# Questions tagged [square]

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values. The square wave is a special case of a pulse wave which allows arbitrary durations at minimum and maximum. The ratio of the high period to the total period of a pulse wave is called the duty cycle. A true square wave has a 50% duty cycle (equal high and low periods).

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1answer
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### Comparator Undesired Behavior

The following circuit is a comparator, which compares input square signal at non-inverting pin with fixed reference voltage at inverting pin of integrated comparator circuit LM393 ($R$ is collector ...
1answer
178 views

### Oscilloscope displaying two voltage levels (on the same channel) for square wave

Please excuse if this is stupid, I've been searching to see if I can find an answer to this on Google, but it seems I'm facing the issue in which I don't know how to describe the issue I'm trying to ...
0answers
54 views

### Old motor with unknown pulse generator signal

I have been building a new controller unit for a ~20 years old gate opener because it was never reliable, and eventually stopped working entirely. So far, I have got everything working except from ...
1answer
68 views

### IR Light Transmission Delay Error

The following circuit consists of two IR (Infra-Red) LED diodes; one as light transmitter (IR1) and other as light receiver (IR2). They are spaced for approximately 4 cm, so distance is not the issue ...
1answer
103 views

### Is an FPGA the best tool to generate a continuous flow of square pulses with arbitrary amplitude?

I need to generate a train of rectangular pulses, with positive and negative arbitrary amplitude. Ideally, I would like to have the generation electronics connected with a computer, and I would like ...
1answer
273 views

### Filtering a Square Wave into a Sine Wave

I am trying to Filter a +-4V odd inverted square wave into a sine wave. How should I go about doing so? So far I have computed the Fourier series of my particular input signal to be: Which I ...
3answers
1k views

### How Much Current is Usually Used with IR Transmitting LEDs, in Remote Controls?

If you take various Remote Controls from your home, such as for a TV, Audio System, TV Box, etc, and measure the current that is supplied to the IR LED in the remote, what would be common current ...
1answer
110 views

### sine wave to square wave using LT1017

I am trying to convert sine wave of 50 Hz and 10 mV to square wave of 10 mV of positive side only. I used the following circuit. But the square wave has higher voltage compare to my requirement. ...
1answer
938 views

### How do I design a circuit to convert a 100 mV and 50 Hz sine wave to a square wave? [duplicate]

I have a sine wave of 100 mV and 50 Hz. I want to design a circuit that converts this sine wave into a square wave as shown in a figure.
1answer
137 views

### TENS spike smoothing when using a relay

I'm currently messing around with a TENS unit and would like to block/unblock the signal from reaching the muscle (Alterations to the TENS unit circuitry aren't possible). The unit uses a 2 mm jack ...
1answer
270 views

### 0-12V square wave to -6 +6 sine

We're working on a car where we've replaced most of the electrical system. We've also replaced the transmission, and the new gear box doesn't have a speed sensor that we can use for the instrument. ...
1answer
112 views

### How do I calculate the voltage across a capacitor when the source is a square wave?

I have a series RC circuit with R= 2.2K Ohm and C=100 nF, and the voltage supply is a 2.5V peak square wave. And I'm not sure how to calculate the voltage across the capacitor.
0answers
612 views

### How to make a piezo speaker louder with 5V?

I have connected a tiny piezo pc speaker (https://sktechworks.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Speaker.jpg) to an arduino and used to tone command to play a simple melody in repeat (square wave only ...
1answer
74 views

### How can I turn off automatically, say after a fixed number of cycles, a 555 in astable mode?

I looked at the answer to "How to turn a 555 in astable mode into a decaying square wave" but this is really for an input to a speaker. I want the input to go into a counter to count the number of ...
1answer
253 views

### Stepper driver sine wave

I have a TB6660 Stepper driver and I gave pulse from an Arduino board. According to the TB6660 datasheet, drier should out a sine wave that created by using give square wave from Arduino. But, when I ...
1answer
103 views

### Why does this “square wave” have what seems to be a charging action on it's leading edge?

I'm trying to produce a basic square wave output across a resistor from an ATMega328P Xplained mini. VCC is 5 V. Setup: Code: (Stuff with DDC/PORTB is just to control the onboard LED) ...
3answers
577 views

