of a pulse wave is called the duty cycle. A true square wave has a 50% duty cycle (equal high and low periods).

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61 views

### How to improve a high frequency square wave for laser imaging

I am trying to create a current source for laser direct imaging and I have a problem in the circuit I cannot solve. The laser is a 120 mW 405nm diode and I use it in a laser module from a laser ...
173 views

### High Frequency Square Wave Generator

I want to generate square wave but there are some challenges. Rise time should be less than 2ns as well as fall time (for 0V to 5V). Duty cycle is not so important it should stay high like 40 ns. I am ...
20 views

### Rise time of 6N136 opto-coupler

I am trying to use below circuit for convert 24VDC high speed pulse to 5VDC pulse that can interface to a stepper driver IC. I have used 6N136 opto-coupler and according to its datasheet it can handle ...
80 views

### Precision amplitude 600kHz square wave generator

I'm looking for a circuit that creates a precision amplitude square wave of 600kHz (50% duty cycle). The amplitude of the square wave needs to be 3Vpk-pk +/-10mV, but can be DC offset. The output of ...
80 views

### Using LC oscillator to create square wave AC [closed]

A full wave bridge inverter lookslike this: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab However this isn't practical because we have turn on/off the pairs of switches every time ...
110 views

### how to give dc offset to the square wave from 2.5 v to -2.5 to 5 to 0 volt?

a)I want to change my square wave signal from -2.5 to 2.5 volt to 5 volts to 0 volts? actually this will be given to MOSFET driver ir2110. b) In the first picture, it is my original square wave coming ...
82 views

### How do I calculate the root mean square voltage of a square wave (with drawing)?

I need to find the root mean square voltage based on this drawing, knowing that the period (T) is equal to 6 seconds, and the voltage (V) is equal to 14 Volt. I know that the rms can be calculated ...
70 views

### Square wave oscillator on PSpice simulation

I'm new to PSpice and here I was trying to simulate a square wave oscillator using a LM193 on PSpice. Here is the circuit that I've created there: Edit: The capacitor C1 has an IC set to 0 However, ...
38 views

### How to convert any periodic signal to a square wave signal using the Schmitt Trigger?

I had to make a kind of frequency meter, and what made me stuck was the signal formatting. I couldn’t build a circuit containing the Schmitt Trigger, which will allow me to convert any periodic signal ...
44 views

### how to tune wave to obtain a specific harmonic seriers

I wanted to know what is the relationship between a square wave and its harmonics, in other words can i change a square wave features (frequency, duty cycle etc) to obtained a desired fundamental ...
87 views

### How do I amplify a square wave pulse of 4 to 8 periods at 3.5 MHz from +-2V to +-60V or more?

I am working with ultrasound sensors optimized for 3.5 MHz signals, and I want to test these using my PicoScope 5000 with integrated signal generator. The PicoScope is able to generate arbitrary ...
57 views

### Weak signal via pull up resistor?

I am trying to trigger a camera from another primary camera. The circuit diagram provided is as follows: The signal to the input is suppose to be a positive square wave. So 0V..and a peak to peak of ...
103 views

### Modelling a low-pass filter on LTSpice to filter an input square wave at 50kHz to obtain a sinusoidal output at 50Hz

I'm trying to create a filter that filters the output of an inverter at 50kHz PWM (from reading the comments, I'm not sure if I should be calling this the switching freq?) to a sinusoidal one at 50Hz ...
126 views

### Scope says 59.9 Hz .. yet I can't measure turntable speed

I needed to measure a turntable's number of revolutions per minute, but didn't have any incandescent lamps around. So I rigged an LED to an ESP8266 SOC and programmed it with delays to output a 60hz ...
34 views

### My Square Wave from my PIC24F got twice the intended period

I am doing a program where I am toggling an LED at a PIC24F Development Board an Explorer 16/32 development board with a PIC24FJ1024GB610 microcontroller attached to it. Explorer 16/32 got an LED (D3)...
112 views

