Questions tagged [standard]

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11 views

How to do the Leakage Current Test according to ULC S531 standard?

How to do the Leakage Current Test according to ULC S531 standard? I have a DC powered device which is about 24V. And I am curious about the Leakage Current Test according to the ULC S531 standard. ...
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1answer
48 views

Misra C or other code standard compliance in TI CCS

If I need to do Static Code analysis of my code or check for Misra C compliance for my code in TI's CCS for MCU RM57 then how can I do that? I can see 'Code Analysis' in the project preferences but I ...
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1answer
36 views

Do enclosed switching power supplies follow any standard for their chassis size and mounting hole distances?

Do enclosed switching power supplies follow any standard for their chassis size and mounting holes distances? or each manufacturer has its own conventions?
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1answer
31 views

ATEX: PCB design for intrinsically safe, output capacitor

We're looking into restricted breathing or encapsulation concept because PCB has a complex circuit that makes it impossible to achieve SMD clearance under 'ic' or increased safety concept. I have a ...
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2answers
155 views

What is the origin of the standard 0.1 inch pin pitch?

I'm curious which company started using the standard 0.1 in (2.54 mm) pin pitch for components. This is surprisingly difficult to Google. I see 1956 and Cicoil Corporation when it comes to ribbon ...
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1answer
49 views

Where to measure ambient temperature limit inside of an enclosre?

In a project, we are to place several components inside of an enclosure. Some of these components are to be considered safety critical, and their specified operating conditions must not be exceeded. ...
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2answers
83 views

DDR Interface Protocol

I have seen and worked with interfaces like SPI and I2C. However, when I started to learn about DDR interface/communication protocol, I want to understand like how many lines, what are the important ...
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1answer
40 views

Standard Meaning/Purpose of Exposed Areas on a PCB?

I noticed that on some circuits, there will be dots or rings of exposed circuit material. Take for instance the back plate of a Nest thermostat: https://d3nevzfk7ii3be.cloudfront.net/igi/...
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2answers
66 views

4 Channel NOT and AND Gate Symbols

I am designing an ALU for my computer architecture class. The rubric states that we need to simplify each logical part to make it as clear as possible. My group condensed the 4 NOT gates and 4 AND ...
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2answers
304 views

What (if anything) are the standards for “generic” part numbers?

If I buy an MMBT4401 from Diodes, Inc., I get a 40V, 0.6A NPN transistor in a SOT-23 package. If I buy an MMBT4401 from ON semiconductor, I get a 40V, 0.6A NPN transistor in a SOT-23 package. If I buy ...
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1answer
103 views

How do I Avoid Very Long Horizontal Signal Path “Snakes” in a Schematic?

I'm drawing a schematic for my DIY project, a RF mixer, it has a local oscillator followed by a bandpass filter, a voltage divider, eventually the signal is fed into a mixer. Unfortunately, even ...
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3answers
96 views

0-10V on RJ45 jack - bad practice?

I'm developing a control unit for ventilation systems. Beside switching those fans with a relay they are often controlled with a 0-10V analog signal. Now I found a product that uses a RJ45-plug to ...
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3answers
66 views

Electrical Standards - Earth Wire at Low Voltages?

I got a question about safety standards: I'm designing a consumer device and I'm not sure whether I need an earth wire. I have an AC-DC converter plug that outputs 5 V and up-to a maximum of 1 A ...
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0answers
90 views

How to know what is the safety standard to apply to a PCB design?

I want to design a PCB with some points at some KV during certain times, less than 10KV and no more than 30mA of current. After dealing with concepts and getting the main idea about my circuit needs, ...
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2answers
77 views

What general purpose connectors are used for GPIO data? [closed]

Let's say I have a chassis housing a raspberry pi. I have a second chassis with some neopixels. I want to connect these two chassis with two panel mount connectors and a cable. The cable would be ...
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0answers
64 views

Standards for colour of conductors of pre-assembled cables

We are designing a product for industrial energy storage systems. Multiple units are connected with pre-fabricated cable assemblies of 2-4 separate leads that are terminated in connectors unique to ...
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2answers
52 views

Should a D Flip Flop store its input on clock rise?

