# Questions tagged [square]

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values. The square wave is a special case of a pulse wave which allows arbitrary durations at minimum and maximum. The ratio of the high period to the total period of a pulse wave is called the duty cycle. A true square wave has a 50% duty cycle (equal high and low periods).

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### How to Read Unipolar Square Waves on TRMS Multimeter

I'm trying to switch from reading my high-voltage unipolar square wave signal from a benchtop oscilloscope to a handheld multimeter, but I don't understand why my multimeter is giving the voltages it'...
462 views

### What type of input is required by a gate driver? The data sheet says 50 A

I'd like to drive a TI UC3708N gate driver from a handheld AWG square wave that varies between 0V and 2.5V. According to the data sheet, anything above 2V should be treated as high: However, I'm not ...
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82 views

### How to properly trigger and measure a modulated square wave signal with an oscilloscope

I'm having trouble getting a stable trigger on my Rigol DS-1202 oscilloscope for a complex waveform. The waveform is composed of a 25.5kHz carrier square wave modulated by a 200Hz square wave, both ...
22 views

### Determining Suitable TRMS Voltmeter Specs for Modulated Signal Measurement

I'm seeking advice on selecting a TRMS (True RMS) voltmeter suitable for measuring the voltage across a resistor with a modulated signal. Here's the scenario: I need to measure the TRMS voltage across ...
1 vote
76 views

### AC Circuit Analysis with Square Wave and Transmission Line

I'd like to solve the AC analysis for a circuit with a square-wave function (with a DC offset, so it goes from 0V to some positive voltage with each step) in series with a resistor and a shorted ...
58 views

### Arduino RPM Calculator Weird behavior

Long time user, first time poster. I've started to fiddle around with Arduinos and electronics and I still have a hard time grasping some of the basic concepts sadly. Here is my issue. I have this ...
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86 views

### Using a square and/or sine wave generator through a speaker [closed]

I have recently undergone some university study which introduced square and sine wave generators, I was wondering if there's a specific speaker I could use (its inputs would be a power supply and the ...
376 views

### How to check for slope of a square wave output in LTspice

I want know if there is a certain formula that needs to be used to get the positive and negative slope of a square wave. Let Vn001 be the indication if its positive and negative? Or can I simply trust ...
79 views

### Forwarding a clock and display it on oscilloscope

I have been trying to forward 2 clocks, one of them is 12.5MHz, and the other one is 25MHz. when i used an oscilloscope to check the signal, it was not a square wave, and it was like a capacitence ...
80 views

### Problem with LR oscillator

I am trying to make a self oscillating fluxgate transformer using an LR oscillator with an op-amp. I replaced the op amp with a square wave generator and the h bridge worked fine but when using op amp ...
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238 views

### Simulating square to sine wave conversion via LC circuit results in 200-fold amplification

After watching this video I decided to simulate the following circuit in PSpice: Time domain simulation with general settings, TSTOP of 100 ms and maximum step size of 1 μs yielded the following sine ...
57 views

### H-bridge 12V DC to 12VAC squarewave output

I am trying to convert DC to AC, in this case, 12VDC to 12VAC at 50Hz. I am using MSP430G2553 TI microcontroller to create Mosfet gate pulse. Mosfet model is IRFZ44N. The load is a 200 ohm resistor. A ...
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224 views

### How can I generate square pulses of the format shown in picture? The positive part should have smaller time scale

How can I generate pulses of this format? I need to generate a single pulse of 20V as a trigger pulse for performing a microscopy experiment( I couldn't manage to get a programmable function generator ...
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218 views

### Getting a square wave as a output of op-amp

I have the following op-amp circuit and i am trying to find out what is the open loop gain. In order to make this simulation properly, we need to make sure that the DC operation of the amplifier is ...
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313 views

### Unable to get my astable multi-vibrator working in LTspice

I'm trying to build a basic square wave oscillator using an astable vibrator made with an op-amp for my Intro to Circuits class. Unfortunately, I cannot get LTspice to simulate the oscillations. I've ...
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1 vote
150 views

### Square wave rectified output value calculation

I can understand the ground osc probe but with a hand osc I shouldn´t have that problem, I think. But It went even worst. Maybe it is a doubler¿?
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### How can I split one electrical signal to 3 separate signals?