### Does this circuit convert sinewaves to square waves?

As part of a graded assignment on diodes, I was given this question. I ended up designing this circuit :- simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab However, I only got ...
56 views

### Understanding RLC series circuit fed with a square wave

I'm simulating a RLC series circuit fed with a 60Hz 3.3V square wave coming from a microcontroller. The inductor series resistor is 100 ohms, so the total R= 110 ohms. According to the simulation, the ...
271 views

### What is the maximum frequency of CMOS level triangle wave?

What is the maximum frequency of CMOS (3.3V) level triangle (or square) wave that I can achieve with serial discrete ICs (for example: discrete PLL or DAC + OpAmp cascade)?
68 views

### How to find the Fourier series of an output given input and transfer function

I have an input rectangle pulse, $f(t) = rect(t/\tau)$ and a transmission line whose transfer function depends on frequency. The transfer function of the t.l. is the transmitted wave divided by the ...
108 views

### Generating 40 kHz square wave using ATtiny13

I'm using an ATtiny13 running at 1.2 MHz and would like to generate a 40 kHz square wave on PB3 and PB4. The signal on PB4 should be 180 degrees offset (inverted) from PB3. I know that I need to set ...
299 views

### Converting a square wave into a sine wave

I have been researching methods for converting a square wave into a sine wave, but I cannot seem to reach a conclusion. Is it possible to preserve the amplitude and frequency of a square wave when ...
394 views

### How to remove DC offset (and make average DC value 0V) from ADS1261 square wave AC-excitation circuit

I am attempting to remove the DC offset from the 1 kHz, ± 2.5 V, AC square wave output pins of an ADS1261 (http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/ads1261.pdf). However, when measured on the oscilloscope (...
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### Non-sinusoidal waveforms: relationship (resistance, capacitance)$\xrightarrow{\text{affects}}$ (amplitude, frequency)

During the laboratory we have analyzed the following two non-sinusoidal generators: square-wave generator triangular-wave generator Sadly we didn't have enough time to complete the last task. My ...
70 views

### Logic-level square wave to transformer

I try to power EL wire at a chosen frequency. For this I have a microcontroller generating a square wave signal at the given frequency; this signal oscillates between 0 and 3.7V and the current is ...
231 views

### How to clamp opamp output to +-12v when supply is +-15v

I have the following circuit. It's purpose is to take a 0-3.3v signal from an MCU and provide a square, -12v to 12v wave across R3, R4 and either R5 or R6. The idea is to read +-9v when only R4 is ...
189 views

### FFT of a square wave

I'm generating a square wave as PWM whose frequency is set to 25 Hz. On the oscilloscope, I've got: The data referred to the image above was stored and maniputed, then I plot it using jupyter ...
809 views

### What would cause a square wave to become rounded?

I have a square wave going through a thousand feet of cable. The cable has $120 \,\Omega$ characteristic impedance. I measured the capacitance and inductance of the cable and they are pretty close ...
64 views

### Simple Square Wave Amplification Technique?

I have a square wave that is 5v peak-to-peak. I need a circuit that can amplify this square wave up to any given supply voltage between 9 and 50v. I don't need much current, nothing more than 100ma ...
244 views

### Offset when trying to convert square to triangular wave

Hi I constructed a circuit to create a 1Hz square wave with LM741 Opamp. The first part makes that and it makes it perfectly. But I need to convert it to a 8Vpp triangular wave. Without any offset, I ...
311 views

### Simple circuit to light a LED only if I have a square wave

I have a simple circuit with a transistor that accepts an input 3.3V square wave (50Hz) and amplifies it to a 20V output inverted square wave. I'd like to have a LED that lights up if the square wave ...
112 views

### 65V Square wave Switching Circuit

I am trying to generate a 65V square wave very similar to the post found here: Mosfet PWM signal not square My load is in a slightly different configuration (i've tried them both ways), but the ...
298 views