### Why does the op amp output in this circuit have low slew rate?

I have the following circuit on a bread board (with the exception of using AD820 instead of AD822 - the main difference based on the datasheets seemed to be one versus two op amps in one package). ...
1answer
2k views

### Square wave autocorrelation integral

Given the following square wave signal g(t) : I'm trying to find the $R(\tau)$ of this signal, but I'm confused about how to solve the integral. In the signal above, the red square wave is the ...
4answers
1k views

### Why can we hear the full range of square waves from 1 Hz-20 kHz, but not sine waves of the same frequencies?

I connected the output (50Ω) of a function generator to a 35 watt 5Ω speaker. When I sent square wave signals of 1 Hz-20 kHz to the speaker, my friends and I were able to hear them. But ...
1answer
4k views

### Create a blinking LED circuit with a z-diode and a capacitor

I was searching for the most simple LED flashing circuit. On a webpage (http://cappels.org/dproj/simplest_LED_flasher/Simplest_LED_Flasher_Circuit.html) I found the following circuit with a transistor ...
0answers
64 views

### Variable frequency of an astable

I have to make the frequency variable of an square waveform generator built with the help of an astable. I modified a circuit a found on the internet and everything seems good with only one exception: ...
2answers
481 views

### Gibbs phenonemon in real life

If I feed a square wave into a first order, passive, low-pass filter (resistor and capacitor), I get the following results on an oscilloscope (sorry, I don't know how to scale and rotate images): Why ...
10answers
7k views

### How to check (with DIY methods) if an Inverter returns a Square or a Sine Wave?

I do not have an Oscilloscope, but I want to check if my 12V DC to 230V AC inverter does produce a sine or a square wave. Any way to verify that? I know how a sine wave and a square wave sound, so ...
1answer
3k views

### How to change duty cycle in square wave

I'm using AD9833 to generate sine, triangle and square wave. Square from IC has 0,65V amptlitude and 50% duty cycle. I would like in simple way change duty cycle this square signal from 0-100%. Using ...
3answers
565 views

### Can I detect the absence of square wave?

Can I build a circuit to set the output high if there is a square wave at the input and set it low when missing the square wave (the input become low)? Edit: The signal is 2 kHz, +5/0 V. It's not ...
5answers
1k views

### how to find impedance of inductance with square wave input

I know the impedance of the inductance is: 'jwl'; but this is correct with sinusoidal input; now my question is: how to calculate the impedance when the input is the periodic square wave(like a ...
2answers
547 views

### What's the simplest high voltage AC square wave oscillator?

I'd like to have such an AC square wave oscillator putting AC through a load - which can go to 60 VDC and deliver no more than 50 mA with sharp, fast rise times and very "square". I would hope a ...
1answer
464 views

### How generate a square wave from a DC voltage to power on LCD crystals?

I got a small LCD and I would like to power it to show the LCD crystals turning to black. I would like to show at which voltage the LCD crystals start to turn black. I did some research about LCD ...
5answers
180 views

### Making a square wave which has two different kinds of pulse width

I am going to make a square wave which has two different kinds of pulse width.At first,i think i can use the digital logic gate to finish it,however,after taking lots of time for trying,i still can't ...
1answer
74 views

### How to set up signal generator in lab to obtain an output voltage?

In one of my laboratory assignments, I am to study how to work with square signals in RC circuits (low pass filter). Please keep in mind this is an introductory Electronics course. Basically, I am ...
1answer
182 views

### galvanic isolation for lm555

Hi guys I am trying to implement galvanic isolation for my lm555 square wave generator. I am designing a marx generator so this is essential. I am new with transformers, at the moment all I want to ...
6answers
3k views

### EAGLE Square hole

I want to make a square hole in the middle of my PCB, but when I choose to make a drill or hole is only a circle! Isn't there a option or a ULP file that allow me to do a square hole? I can't find ...
1answer
158 views

### Sine to Square only with a MCU

I know several topics already talks about this but I didn't find my answer yet. Is it possible to convert a sine wave to a square wave only with a MCU ? Both wave are only a matter of changing ...
2answers
416 views

