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Questions tagged [theory]

Theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context

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283 views

Modelling transistor V_be and bulk resistance

I'd like to calculate algebraically the DC behaviour of various bipolar transistor circuits that used matched pairs or quads (exponential converters, current mirrors etc.), taking into account the ...
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1answer
3k views

MATLAB error: “acker” function not returning the same thing as ackermann's formula

I have a discrete time system Suppose I have the following AB matrix of my system $$A = \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 1.5 \\ \end{bmatrix} $$ $$B = \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \\ \end{...
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2answers
292 views

Should Kirchhoff's Law be changed to account for information removal? [closed]

If I have a simple DC circuit consisting only of an LED output, how does Kirchhoff recognize the fact that information has left the loop? Since, in accordance with relativity(?), you can't have ...
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2answers
57 views

What is the main carrier in a semiconductor with n-type material being electrons and p-type materials being holes?

Not even gonna lie this is for a crossword. it is a 15 letter word. I have searched online, in my textbooks and I cannot figure out what it is. Closest I've found is Extrinsic Semiconductor but it's ...
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2answers
666 views

Does electricity always flow in a closed loop and why does current flow to ground?

I have been taught that current flows in a closed loop back to the source. And with electrical distribution, current flows to ground because the whole grid is effectively grounded back to the source. ...
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7answers
60k views

When people talk about a device “drawing” current, what do they mean? Why do devices under load “draw” more current?

In my (extremely rudimentary) understanding, the amount of current flowing in a circuit is determined by a) its resistance, and b) the voltage of the power source (voltage from beginning to end), ...
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0answers
45 views

What are (if there are any) the major applications/implications of relativistic electrodynamics in engineering? [closed]

I was wondering about the relativistic and covariant formulation of classical E&M and Maxwell's Equations. Does they have any major implication in engineering (not exclusively talking about ...
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4answers
335 views

Why earth ground connection does not leak current?

This seems like a question which has been asked multiple times on forums. I researched the problem but I still was unable to figure out the answer which I can at least intuitively understand. So in ...
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0answers
70 views

Connecting capacitor to the ground and potentials question

I am a newbie trying to enter the world of electronics and currently struggling with getting a good grasp of basic concepts of electricity. I understand that electrons which usually produce the ...
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2answers
790 views

How to calculate value of R2 in this circuit?

I'm reading a Floyd electronics book and working through some problems. This one has me stumped however. I already know the answer as it's given in the book (110k). However, I don't know how to ...
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1answer
283 views

What is behavior of this virtual ground circuit when sourcing/sinking current?

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab This is the virtual ground circuit from a battery-powered headphone amplifier(direct link to schematic PDF). What is the behavior of ...
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2answers
92 views

Calculating Thevenin Resistance

I am having difficulty calculating the Thevenin resistance of this circuit I know I need to replace the batteries with links but then I am confused about how to approach R1,2 & 3 in terms of ...
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4answers
1k views

How Does FM Get Around the Gabor Limit?

The Gabor Limit states that it's impossible to simultaneously localize a signal in both frequency and time. FM communication modulates the instantaneous frequency of the carrier in step with changes ...
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1answer
124 views

Simplifying capacitor input network

For a design I am working with a capacitive feedback network. I can't show you the actual network, but I intend this to be a more general question as it should be applicable to any input network. ...
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3answers
73 views

Theory: Creating “LPS” transmitter for GPS receivers

As I understand it, GPS works by having transmitters with known locations send a timestamp, and calculating the time it took to receive it, so that you can triangulate your own position, (essentially ...
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1answer
112 views

Flow of current, isn't make potential difference?

I've learn some electronic knowledge at school and so confused by some questions. Q1. IS it possible a flow of electricity without an electric field? Q2. I've learn that moving of particle with ...
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1answer
324 views

Must the characteristic impedance of a transmission line be non-real for it to be lossy?

In Does conductance in the transmission line model represent a physical quantity? it came up that a non-real characteristic impedance just means the line has some loss. With real transmission lines ...
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2answers
410 views

BJT Voltage Divider Bias Circuit Theoretical/Ideal Model Help ..LTSPICE?

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I've been trying to study BJT Voltage Divider Bias Circuits. In particular, as they relate to their active region, amplification, and ...
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2answers
91 views

How can I calbrate my power meter?

I used to work for a company that made power meters but only worked on the desktop application (user interface) side of things and never really learned completely how some processes occur, like the ...
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2answers
148 views

“Current is pulled not pushed” they say. Doesn't the transistor working the other way around? [closed]

The emitter current is defined by hfe and the base current not the load. The load does not "define" Iemitter.
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1answer
437 views

How does a cascode or beta-enhanced voltage amplification stage work?

