# Questions tagged [square]

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values. The square wave is a special case of a pulse wave which allows arbitrary durations at minimum and maximum. The ratio of the high period to the total period of a pulse wave is called the duty cycle. A true square wave has a 50% duty cycle (equal high and low periods).

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### How to check (with DIY methods) if an Inverter returns a Square or a Sine Wave?

I do not have an Oscilloscope, but I want to check if my 12V DC to 230V AC inverter does produce a sine or a square wave. Any way to verify that? I know how a sine wave and a square wave sound, so ...
3answers
5k views

### How do you shift a square wave down?

I have a square wave the oscilates at 25khz from 0 to 30v. I would like it to oscillate from -15v to +15v. Is there a SUPER DUPER SIMPLE circuit to do this? Keep in mind it's going up and down at ...
7answers
2k views

### Why can a square wave (or digital signal) be transmitted directly through wired cable but not wireless?

Like ethernet cable, optical fiber. We have a square wave signal, do we just send that squre-wave signal directly down along the cable? If we do send it directly, why we can not send the square-wave ...
1answer
938 views

### How do I design a circuit to convert a 100 mV and 50 Hz sine wave to a square wave? [duplicate]

I have a sine wave of 100 mV and 50 Hz. I want to design a circuit that converts this sine wave into a square wave as shown in a figure.
3answers
576 views

### Why does the op amp output in this circuit have low slew rate?

I have the following circuit on a bread board (with the exception of using AD820 instead of AD822 - the main difference based on the datasheets seemed to be one versus two op amps in one package). ...
5answers
51k views

### Sine wave to square wave - Schmitt trigger

I need to transform a bipolar sine wave (varies from -5 V to 5 V, 1 kHz) to a square wave for further digital processing (0 to 3.3 V), as in this image: The important thing is ...
4answers
5k views

### Why sine wave not square wave?

Rectifying square wave voltage seems to give us DC directly without the need of a capacitor. so, why do we prefer sine wave over it? What would change if I powered any adapter (laptop adapter as ...
1answer
2k views

### Square wave autocorrelation integral

Given the following square wave signal g(t) : I'm trying to find the $R(\tau)$ of this signal, but I'm confused about how to solve the integral. In the signal above, the red square wave is the ...
3answers
1k views

### What would cause a square wave to become rounded?

I have a square wave going through a thousand feet of cable. The cable has $120 \,\Omega$ characteristic impedance. I measured the capacitance and inductance of the cable and they are pretty close ...
1answer
241 views

### How can I explain the unexpected negative voltage in the output signal obtained from half wave rectifier?

I observed the output signal of half-wave rectifier sending sine wave and square wave for an experiment. The rectifier was built with a 1N 4001 diode and a 100 ohm resistor. The output signal across ...
2answers
3k views

### Confusions on FFT of a square-wave in theory and in scope and simulation

Below is an ideal square-wave in time domain, and its harmonic components in freq. domain: As you see above a square-wave is composed only of its odd harmonics as spikes nothing in between. And ...
1answer
269 views

### Filtering a Square Wave into a Sine Wave

I am trying to Filter a +-4V odd inverted square wave into a sine wave. How should I go about doing so? So far I have computed the Fourier series of my particular input signal to be: Which I ...
2answers
746 views

### How to shift down a square wave at 0 - 5 V?

I have a square wave that oscillates at 500 Hz from 12 to 14 V. I would like it to oscillate at the same frequency from 0 to 5 V, so I could use to trigger i.e. a switch. Is there any circuit to do ...
3answers
729 views

### Feed a speaker only with positive voltages

I am using the timer of a microcontroller to create square wave signals from 10KHz to 40KHz, but my microcontroller generates the signal only with positive values (0 - 3.3V). I have generated the same ...
1answer
1k views

### Square generator 1KHz to 1MHz with 1KHz precision

I would like to make a square wave generator which will output a signal with amplitude X voltages and frequency between 1KHz to 1MHz, with the precision of 1KHz (for example: 785kHz, 926kHz, 999kHz, ...
2answers
212 views