### Best way to amplify 3.3V square wave at 1MHz to 10V square wave at 1MHz

I am trying to build a bus transmitter complying to 1553 standards. Its input is a 3.3V square wave at 1MHz (CMOS data) and it has to be amplified to 10V or higher at the same frequency. The load ...
16 views

### Error % for readings of average-sensing multimeters

Question: What is the error % in reading the voltage of a Square wave (1 Vpp) with an average-sensing multimeter with a half-wave rectifier, compared to a TRms multimeter The answer seems to be 11.1% ...
75 views

### Average of flipped square wave

So I need to find what will be the average of a flipped square wave. I know that the high amplitude is 15V and the low amplitude is -9V and the average of the original signal is 2V. What will be the ...
94 views

### How to find mean value of square signal

I have a comparator circuit and I need to find the mean value of the output square wave. I have calculated it like this: $Vmean=1/T*integral(U*dt)$ from 0 to T and I got $Vmean=-0.7896V$ Can ...
144 views

### Square wave generator won't work

I'm trying to generate a square wave at 21kHz (+13V,0V) using this schematic: I used formulas and this website to find the correct values for my components but it doesn't seem to work on Simetrix. ...
104 views

### Arduino not outputting square wave with 50% duty cycle

I’m currently using an Arduino and my main goal is to output 2 signals from 2 digital pins. Pin 1 (D7) would output a 1 kHz signal with a 50% duty cycle and pin 2 (D8) would output half of pin 1's ...
93 views

### Sine to square on complex wave?

What are the required parts on a circuit to get a square wave out of a sine one following the constraint shown in the image? Schmitt triggers seem to work on continuous sine wave but as you can see, I ...
103 views

### 1v square wave generator

I'm trying to create a square wave form from a single AA battery, say 1v. I came across an IC which is essentially a low voltage 555 timer: Semtech SX8122 however it is marked obsolete. I would like ...
88 views

### Comparator Undesired Behavior

The following circuit is a comparator, which compares input square signal at non-inverting pin with fixed reference voltage at inverting pin of integrated comparator circuit LM393 ($R$ is collector ...
117 views

### Oscilloscope displaying two voltage levels (on the same channel) for square wave

Please excuse if this is stupid, I've been searching to see if I can find an answer to this on Google, but it seems I'm facing the issue in which I don't know how to describe the issue I'm trying to ...
51 views

### Old motor with unknown pulse generator signal

I have been building a new controller unit for a ~20 years old gate opener because it was never reliable, and eventually stopped working entirely. So far, I have got everything working except from ...
62 views

### IR Light Transmission Delay Error

The following circuit consists of two IR (Infra-Red) LED diodes; one as light transmitter (IR1) and other as light receiver (IR2). They are spaced for approximately 4 cm, so distance is not the issue ...
103 views

### Is an FPGA the best tool to generate a continuous flow of square pulses with arbitrary amplitude?

I need to generate a train of rectangular pulses, with positive and negative arbitrary amplitude. Ideally, I would like to have the generation electronics connected with a computer, and I would like ...
201 views

### Filtering a Square Wave into a Sine Wave

I am trying to Filter a +-4V odd inverted square wave into a sine wave. How should I go about doing so? So far I have computed the Fourier series of my particular input signal to be: Which I ...
641 views

### How Much Current is Usually Used with IR Transmitting LEDs, in Remote Controls?

If you take various Remote Controls from your home, such as for a TV, Audio System, TV Box, etc, and measure the current that is supplied to the IR LED in the remote, what would be common current ...
91 views

### sine wave to square wave using LT1017

I am trying to convert sine wave of 50 Hz and 10 mV to square wave of 10 mV of positive side only. I used the following circuit. But the square wave has higher voltage compare to my requirement. ...
886 views

### How do I design a circuit to convert a 100 mV and 50 Hz sine wave to a square wave? [duplicate]

I have a sine wave of 100 mV and 50 Hz. I want to design a circuit that converts this sine wave into a square wave as shown in a figure.