# Questions tagged [square]

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values. The square wave is a special case of a pulse wave which allows arbitrary durations at minimum and maximum. The ratio of the high period to the total period of a pulse wave is called the duty cycle. A true square wave has a 50% duty cycle (equal high and low periods).

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84 views

### Getting a square wave as a output of op-amp

I have the following op-amp circuit and i am trying to find out what is the open loop gain. In order to make this simulation properly, we need to make sure that the DC operation of the amplifier is ...
236 views

### Unable to get my astable multi-vibrator working in LTspice

I'm trying to build a basic square wave oscillator using an astable vibrator made with an op-amp for my Intro to Circuits class. Unfortunately, I cannot get LTspice to simulate the oscillations. I've ...
1 vote
129 views

### Square wave rectified output value calculation

I can understand the ground osc probe but with a hand osc I shouldn´t have that problem, I think. But It went even worst. Maybe it is a doubler¿?
116 views

### How can I split one electrical signal to 3 separate signals?

I have one Hall sender in a gearbox. It creates a square signal to the speedometer with amplitude 0\7.5V. I want to use this signal in two other places, like cruise control control unit and mini ...
1 vote
75 views

### If the three-phase voltages are square waves, is there a neutral voltage in a balanced wye-wye configuration?

I am analyzing a wye-wye configuration circuit. Both the source and the load are balanced. The source is three-phase. Each phase is offset by 120 degrees. Neither the source nor the load is grounded. ...
115 views

### Improving waveform shape in discrete Pierce oscillator with Schmitt trigger output

I am making a simple clock source using discrete Pierce oscillator with its output attached to high speed Schmitt trigger buffer to get square wave in the final output. I got the circuit for the ...
1 vote
85 views

### Designing a square wave circuit

I require assistance in designing a circuit for driving LCD ND filters. These filters necessitate a 1000 Hz square wave with a variable voltage ranging from 0-20 V (-10 to +10 volts). I would prefer ...
1 vote
137 views

### Two 555 Timers working in monostable mode, triggering each other [duplicate]

I'd like to generate a square wave signal with Ton Toff time length based on two analog voltages between 0-5V, went with the method that seems the simplest, two 555 timer ICs with their trigger and ...
540 views

### Trying to understand RC circuit behavior with a square wave input

Here's a circuit i built to play around with capacitor and try to understand how they work : In the real circuit and the spice simulation i get the same voltage spike on positive side of the ...
1 vote
103 views

### Filter out one square wave while retaining the other

I have two square wave signals. The first signal has a frequency around 10 kHz, while the other signal has a higher frequency of about 50 kHz. How can I filter out the lower frequency signal without ...
94 views

### How can I measure the frequency of multiple square waves?

I'm trying to evaluate the frequency of 18 independent sources of square waves in my system (the signals are generated independently as feedback.) Basically, I need to have a way to use one ...
73 views

### Filter output of a bandpass filter

The following question was asked in GATE 2014 S-1: A 10 KHz even symmetric square wave passed through bandpass filter with centre frequency at 30 KHz and 3 dB passband of 6 kHz. The filter output is: ...
877 views

### Square wave generator without op-amp

I am trying to make a square wave generator but don't have an op-amp nor the PNP transistor to do it. Is there any way that works? I have tried using this one: simulate this circuit – Schematic ...
1k views

### What does the RMS value of a DC current waveform represent?

I understand (or at least think I understand) the math and calculation of RMS values and that it generally is used for representing equivalent power of non-DC circuits, like typical sinusoidal AC ...
54 views

### Master pitch control for oscillators

I’m doing a project of four oscillators where each one allows switching between a sawtooth or square waveform. The diagram that I attach is the corresponding one for a single oscillator, each one has ...
107 views

### Square wave (+-15V) to positive DC

How can I convert a square wave signal from -15V to 15V to a positive DC signal? Here are the details of my problem: I'm trying to build a duty cycle for a buck converter in the following way: I want ...
1 vote
58 views