I've seen conflicting descriptions and conflicting implementations of D Flip Flops, when it comes to how the Flip Flop behaves when its input value changes at the same time the clock rises. ...
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0answers
9 views

How is n_pucch_2 in rrc layer computed

In LTE network I know that n_pucch_2 is used to indicate the resource index for pucch format 2/2a/2b. And I know its value is defined in higher layer. But how is the value computed and defined in the ...
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1answer
115 views

How can be creepage between two conductor points be determined for HV pcb design?

I have read about spacing at HV design and it seems to say that there are two main standards to be followed: IPC or UL (IEC). IPC is a generic and commonly used. But UL is the best option for designs ...
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2answers
39 views

Adjacent Signal Selectivity: Section 6.1 of ETSI EN 303 372-2 (RED testing). Bad procedure/standard?

I'm doing pre-certification testing to ETSI EN 303 372-2 V1.1.1 (2016-04), specifically the Adjacent Signal Selectivity test in Section 6.1. I am a Systems engineer with lots of experience designing ...
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2answers
451 views

Phasing Order in IEC Color Codes

Currently, IEC 60445 international standard is used for conductor terminal color identifications. I've obtained different versions of the standard (2017 being the latest) and also IEC 60446, which was ...
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49 views

What is the difference between ISO/IEC standards and NFC Forum Type specifications?

As far as I understand, NFC Forum Type specifications are based on existing ISO/IEC standards so there is no theoretical difference there. NFC Forum Type specifications however go one step further and ...
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0answers
69 views

How do you plan and check if a device will be compatible with every other device it will encounter in the field?

Hello I have a question that hopefully I can clearly state my question well enough. I work in television broadcasting and simply take off the shelf converters that take various signals and convert ...
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67 views

Does anyone know the UL standard related to resistors and isolation on AC mains?

I have a circuit that is attempting to measure AC line voltage 120-240V but I was told by the certification test lab that my voltage divider resistors would require an expensive 3 week soak test. The ...
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2answers
206 views

Is RoHS and EMC compliance enough for a 24V industrial sensor to carry CE Mark?

My company is planning to produce a fork sensor (example). Before starting design, I looked up EU Directives to find if there are any electrical requirements for product safety. First stop was Low ...
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1answer
97 views

Design Item ID standardization

I am wondering whether there is a solid standard on how to give components an unique identifier. In Altium it is called a Design Item ID, and in our company we used it as a unique identifier on the ...
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1answer
562 views

Are connectors and pin outs standardised by the MIPI alliance? [Also can anyone name this connector]

Does the MIPI alliance standardise or are there at least any conventions for connectors and pin outs between devices that use there protocol specifications? The device I am interested in (Microsoft ...
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1answer
50 views

Standards for conducted EMI testing

I have some doubts to interpret the CISPR standards, one of them is in relation to the test environment for EMI conducted (150kHz up to 30MHz). The minimum size indicated for the vertical or ...
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1answer
109 views

Why do commercial components have a temperature range of -40 to 85c?

Why not -50 to 90? How was the temperature range of -40 to 85c chosen to become the industrial standard? (Some products may have a different operating temperature range, but for the majority, the ...
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1answer
61 views

How to determine which harmonized standards are relevant to achieve CE conformity declaration

We are aiming to develop our first product to achieve a CE marking. So far i understand that there are a few directives like Low Voltage Directive (LVD), ROHS, EMC, etc, which can be implemented by ...
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41 views

Electrical safety measures in LED bulbs for the European market

Which electric safety measures are required to introduce LED bulbs on the European market? Which electric measures prevent that the plastic LED bulbs will melt down or ignite at the end of life? I ...
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2answers
662 views

‘One for all’ standardized land pattern v.s. specified land pattern in datasheet

I’ve designed lot of ‘simple’ PCBs for hobby and proof-of-concept purposes, but never for (mass)manufacturing. In order to do so in the future, and further expanding my design skills and knowledge, I’...
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32 views

Thread pitch on locking 1/8" audio connectors?