### Generating 40 kHz square wave using ATtiny13

I'm using an ATtiny13 running at 1.2 MHz and would like to generate a 40 kHz square wave on PB3 and PB4. The signal on PB4 should be 180 degrees offset (inverted) from PB3. I know that I need to set ...
3answers
463 views

### Anyway to avoid the startup delay on square wave generator (e.g. 555 astable) circuit?

In the classic 555 astable circuit the external capacitor charges to 2/3 of the Vcc (through R1 and R2) and then is discharged to 1/3 of Vcc (through R2) and then it continues to oscillate between 1/3 ...
1answer
2k views

### Measuring the L/R ratio of an LR circuit

I have the circuit below (fig.1) that I found in a board of an old machine. The input signal is a square wave with 10 Hz frequency and 10 V amplitude. I measured the waveform on the primary side of ...
2answers
1k views

### Bipolar Square Wave Generator

The design requirement is to generate a +/-12V square wave from a 0-3.3V square wave at 1kHz. Here is what I came up with: PILOT_CTL is the 0-3.3V square wave and the end of R6 should be the +/-12V ...
1answer
50 views

### Obtaining frequency of 550 Hz from Simple Triangle and Square Waveform Generator Circuit

First time asking a question so sorry if I miss some things. I'll try to be thorough and straightforward. I'm trying to design a square wave from a triangle wave-square wave generator circuit. The ...
0answers
72 views

### How to improve a high frequency square wave for laser imaging

I am trying to create a current source for laser direct imaging and I have a problem in the circuit I cannot solve. The laser is a 120 mW 405nm diode and I use it in a laser module from a laser ...
1answer
561 views

### Peculiar noise when observing a square wave

I'm using the following function generator: http://www.farnell.com/datasheets/499058.pdf?_ga=1.129729036.1263433037.1467971694 and a Tektronix TDS 1002B scope for some measurments. Most of the time I ...
4answers
1k views

### Why can we hear the full range of square waves from 1 Hz-20 kHz, but not sine waves of the same frequencies?

I connected the output (50Ω) of a function generator to a 35 watt 5Ω speaker. When I sent square wave signals of 1 Hz-20 kHz to the speaker, my friends and I were able to hear them. But ...
7answers
15k views

### What is the best way to get a sine wave from a square wave?

I have square waves of different frequencies (1KHz to 20KHz), and I need to convert them to a sine wave of the corresponding fundamental frequency. A RC ladder Low-pass filter was the first thing ...
5answers
180 views

### Making a square wave which has two different kinds of pulse width

I am going to make a square wave which has two different kinds of pulse width.At first,i think i can use the digital logic gate to finish it,however,after taking lots of time for trying,i still can't ...
5answers
412 views

### High Frequency Square Wave Generator

I want to generate square wave but there are some challenges. Rise time should be less than 2ns as well as fall time (for 0V to 5V). Duty cycle is not so important it should stay high like 40 ns. I am ...
2answers
128 views

### Scope says 59.9 Hz .. yet I can't measure turntable speed

I needed to measure a turntable's number of revolutions per minute, but didn't have any incandescent lamps around. So I rigged an LED to an ESP8266 SOC and programmed it with delays to output a 60hz ...
3answers
321 views

### What is the maximum frequency of CMOS level triangle wave?

What is the maximum frequency of CMOS (3.3V) level triangle (or square) wave that I can achieve with serial discrete ICs (for example: discrete PLL or DAC + OpAmp cascade)?
1answer
95 views

### Sine to square on complex wave?

What are the required parts on a circuit to get a square wave out of a sine one following the constraint shown in the image? Schmitt triggers seem to work on continuous sine wave but as you can see, I ...
1answer
120 views

### Arduino not outputting square wave with 50% duty cycle

I’m currently using an Arduino and my main goal is to output 2 signals from 2 digital pins. Pin 1 (D7) would output a 1 kHz signal with a 50% duty cycle and pin 2 (D8) would output half of pin 1's ...
2answers
131 views

### 1v square wave generator

I'm trying to create a square wave form from a single AA battery, say 1v. I came across an IC which is essentially a low voltage 555 timer: Semtech SX8122 however it is marked obsolete. I would like ...
1answer
467 views

### Crosstalk Question

Could somebody explain me how could I predict the crosstalk between tracks.From what I know about this are two types of crosstalk: inductive and capacitive.Inductive from what I read is the worst.For ...
3answers
120 views

