# Questions tagged [square]

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values. The square wave is a special case of a pulse wave which allows arbitrary durations at minimum and maximum. The ratio of the high period to the total period of a pulse wave is called the duty cycle. A true square wave has a 50% duty cycle (equal high and low periods).

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### What would cause a square wave to become rounded?

I have a square wave going through a thousand feet of cable. The cable has $120 \,\Omega$ characteristic impedance. I measured the capacitance and inductance of the cable and they are pretty close ...
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### Simple Square Wave Amplification Technique?

I have a square wave that is 5v peak-to-peak. I need a circuit that can amplify this square wave up to any given supply voltage between 9 and 50v. I don't need much current, nothing more than 100ma ...
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### Offset when trying to convert square to triangular wave

Hi I constructed a circuit to create a 1Hz square wave with LM741 Opamp. The first part makes that and it makes it perfectly. But I need to convert it to a 8Vpp triangular wave. Without any offset, I ...
1k views

### Simple circuit to light a LED only if I have a square wave

I have a simple circuit with a transistor that accepts an input 3.3V square wave (50Hz) and amplifies it to a 20V output inverted square wave. I'd like to have a LED that lights up if the square wave ...
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### 65 V square wave switching circuit

I am trying to generate a 65 V square wave very similar to the post found here: Mosfet PWM signal not square My load is in a slightly different configuration (I've tried them both ways), but the ...
1k views

### Best way to amplify 3.3V square wave at 1MHz to 10V square wave at 1MHz

I am trying to build a bus transmitter complying to 1553 standards. Its input is a 3.3V square wave at 1MHz (CMOS data) and it has to be amplified to 10V or higher at the same frequency. The load ...
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### Average of flipped square wave

So I need to find what will be the average of a flipped square wave. I know that the high amplitude is 15V and the low amplitude is -9V and the average of the original signal is 2V. What will be the ...
356 views

### How to find mean value of square signal

I have a comparator circuit and I need to find the mean value of the output square wave. I have calculated it like this: $Vmean=1/T*integral(U*dt)$ from 0 to T and I got $Vmean=-0.7896V$ Can ...
289 views

### Square wave generator won't work

I'm trying to generate a square wave at 21kHz (+13V,0V) using this schematic: I used formulas and this website to find the correct values for my components but it doesn't seem to work on Simetrix. ...
1 vote
181 views

### Arduino not outputting square wave with 50% duty cycle

I’m currently using an Arduino and my main goal is to output 2 signals from 2 digital pins. Pin 1 (D7) would output a 1 kHz signal with a 50% duty cycle and pin 2 (D8) would output half of pin 1's ...
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### Sine to square on complex wave?

What are the required parts on a circuit to get a square wave out of a sine one following the constraint shown in the image? Schmitt triggers seem to work on continuous sine wave but as you can see, I ...
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### 1v square wave generator

I'm trying to create a square wave form from a single AA battery, say 1v. I came across an IC which is essentially a low voltage 555 timer: Semtech SX8122 however it is marked obsolete. I would like ...
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154 views

### Comparator Undesired Behavior

The following circuit is a comparator, which compares input square signal at non-inverting pin with fixed reference voltage at inverting pin of integrated comparator circuit LM393 ($R$ is collector ...
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622 views

### Oscilloscope displaying two voltage levels (on the same channel) for square wave

Please excuse if this is stupid, I've been searching to see if I can find an answer to this on Google, but it seems I'm facing the issue in which I don't know how to describe the issue I'm trying to ...
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### Old motor with unknown pulse generator signal

I have been building a new controller unit for a ~20 years old gate opener because it was never reliable, and eventually stopped working entirely. So far, I have got everything working except from ...
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### IR Light Transmission Delay Error

The following circuit consists of two IR (Infra-Red) LED diodes; one as light transmitter (IR1) and other as light receiver (IR2). They are spaced for approximately 4 cm, so distance is not the issue ...
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### Is an FPGA the best tool to generate a continuous flow of square pulses with arbitrary amplitude?