### Mean value of square signal between 0 and 15 V in LTspice

I would like to get a signal that is the mean value of a square signal going from 0 to 15 V using an integrator op-amp. Here is what I'm getting so far (the op-amp I have put is the UniversalOpAmp2): ...
67 views

### How can I use a 555 timer and a binary counter to determine the frequency of a square wave pulse?

I'm trying to build a circuit to determine the frequency of a given square wave pulse. The pulse will be generated by a function generator. I have a 555 timer, a binary counter, a seven-segment ...
1 vote
137 views

### Triggering a relay with a 0.7 - 2 Hz pulsating DC voltage between 0 and 12 V

50% duty cycle. I would prefer if there was a passive solution to this but it's not a necessity. The relay needs to turn on when the signal is pulsating and to turn off when the signal is no longer ...
306 views

### Producing a sawtooth wave from a square wave

I am trying to produce a sawtooth wave from a 2 MHz square wave. For this, I am using an LT1800 op-amp. I want to get a -5V to 5V sawtooth wave shape. I did not do this in LTspice. I made the ...
708 views

### Why is my op-amp pulse generator (LF353) delivering way less voltage (±2 V) than the voltage supplies of the amplifier (±15 V)?

I had to design the following circuit as a pulse generator so that if I vary the resistance the frequency will vary as well. It's defined by the frequency expression: $$f=\frac{1}{2R_4C_1\ln(3)}$$ ...
301 views

### Power and energy calculation of square (or rectangular) wave signals

I have to calculate the power of my square (actually rectangular :D) wave signal, and then the energy of it. I have amplitude, current, duty cycle, and frequency parameters. For example: Amplitude: 2....
54 views

### Stretch duty cycle of square wave where amplitude changes

I have a signal coming from a photodiode detector, the pulse is really short, so the integration time is very small, and the total power measured is very small (very close to the noise of the detector)...
60 views

### Full H-bridge unwanted surge in output square wave

I'm designing a H-bridge driven by two IR2110 mosfet drivers and using four NMOS (IRFS SL7440) transistors. Below a picture of my schematic. I am using 98uF bootstrap capacitors, and apply two ...
114 views

### Rewriting piecewise voltage function using Heaviside?

Recently I've had an idea to create an assignment where we have low-pass filter connected to the voltage source which is described by piecewise function. I've already dealt with periodic functions ...
1 vote
125 views

### Square wave inverters for running water immersion heater elements [closed]

I am lead to believe that cheap square wave 230V inverters are generally considered not much use as they can damage sensitive equipment. Do kettle elements count as sensitive equipment? I would like ...
98 views

### How to deal with incorrect optical encoder waveform?

Summarize the problem: TLDR: I am having trouble reading the signals from an optical encoder to track the position of a stepper motor(I know that it’s redundant to use encoders on stepper motors. It’s ...
116 views

### Clock Generator with Variable Pulse Width Design Help

I'm working on a design that requires a clock generator with variable pulse width. The pulse width is controlled by a potentiometer, and the clock speed is controlled by another potentiometer. It's ...
82 views

### Square waves (Hall-effect sensor)

I'm replacing the gearbox of my truck. Both gearboxes (the old one and the new one) have speed sensors in the output shaft, but they don´t produce the same signals. In order to make the new sensor ...
634 views

### Impedance, square waves, and duty cycle

Will a coil present a different impedance to a 10 kHz sine wave as opposed to a 10 kHz square wave with a 10% duty cycle? I could not find a way to calculate it, are there any formulas available?
305 views

### How to measure rising and falling edge of square wave using c-code block

I have a problem in understanding how to incorporate a c-code block in order to measure the rising and falling edges of a square wave signal in Simulink. I am using a signal generator to generate a ...
194 views

### Correcting the lower output level of a square wave generator

I have assembled a square wave generator following this schematic from an old book. R1 and R2 are both 1 kohm, C1 is 68 pF, and C2 is 2.2 nF. The author of the book claims that this combination is ...
150 views