I have one Hall sender in a gearbox. It creates a square signal to the speedometer with amplitude 0\7.5V. I want to use this signal in two other places, like cruise control control unit and mini ...
1 vote
94 views

### If the three-phase voltages are square waves, is there a neutral voltage in a balanced wye-wye configuration?

I am analyzing a wye-wye configuration circuit. Both the source and the load are balanced. The source is three-phase. Each phase is offset by 120 degrees. Neither the source nor the load is grounded. ...
153 views

### Improving waveform shape in discrete Pierce oscillator with Schmitt trigger output

I am making a simple clock source using discrete Pierce oscillator with its output attached to high speed Schmitt trigger buffer to get square wave in the final output. I got the circuit for the ...
1 vote
109 views

### Designing a square wave circuit

I require assistance in designing a circuit for driving LCD ND filters. These filters necessitate a 1000 Hz square wave with a variable voltage ranging from 0-20 V (-10 to +10 volts). I would prefer ...
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1 vote
328 views

### Two 555 Timers working in monostable mode, triggering each other [duplicate]

I'd like to generate a square wave signal with Ton Toff time length based on two analog voltages between 0-5V, went with the method that seems the simplest, two 555 timer ICs with their trigger and ...
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679 views

### Trying to understand RC circuit behavior with a square wave input

Here's a circuit i built to play around with capacitor and try to understand how they work : In the real circuit and the spice simulation i get the same voltage spike on positive side of the ...
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1 vote
201 views

### Filter out one square wave while retaining the other

I have two square wave signals. The first signal has a frequency around 10 kHz, while the other signal has a higher frequency of about 50 kHz. How can I filter out the lower frequency signal without ...
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103 views

### How can I measure the frequency of multiple square waves?

I'm trying to evaluate the frequency of 18 independent sources of square waves in my system (the signals are generated independently as feedback.) Basically, I need to have a way to use one ...
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125 views

### Filter output of a bandpass filter

The following question was asked in GATE 2014 S-1: A 10 KHz even symmetric square wave passed through bandpass filter with centre frequency at 30 KHz and 3 dB passband of 6 kHz. The filter output is: ...
1k views

### Square wave generator without op-amp

I am trying to make a square wave generator but don't have an op-amp nor the PNP transistor to do it. Is there any way that works? I have tried using this one: simulate this circuit – Schematic ...
1k views

### What does the RMS value of a DC current waveform represent?

I understand (or at least think I understand) the math and calculation of RMS values and that it generally is used for representing equivalent power of non-DC circuits, like typical sinusoidal AC ...
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### Master pitch control for oscillators

I’m doing a project of four oscillators where each one allows switching between a sawtooth or square waveform. The diagram that I attach is the corresponding one for a single oscillator, each one has ...
129 views

### Square wave (+-15V) to positive DC

How can I convert a square wave signal from -15V to 15V to a positive DC signal? Here are the details of my problem: I'm trying to build a duty cycle for a buck converter in the following way: I want ...
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1 vote
73 views

### Mean value of square signal between 0 and 15 V in LTspice

I would like to get a signal that is the mean value of a square signal going from 0 to 15 V using an integrator op-amp. Here is what I'm getting so far (the op-amp I have put is the UniversalOpAmp2): ...
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### How can I use a 555 timer and a binary counter to determine the frequency of a square wave pulse?