### Using LC oscillator to create square wave AC [closed]

A full wave bridge inverter lookslike this: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab However this isn't practical because we have turn on/off the pairs of switches every time ...
3answers
1k views

### How Much Current is Usually Used with IR Transmitting LEDs, in Remote Controls?

If you take various Remote Controls from your home, such as for a TV, Audio System, TV Box, etc, and measure the current that is supplied to the IR LED in the remote, what would be common current ...
1answer
4k views

### Create a blinking LED circuit with a z-diode and a capacitor

I was searching for the most simple LED flashing circuit. On a webpage (http://cappels.org/dproj/simplest_LED_flasher/Simplest_LED_Flasher_Circuit.html) I found the following circuit with a transistor ...
3answers
2k views

### Slowly ramp up the PWM duty cycle with a 555

I have a PWM signal being generated by a 555 timer and that is fed into a ESC for an electric skateboard. My problem is that the PWM signal duty cycle can go from 5% to 95% in a fraction of a second. ...
3answers
791 views

### Square wave at line frequency. How does it work?

I found the following circuit next to a switching power supply in an electrophysiology amplifier (AXOPATCH 200A, an instrument for a technique called "patch clamp"). References to power outlet: L: ...
4answers
123 views

### Variable Resistance

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab This is a pulse generator, outputting square pulses with about 8% duty cycle. Tuning R2 down to 120k will result in the same high time,...
2answers
44 views

### how to tune wave to obtain a specific harmonic seriers

I wanted to know what is the relationship between a square wave and its harmonics, in other words can i change a square wave features (frequency, duty cycle etc) to obtained a desired fundamental ...
1answer
177 views

### Oscilloscope displaying two voltage levels (on the same channel) for square wave

Please excuse if this is stupid, I've been searching to see if I can find an answer to this on Google, but it seems I'm facing the issue in which I don't know how to describe the issue I'm trying to ...
1answer
251 views

### Stepper driver sine wave

I have a TB6660 Stepper driver and I gave pulse from an Arduino board. According to the TB6660 datasheet, drier should out a sine wave that created by using give square wave from Arduino. But, when I ...
2answers
1k views

### How can I multiply square wave circuits?

I would like to generate a signal that consists of a 1 kHz signal, which switches to a 100 kHz signal, flipping from one to the other at a rate of 10-100 Hz. I have access to signal generators to ...
2answers
171 views

### Phase shift a square wave

I have an application where I would like to derive a secondary square wave from a primary one but with a continuously variable phase shift. I would like to know if this is possible to achieve in a ...
1answer
117 views

### Does this circuit convert sinewaves to square waves?

As part of a graded assignment on diodes, I was given this question. I ended up designing this circuit :- simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab However, I only got ...
4answers
77 views

### Average of flipped square wave

So I need to find what will be the average of a flipped square wave. I know that the high amplitude is 15V and the low amplitude is -9V and the average of the original signal is 2V. What will be the ...
1answer
182 views

### galvanic isolation for lm555

Hi guys I am trying to implement galvanic isolation for my lm555 square wave generator. I am designing a marx generator so this is essential. I am new with transformers, at the moment all I want to ...
1answer
471 views

### Why do musical tesla coils sound more like square waves?

When people modulate their tesla coils to play music, it sounds like a very sharp square wave, as opposed to the electrical signal, a (roughly) sine wave. Why doesn't the tesla coil sound like a sine ...
2answers
631 views

### Square wave filtering with d-flip flop

I have a square wave (1st line), I want to skip every odd impulse, and output every even one without change, as shown in the second line. Is this different from frequency division? What is the proper ...
3answers
2k views

### Peak and RMS voltage for a sine wave

I only need help with part C). What I've done for part B) is square the wave, which makes Vpeak->V^2peak and the waveform in the negative region(under the period axis) become positive AND squared(like ...
0answers
39 views

### How can I use a square wave to interleave 2 LEDs with an arduino?

I have a PCB that drives a camera. I want to flash 2 LEDs in time with the camera's framerate using an Arduino. After some examination I found a CLK pin on the PCB that I think might correspond to the ...