I feel silly that I can't find this on Google... what is the thread size on locking 1/8" audio connectors like these? There seems to be a de-facto standard, but I can't find any numbers and it's hard ...
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0answers
65 views

Interoperability between regular and single-wire CAN bus

Is it possible to connect a regular CAN transceiver (ISO 11898-1) to a single-wire CAN bus (SAE J2411) in a compatible way? By "compatible" I mean that the whole system should support valid J2411 bus ...
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2answers
111 views

PS/2 mouse / keyboard interface info and classification

My hardware interfaces teacher in the university gave a task to find info about PS/2 interface and fit it into a classification by answering a list of questions. Here's what I've found: Which type ...
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1answer
49 views

IEC 61952 Clause 11.1 Electrical Type Test

Where can I find the acceptance criteria for the Electrical Type Tests? Specifically, where is the Dry lightning impulse withstand voltage test and the Wet power-frequency test in the IEC 61952 Ed 2.0 ...
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1answer
118 views

Light source that withstands extreme conditions [closed]

I am designing an aircraft obstruction light, and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires crazy requirements for their standards. One standard goes as following (From FAA AC 150/5345-43H): 4....
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4answers
300 views

Is the USB B connector still standard?

Nowadays, There are several kinds of USB connectors for USB connection. A type B type micro-B mini-B USB C Etc. The connector sizes are gradually smaller than before. It is a big advantage because ...
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1answer
2k views

Official GPS protocol documentation?

Searching for "GPS protocol" reveals many sources for processed GPS data, e.g. NMEA or binary outputs of GPS units. Where is the official documentation for the GPS satellite - receiver protocol? Or ...
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0answers
80 views

Is there any standard (or even a de-facto standard) for TRRS to USB? [duplicate]

I've had a few MP3 players that used a single 3.5mm TRRS jack for both connection to earphones and for connection to a USB port (for transferring music files and re-charging the player.) To that end, ...
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3answers
730 views

Standard ways to make a variable low pass filter

I tried out a basic low pass filter on one of my analog synthesizers: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab and this seems to work. I was wondering how I can create a ...
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1answer
164 views

EN 50121-3-2:2016 radiated immunity frequency range gap

I was just reading EN 50121-3-2 (Railway Applications – Electromagnetic compatibility – Part 3-2: Rolling stock – Apparatus) and noticed in Table 5 that there is a gap in the test frequency between 2....
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1answer
262 views

Are Ethernet (copper 10/100/1000) compliance tests mandatory?

The IEEE 802.3, for Gigabit Ethernet, and supposedly the ANSI INCITS 263*, for the Regular and Fast Ethernet, have lists of signal quality requirements, which are generally tested using the so-called ...
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1answer
99 views

Transfering configuration to IEDs using IEC 61850

Sorry if this is a dumb question, but since I don't have much experience with IEC 61850 compliant devices, I am having trouble creating the "big picture" of how the whole system is being configured in ...
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1answer
59 views

Tail biting Convolution Encoder

I understand how encoder and decoder works but what are theses values ??
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1answer
140 views

Why do many resistor kits deviate from E6/E12?

I noticed that the resistor kits I've seen appear to be based on E6 or E12, but they skip certain values in favor of near neighbors. For instance, the 1000 decade of my kit contains: 1k, 1.2k, 2k, 3....
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2answers
141 views

Red for hot, blue for cold - or vice versa?

Just wondering if there is any standard way of using LED colors to represent temperature. I have a board connected to a Peltier. When the active side (not heat sink side) is heating, I turn on a red ...
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1answer
99 views

Power over coax standard

We are specifying a system to use power over coaxial cable, that will transmit SDI video. Is there any standard (IEEE or otherwise) for implementing it?
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2answers
218 views

UL/IEC-60950 Standard Question

One of the requirements I need for a device is to meet the UL/IEC-60950 standard. On the companies website I am looking at it mentions that "products are assembled and tested in company’s own ISO9001:...
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3answers
157 views

Why does my router have a power on/off switch? [closed]

I have to develop a consumer product for home automation. We initially wrote a requirement to have a on/off switch, but after a second thought we realized that hard-reset can be done by simply ...