# Questions tagged [square]

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values. The square wave is a special case of a pulse wave which allows arbitrary durations at minimum and maximum. The ratio of the high period to the total period of a pulse wave is called the duty cycle. A true square wave has a 50% duty cycle (equal high and low periods).

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### Problems with a passive network setup used with a microcontroller

Here is the circuit in my mind before I ask my question: The microcontroller outputs 0..5v pulse train at 3kHz. First of all, the setup between the points A and X needs to be fed by a 3kHz ...
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1 vote
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### Active filter and sine to square conversion issues

Background: I am currently using a SparkFun Electret Microphone and I need to both filter and amplify the signal before turning it into a square wave to be interpreted by an FPGA. The mic itself has a ...
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569 views

### Square Wave with Overshoot

I'm generating an AC square wave output waveform with the 555 timer circuit below. However, I'm getting these obvious overshoots. Can anyone help me? R1 is 8.2K ohm R2 is 68k ohm C1 is 0.1uF 1 vote
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### Phase shift square wave

Is it possible to shift the phase of a square wave (which is generated by an Arduino) with passive components? I have a 0 to 12V square wave that I would like to split into several phases. The idea is ...
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### Amplify Square Wave with Simple Mofset Circuit

I am a hobbyist. I have a square wave being generated by a 5 volt Arduino. (I tried a 555 circuit but I couldn't get it at an exact square wave.) The Arduino square wave runs from about 2 or 3 volts ...
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### LCR circuit with squarewave input: Why does the output take a decreasing amplitude through each cycle?

I understand a square-wave will be made up of a sum of sine waves in the form $$\frac{1}{n}sin(nf_0)$$ So when a squarewave is input to a LCR circut designed to be a bandpass filter, it will ...
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### maximun number of inputs on a opamp adder circuit

With 4 timers of a mcu I am generating 4 square signals , each of them have an amplitud of 3.3v and are generated at diferent frequencies (8KHz 9KHz 10KHz and 11KHz), to generate a multitone signal I ...
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841 views

### Feed a speaker only with positive voltages

I am using the timer of a microcontroller to create square wave signals from 10KHz to 40KHz, but my microcontroller generates the signal only with positive values (0 - 3.3V). I have generated the same ...
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1 vote
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### Slowly ramp up the PWM duty cycle with a 555

I have a PWM signal being generated by a 555 timer and that is fed into a ESC for an electric skateboard. My problem is that the PWM signal duty cycle can go from 5% to 95% in a fraction of a second. ...
991 views

### How to shift down a square wave at 0 - 5 V?

I have a square wave that oscillates at 500 Hz from 12 to 14 V. I would like it to oscillate at the same frequency from 0 to 5 V, so I could use to trigger i.e. a switch. Is there any circuit to do ...
4k views

### Confusions on FFT of a square-wave in theory and in scope and simulation

Below is an ideal square-wave in time domain, and its harmonic components in freq. domain: As you see above a square-wave is composed only of its odd harmonics as spikes nothing in between. And ...
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### Rounding a Square Wave [duplicate]

I am using a 555 IC to produce a sound in a small 8 ohm speaker. It works just fine, but the square wave sounds rather harsh. I am wondering if there is a simple way to round out the corners to make ...
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### Why sine wave not square wave?

Rectifying square wave voltage seems to give us DC directly without the need of a capacitor. so, why do we prefer sine wave over it? What would change if I powered any adapter (laptop adapter as ...
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### Why do musical tesla coils sound more like square waves?

When people modulate their tesla coils to play music, it sounds like a very sharp square wave, as opposed to the electrical signal, a (roughly) sine wave. Why doesn't the tesla coil sound like a sine ... 180 views

### I need to add two signals having different frequencies [closed]

For my work I need to add OUTPUT from a PWM controlled Mosfet, with the current passing through the motor. I looking for some circuit to do this operation, I don't know how to proceed. Can you guys ...
6k views

### How do you shift a square wave down?

I have a square wave the oscilates at 25khz from 0 to 30v. I would like it to oscillate from -15v to +15v. Is there a SUPER DUPER SIMPLE circuit to do this? Keep in mind it's going up and down at ...
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### Measuring the L/R ratio of an LR circuit