### I need a circuit able to calculate Vmax-Vmin of a squarewave

As already written in the title, I need to evaluate the voltage excursion of a certain signal. Vmax and Vmin could be both positive and negative (therefore two peak detection circuits cannot be used, ...
2answers
478 views

### The logic schematic which can change the duty cycle of input

Is there a logic schematic can change the duty cycle of input ? I mean if input is a square wave with duty cycle is equal to 50%,and the output is also a square wave but its duty cycle become lower or ...
2answers
1k views

### How can I multiply square wave circuits?

I would like to generate a signal that consists of a 1 kHz signal, which switches to a 100 kHz signal, flipping from one to the other at a rate of 10-100 Hz. I have access to signal generators to ...
1answer
97 views

### Square Wave (w / Pulse Missing) Generation

this is probably a simple one for anyone with some electronics design experience (which I do not have). Can anyone tell me how to build a simple circuit which generates a square wave but has every nth ...
2answers
233 views

### A question about interpreting and reducing high frequency noise in a low level square wave

As a part of a circuit the output section of the circuit is as follows(C1 is actually 10u): The input is a 1kHz 0V…5V pulse train coming from the output of a 74HC74, and the output is a square wave ...
2answers
82 views

### Problems with a passive network setup used with a microcontroller

Here is the circuit in my mind before I ask my question: The microcontroller outputs 0..5v pulse train at 3kHz. First of all, the setup between the points A and X needs to be fed by a 3kHz ...
2answers
286 views

### Active Filter and Sine to Square Conversion Issues

Background: I am currently using a SparkFun Electret Microphone and am needing to both filter and amplify the signal before turning it into a square wave to be interpreted by a FPGA. The mic itself ...
0answers
430 views

### Square Wave with Overshoot

I'm generating an AC square wave output waveform with the 555 timer circuit below. However, I'm getting these obvious overshoots. Can anyone help me? R1 is 8.2K ohm R2 is 68k ohm C1 is 0.1uF
3answers
2k views

### Phase Shift Square Wave

Is it possible to shift the phase of a square wave (which is generated by an arduino ) with passive components? I have a 0 to 12v square wave that I would like to split into several phases. The idea ...
4answers
2k views

### Amplify Square Wave with Simple Mofset Circuit

I am a hobbyist. I have a square wave being generated by a 5 volt Arduino. (I tried a 555 circuit but I couldn't get it at an exact square wave.) The Arduino square wave runs from about 2 or 3 volts ...
4answers
2k views

### LCR circuit with squarewave input: Why does the output take a decreasing amplitude through each cycle?

I understand a square-wave will be made up of a sum of sine waves in the form $$\frac{1}{n}sin(nf_0)$$ So when a squarewave is input to a LCR circut designed to be a bandpass filter, it will ...
3answers
315 views

### maximun number of inputs on a opamp adder circuit

With 4 timers of a mcu I am generating 4 square signals , each of them have an amplitud of 3.3v and are generated at diferent frequencies (8KHz 9KHz 10KHz and 11KHz), to generate a multitone signal I ...
3answers
729 views

### Feed a speaker only with positive voltages

I am using the timer of a microcontroller to create square wave signals from 10KHz to 40KHz, but my microcontroller generates the signal only with positive values (0 - 3.3V). I have generated the same ...
3answers
2k views

### Slowly ramp up the PWM duty cycle with a 555

I have a PWM signal being generated by a 555 timer and that is fed into a ESC for an electric skateboard. My problem is that the PWM signal duty cycle can go from 5% to 95% in a fraction of a second. ...
2answers
751 views

### How to shift down a square wave at 0 - 5 V?

I have a square wave that oscillates at 500 Hz from 12 to 14 V. I would like it to oscillate at the same frequency from 0 to 5 V, so I could use to trigger i.e. a switch. Is there any circuit to do ...
2answers
3k views

### Confusions on FFT of a square-wave in theory and in scope and simulation

Below is an ideal square-wave in time domain, and its harmonic components in freq. domain: As you see above a square-wave is composed only of its odd harmonics as spikes nothing in between. And ...
1answer
747 views

### Rounding a Square Wave [duplicate]

I am using a 555 IC to produce a sound in a small 8 ohm speaker. It works just fine, but the square wave sounds rather harsh. I am wondering if there is a simple way to round out the corners to make ...