I'm trying to build a circuit to determine the frequency of a given square wave pulse. The pulse will be generated by a function generator. I have a 555 timer, a binary counter, a seven-segment ...
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1 vote
184 views

### Triggering a relay with a 0.7 - 2 Hz pulsating DC voltage between 0 and 12 V

50% duty cycle. I would prefer if there was a passive solution to this but it's not a necessity. The relay needs to turn on when the signal is pulsating and to turn off when the signal is no longer ...
512 views

### Producing a sawtooth wave from a square wave

I am trying to produce a sawtooth wave from a 2 MHz square wave. For this, I am using an LT1800 op-amp. I want to get a -5V to 5V sawtooth wave shape. I did not do this in LTspice. I made the ...
735 views

### Why is my op-amp pulse generator (LF353) delivering way less voltage (±2 V) than the voltage supplies of the amplifier (±15 V)?

I had to design the following circuit as a pulse generator so that if I vary the resistance the frequency will vary as well. It's defined by the frequency expression: $$f=\frac{1}{2R_4C_1\ln(3)}$$ ...
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562 views

### Power and energy calculation of square (or rectangular) wave signals

I have to calculate the power of my square (actually rectangular :D) wave signal, and then the energy of it. I have amplitude, current, duty cycle, and frequency parameters. For example: Amplitude: 2....
60 views

### Stretch duty cycle of square wave where amplitude changes

I have a signal coming from a photodiode detector, the pulse is really short, so the integration time is very small, and the total power measured is very small (very close to the noise of the detector)...
71 views

### Full H-bridge unwanted surge in output square wave

I'm designing a H-bridge driven by two IR2110 mosfet drivers and using four NMOS (IRFS SL7440) transistors. Below a picture of my schematic. I am using 98uF bootstrap capacitors, and apply two ...
129 views

### Rewriting piecewise voltage function using Heaviside?

Recently I've had an idea to create an assignment where we have low-pass filter connected to the voltage source which is described by piecewise function. I've already dealt with periodic functions ...
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1 vote
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### Square wave inverters for running water immersion heater elements [closed]

I am lead to believe that cheap square wave 230V inverters are generally considered not much use as they can damage sensitive equipment. Do kettle elements count as sensitive equipment? I would like ...
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124 views

### How to deal with incorrect optical encoder waveform?

Summarize the problem: TLDR: I am having trouble reading the signals from an optical encoder to track the position of a stepper motor(I know that it’s redundant to use encoders on stepper motors. It’s ...
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181 views

### Clock Generator with Variable Pulse Width Design Help

I'm working on a design that requires a clock generator with variable pulse width. The pulse width is controlled by a potentiometer, and the clock speed is controlled by another potentiometer. It's ...
119 views

### Square waves (Hall-effect sensor)

I'm replacing the gearbox of my truck. Both gearboxes (the old one and the new one) have speed sensors in the output shaft, but they don´t produce the same signals. In order to make the new sensor ...
702 views

### Impedance, square waves, and duty cycle

Will a coil present a different impedance to a 10 kHz sine wave as opposed to a 10 kHz square wave with a 10% duty cycle? I could not find a way to calculate it, are there any formulas available?
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335 views

### How to measure rising and falling edge of square wave using c-code block

I have a problem in understanding how to incorporate a c-code block in order to measure the rising and falling edges of a square wave signal in Simulink. I am using a signal generator to generate a ...
226 views

### Correcting the lower output level of a square wave generator

I have assembled a square wave generator following this schematic from an old book. R1 and R2 are both 1 kohm, C1 is 68 pF, and C2 is 2.2 nF. The author of the book claims that this combination is ...
217 views

### AD8611 comparator at 60 MHz

I'm trying to process a sinusoidal signal into a square wave at frequencies above 1 MHz. This is my first time doing this so it doesn't work properly. If anyone can help with an explanation, I would ...
276 views

### How to optimally decide modified square wave duty cycle for an inverter?

Some high-end inverters synthesize a sine wave with high speed pulse width modulation and low-pass filtering, but most cheaper inverters use a square wave or a modified square wave. Modified square ...
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### Why could a cheap electricity consumption meter break on modified square wave inverter?

I have a number of cheap electricity consumption meters of which I used one on a modified square wave inverter I bought. They cost less than 15 EUR per piece so most likely they don't have much ...
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