I need to generate a train of rectangular pulses, with positive and negative arbitrary amplitude. Ideally, I would like to have the generation electronics connected with a computer, and I would like ...
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557 views

### Filtering a Square Wave into a Sine Wave

I am trying to Filter a +-4V odd inverted square wave into a sine wave. How should I go about doing so? So far I have computed the Fourier series of my particular input signal to be: Which I ...
3k views

### How Much Current is Usually Used with IR Transmitting LEDs, in Remote Controls?

If you take various Remote Controls from your home, such as for a TV, Audio System, TV Box, etc, and measure the current that is supplied to the IR LED in the remote, what would be common current ...
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### sine wave to square wave using LT1017

I am trying to convert sine wave of 50 Hz and 10 mV to square wave of 10 mV of positive side only. I used the following circuit. But the square wave has higher voltage compare to my requirement. ...
1k views

### How do I design a circuit to convert a 100 mV and 50 Hz sine wave to a square wave? [duplicate]

I have a sine wave of 100 mV and 50 Hz. I want to design a circuit that converts this sine wave into a square wave as shown in a figure.
226 views

### TENS spike smoothing when using a relay

I'm currently messing around with a TENS unit and would like to block/unblock the signal from reaching the muscle (Alterations to the TENS unit circuitry aren't possible). The unit uses a 2 mm jack ...
517 views

### 0-12V square wave to -6 +6 sine

We're working on a car where we've replaced most of the electrical system. We've also replaced the transmission, and the new gear box doesn't have a speed sensor that we can use for the instrument. ...
257 views

### How do I calculate the voltage across a capacitor when the source is a square wave?

I have a series RC circuit with R= 2.2K Ohm and C=100 nF, and the voltage supply is a 2.5V peak square wave. And I'm not sure how to calculate the voltage across the capacitor.
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### How to make a piezo speaker louder with 5V?

I have connected a tiny piezo pc speaker (https://sktechworks.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Speaker.jpg) to an arduino and used to tone command to play a simple melody in repeat (square wave only ...
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### How can I turn off automatically, say after a fixed number of cycles, a 555 in astable mode?

I looked at the answer to "How to turn a 555 in astable mode into a decaying square wave" but this is really for an input to a speaker. I want the input to go into a counter to count the number of ...
1 vote
380 views

### Stepper driver sine wave

I have a TB6660 Stepper driver and I gave pulse from an Arduino board. According to the TB6660 datasheet, drier should out a sine wave that created by using give square wave from Arduino. But, when I ...
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### Why does this "square wave" have what seems to be a charging action on it's leading edge?

I'm trying to produce a basic square wave output across a resistor from an ATMega328P Xplained mini. VCC is 5 V. Setup: Code: (Stuff with DDC/PORTB is just to control the onboard LED) ...
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### Why does the op amp output in this circuit have low slew rate?

I have the following circuit on a bread board (with the exception of using AD820 instead of AD822 - the main difference based on the datasheets seemed to be one versus two op amps in one package). ...
3k views

### Square wave autocorrelation integral

Given the following square wave signal g(t) : I'm trying to find the $R(\tau)$ of this signal, but I'm confused about how to solve the integral. In the signal above, the red square wave is the ...
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### Why can we hear the full range of square waves from 1 Hz-20 kHz, but not sine waves of the same frequencies?