I have the circuit below (fig.1) that I found in a board of an old machine. The input signal is a square wave with 10 Hz frequency and 10 V amplitude. I measured the waveform on the primary side of ...
378 views

### High-current capable (±250A) AC power-supply, sine wave/square wave (±20V)

I hope you will find patience to read my beginner question. I need to do some test on a diode using a simple setup: AC power supply + load + diode. The problem is that I must generate a sinusoidal or ...
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### Peculiar noise when observing a square wave

I'm using the following function generator: http://www.farnell.com/datasheets/499058.pdf?_ga=1.129729036.1263433037.1467971694 and a Tektronix TDS 1002B scope for some measurments. Most of the time I ...
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### How to amplify a 25khz square wave that goes from -3.3v to +3.3v so that the amplitude is doubled

I have a 3.3v power supply (lithium ion battery) and am using a TI MPS430G2553 chip to generate a 25khz square wave using 2 PWM pins and a push-pull setup. This square wave goes from -3.3v to +3.3v. ...
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1 vote
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### Square wave filtering with d-flip flop

I have a square wave (1st line), I want to skip every odd impulse, and output every even one without change, as shown in the second line. Is this different from frequency division? What is the proper ...
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### Anyway to avoid the startup delay on square wave generator (e.g. 555 astable) circuit?

In the classic 555 astable circuit the external capacitor charges to 2/3 of the Vcc (through R1 and R2) and then is discharged to 1/3 of Vcc (through R2) and then it continues to oscillate between 1/3 ...
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### Peak and RMS voltage for a sine wave

I only need help with part C). What I've done for part B) is square the wave, which makes Vpeak->V^2peak and the waveform in the negative region(under the period axis) become positive AND squared(like ...
1 vote
818 views

### Square wave at line frequency. How does it work?

I found the following circuit next to a switching power supply in an electrophysiology amplifier (AXOPATCH 200A, an instrument for a technique called "patch clamp"). References to power outlet: L: ...
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18k views

### What is the best way to get a sine wave from a square wave?

I have square waves of different frequencies (1KHz to 20KHz), and I need to convert them to a sine wave of the corresponding fundamental frequency. A RC ladder Low-pass filter was the first thing ...
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1 vote
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### Relation between frequency and inductor current

I have a question regarding frequency and inductance. What is the relation between frequency of an applied voltage that is square wave, over an inductor, and the average current that would flow ...
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### Variable Resistance

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab This is a pulse generator, outputting square pulses with about 8% duty cycle. Tuning R2 down to 120k will result in the same high time,...
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### Bipolar Square Wave Generator

The design requirement is to generate a +/-12V square wave from a 0-3.3V square wave at 1kHz. Here is what I came up with: PILOT_CTL is the 0-3.3V square wave and the end of R6 should be the +/-12V ...
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### creating a bcd squarer using verilog

Basically, I am using a lookup table to output in bcd the square of a single digit bcd. The problem that I have is that it is not outputting the correct answer. For example: the result I get for the ...
4k views

### Fourier transform of a rectangular pulse

I'm interested in knowing: 1. Why the frequency content has a larger magnitude at low frequencies 2. Why the magnitude is zero at frequencies which are composed of multiples of the rectangular ...
523 views

### Crosstalk Question

Could somebody explain me how could I predict the crosstalk between tracks.From what I know about this are two types of crosstalk: inductive and capacitive.Inductive from what I read is the worst.For ...
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### Convert PWM to 3-level voltage

I want to convert a generated PWM by a microcontroller to a 3-level voltage. [] the maximum output voltage range is between -5 to 5 or -10 to 10 volts. Another point that may well be considered is ...
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### Square generator 1KHz to 1MHz with 1KHz precision

I would like to make a square wave generator which will output a signal with amplitude X voltages and frequency between 1KHz to 1MHz, with the precision of 1KHz (for example: 785kHz, 926kHz, 999kHz, ...
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### How do you convert a changing input (square wave) into a single high signal?

I am designing a circuit which will output a square waveform for a specific duration of time (t) but I need to be able to read the square waveform using a processor so would like to turn the changing ...
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