### AD8611 comparator at 60 MHz

I'm trying to process a sinusoidal signal into a square wave at frequencies above 1 MHz. This is my first time doing this so it doesn't work properly. If anyone can help with an explanation, I would ...
200 views

### How to optimally decide modified square wave duty cycle for an inverter?

Some high-end inverters synthesize a sine wave with high speed pulse width modulation and low-pass filtering, but most cheaper inverters use a square wave or a modified square wave. Modified square ...
78 views

### Why could a cheap electricity consumption meter break on modified square wave inverter?

I have a number of cheap electricity consumption meters of which I used one on a modified square wave inverter I bought. They cost less than 15 EUR per piece so most likely they don't have much ...
223 views

### Need 64Hz square wave green LED driver for a mosquito zapper

I have several 10 watt COB (Chip-on-Board) green LEDs which apparently are the best color to attract mosquitoes if driven at an ideal pulsing square wave frequency of 64 Hz. I was going to use a ...
647 views

### Why does this circuit produce a triangle wave?

EDIT: Op amp is a UA741CP I built a simple square wave generator on a breadboard as shown in the picture below. C = 1 μF R1 = 1k R2 = 10k R3 = 10k Supply voltages are +/- 12V The circuit produces a ...
531 views

### Square wave distortion at low frequencies, high-pass filtering, AC coupling

This is an update on my previous question. As Hearth suggeste, I changed to DC coupling on my scope. This is what I got: That's a clear change. Not a perfect square waves but I guess it is because of ...
584 views

### Square wave distortion on low frequencies

I have this old Soviet low frequency sine and square pulse generator "G3-36A". I ran into an interesting problem. When I try to generate square pulse under 100Hz I get a distorted wave. ...
1 vote
62 views

### Using a square wave function to select output

Im new here! I been having some trouble thinking about a circuit wich selects one of two outputs based in the value of a square wave function like this To put some numbers Freqs Vin=1Hz Vout1=1kHz ...
2k views

### Rail to rail +12/-12 V square wave generation with microcontroller

I need to generate a +/-12 V square wave, +/-0.4 V tolerance is allowed. The purpose is to drive the pilot signal of an electric vehicle level 2 charger, for those curious. EDIT (clarification): what ...
136 views

### Sort of square wave shift or cleanup

I have a wave I want to feed into an Arduino to measure frequency. I need the wave to hit zero to measure the frequency, I think. A nice clean square wave ideally. I am using a simple 4.3V Zener ...
225 views

### Converting square wave into a sine wave [closed]

I am trying to convert a 1 MHz square wave into a sine wave of the same frequency. What's the best way to achieve this?
1k views

### Why do 1st order low-pass filters on a square wave look like this?

I know that low-pass filters only allow voltages at low frequencies to go through the circuit and block out voltages that come in at high frequencies. With this in mind, how does the graph display ...
230 views

### Does the 555 timer 50% duty cycle capacitor discharge not affect the output voltage?

I'm new to the 555 timer and I'm trying to understand the configuration shown in the image below. The tutorial mentions that the capacitor C1 now charges and discharges through the resistor R2. The ...
343 views

### 1 Hz ring oscillator not working

Inspired by this project I built a ring oscillator that outputs a 1 Hz signal. Using their formula, I decided to use 1K for R1 and R2, and 558 uF for C1. I used a CD4069UB CMOS inverter that has a ...
931 views

### Frequency of square wave generated by Wien bridge oscillator

I have designed the wien bridge oscillator circuit for 20Hz square wave generation. It gives a 20Hz sinusoid as output when I keep the non-inverting amplifier gain 3V/V. But when the non-inverting ...
61 views

### Is there a single word term for doubled amplitude of square wave?

The IEC60050 (103-07-02) tells that the amplitude is "maximum value of a scalar sinusoidal quantity". So the peak-to-peak voltage is a doubled amplitude. Is there a single word term for a ...