I connected the output (50Ω) of a function generator to a 35 watt 5Ω speaker. When I sent square wave signals of 1 Hz-20 kHz to the speaker, my friends and I were able to hear them. But ...
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### Create a blinking LED circuit with a z-diode and a capacitor

I was searching for the most simple LED flashing circuit. On a webpage (http://cappels.org/dproj/simplest_LED_flasher/Simplest_LED_Flasher_Circuit.html) I found the following circuit with a transistor ...
1 vote
74 views

### Variable frequency of an astable

I have to make the frequency variable of an square waveform generator built with the help of an astable. I modified a circuit a found on the internet and everything seems good with only one exception: ...
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### Gibbs phenonemon in real life

If I feed a square wave into a first order, passive, low-pass filter (resistor and capacitor), I get the following results on an oscilloscope (sorry, I don't know how to scale and rotate images): Why ...
10k views

### How to check (with DIY methods) if an Inverter returns a Square or a Sine Wave?

I do not have an Oscilloscope, but I want to check if my 12V DC to 230V AC inverter does produce a sine or a square wave. Any way to verify that? I know how a sine wave and a square wave sound, so ...
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### How to change duty cycle in square wave

I'm using AD9833 to generate sine, triangle and square wave. Square from IC has 0,65V amptlitude and 50% duty cycle. I would like in simple way change duty cycle this square signal from 0-100%. Using ...
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### Can I detect the absence of square wave?

Can I build a circuit to set the output high if there is a square wave at the input and set it low when missing the square wave (the input become low)? Edit: The signal is 2 kHz, +5/0 V. It's not ...
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2k views

### how to find impedance of inductance with square wave input

I know the impedance of the inductance is: 'jwl'; but this is correct with sinusoidal input; now my question is: how to calculate the impedance when the input is the periodic square wave(like a ...
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### What's the simplest high voltage AC square wave oscillator?

I'd like to have such an AC square wave oscillator putting AC through a load - which can go to 60 VDC and deliver no more than 50 mA with sharp, fast rise times and very "square". I would hope a ...
655 views

### How generate a square wave from a DC voltage to power on LCD crystals?

I got a small LCD and I would like to power it to show the LCD crystals turning to black. I would like to show at which voltage the LCD crystals start to turn black. I did some research about LCD ...
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### Making a square wave which has two different kinds of pulse width

I am going to make a square wave which has two different kinds of pulse width.At first,i think i can use the digital logic gate to finish it,however,after taking lots of time for trying,i still can't ...
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### How to set up signal generator in lab to obtain an output voltage?

In one of my laboratory assignments, I am to study how to work with square signals in RC circuits (low pass filter). Please keep in mind this is an introductory Electronics course. Basically, I am ...
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### galvanic isolation for lm555

Hi guys I am trying to implement galvanic isolation for my lm555 square wave generator. I am designing a marx generator so this is essential. I am new with transformers, at the moment all I want to ...
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### EAGLE Square hole

I want to make a square hole in the middle of my PCB, but when I choose to make a drill or hole is only a circle! Isn't there a option or a ULP file that allow me to do a square hole? I can't find ...
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### Sine to Square only with a MCU

I know several topics already talks about this but I didn't find my answer yet. Is it possible to convert a sine wave to a square wave only with a MCU ? Both wave are only a matter of changing ...
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### I need a circuit able to calculate Vmax-Vmin of a squarewave

As already written in the title, I need to evaluate the voltage excursion of a certain signal. Vmax and Vmin could be both positive and negative (therefore two peak detection circuits cannot be used, ...
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### The logic schematic which can change the duty cycle of input

Is there a logic schematic can change the duty cycle of input ? I mean if input is a square wave with duty cycle is equal to 50%,and the output is also a square wave but its duty cycle become lower or ...
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### How can I multiply square wave circuits?

I would like to generate a signal that consists of a 1 kHz signal, which switches to a 100 kHz signal, flipping from one to the other at a rate of 10-100 Hz. I have access to signal generators to ...
118 views

### Square Wave (w / Pulse Missing) Generation

this is probably a simple one for anyone with some electronics design experience (which I do not have). Can anyone tell me how to build a simple circuit which generates a square wave but has every nth ...
367 views

### A question about interpreting and reducing high frequency noise in a low level square wave

As a part of a circuit the output section of the circuit is as follows(C1 is actually 10u): The input is a 1kHz 0V…5V pulse train coming from the output of a 74HC74, and the output is a square wave ...
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