I'm studying electrical engineering and we just finished a project where we had to build a power amplifier. But I think I can do better than what we did. I read Distortion In Power Amplifiers where ...
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1answer
95 views

Flow of electricity. Need explanation [closed]

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab People are taught how to calculate this very simple thing, and the calculation goes from source plus to minus, and the diode is there ...
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5answers
4k views

Is there a formula to determine the size of decoupling capacitors? [duplicate]

I have used many decoupling capacitors in circuits and have seen them in many textbooks, but they never give an explanation about why they picked a certain size of capacitor. Everyone seems to have a ...
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1answer
276 views

Theoretical: Would it be possible to have a worldwide AC standard at 55hz

The question comes from a discussion I had years ago with a keyboard player who had perfect pitch. His problem came from the fact that he lived in a very small appartment in an old building and he ...
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0answers
174 views

Cgs,Cgd capacitor in Mosfet/ problem with measurement unit

I am a little confused with this problem. I would like to ask if I have a Mosfet(in saturation)and I have find that Cgs=16fF and Coverlap = 0.5fF/um(this is given in the description of the exercise), ...
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0answers
728 views

Overdrive voltage and Early effect in MOSFET

Can anyone explain to me if there is the Early effect in MOS transistor then the Early effect affects the expression for VOV which is \$VOV=\sqrt{\frac{2ID}{kn'(W/L)}}\$?
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1answer
88 views

How to Convert between dB Voltage and Power

We read that the formula for expressing microvolts in decibels is different from that for milliwatts by a factor of 2: \$U = 20\log_{10}{\frac{u}{u_0}}\$ \$P = 10\log_{10}{\frac{p}{p_0}}\$ (Note ...
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1answer
245 views

Why is the gradient of Energy vs. wavenumber(k) zero at the edge of Brillouin zones?

My question relates to semiconductor physics. The relationship between energy E and wavenumber k for the Kronig-Penny model looks like this, where a is the period of the potential function: I am ...
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2answers
1k views

Why are dependent sources not disabled with the superposition principle?

I've been wondering this recently. My intuition says that a voltage drop across a dependent source is no different than any other circuit element whose response depends on the inputs of one of the ...
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4answers
19k views

Theory question about “j” imaginary unit (AC circuit analysis)

I have just started to learn about AC network analysis and have some questions about "j" (or "i" on my calculator), the imaginary unit. My book doesn't go into a great deal about this, and jumps ...
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1answer
110 views

How much energy could we harvest from a 0.1V source (gedankenexperiment) [closed]

For the sake of a thought experiment, suppose two 10-metre balls appear magically somewhere on land. In the middle of the Sahara desert for example. The balls are the terminals of a perfect voltage ...
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1answer
101 views

What hypothesis are needed to support the following argument on a three phase system?

Given the following three-phase system: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab Suppose to set 2 wattmeters as follows: \$P_{21}\$ which measures current \$I_2\$ and ...
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6answers
3k views

Electricity through water can injure a person?

I have maybe a simple question.I would like to know if current can travel through water and can injure a person. For example as shown below(A little funny picture!!!) a man watering his grass and his ...
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2answers
1k views

The History of conventional current

I would like to ask why the first scientists choose the current flow from high voltage(High potential) to low voltage(Low potential) which we know that it's wrong.I had heard and read that they take a ...
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2answers
238 views

Explaining capacitance formula of electrolytic capacitor

As stated in this article at page 5, capacitance of a capacitor is generally expressed with the following formula: My question is about surface area S, where it is ...
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4answers
7k views

How does a domestic appliance “know” how much current to draw?

I have a small wall plug which takes 240V 50Hz AC from the mains, and can give me 500mA 5V DC. I suspect there is a transformer stepping the voltage down and a bridge rectifier converting the AC to DC....
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0answers
321 views

Conduction angle in three-phase rectifier

In a standard three-phase bridge rectifier, which consists of 6 diodes, each diode (or thyristor) conducts 120º of the full 360º period. I have built a synchronous rectifier (for research purposes), ...
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3answers
16k views

What does E mean in this instance?

On all about circuits I keep seeing E in tables like this: In the table I and R make sense with the units. But the E doesn't. So where does it come from? I was looking at this article on ...
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3answers
151 views

neutralize charge in series capacitors

I have a simple circuit as in the picture below. My question is why the negative charge -Q at the bottom plate of C1 moves and neutralizes with the positive charge +Q at the top plate of C2?
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1answer
2k views

How serial resistors actually reduce EMI?

I am recently working with a GSM based system, and there was this advice in the datasheet of the GSM module: 22 Ω resistors should be connected in series between the module and the SIM card ...
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1answer
36 views

What determines current through a VS in parallel with a resistor?

This is more of a conceptual question with ideal voltage sources, I am fully aware of its impracticality, but bear with me for the sake of a theoretical discussion. Consider a simple circuit shown ...
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2answers
170 views

Find a stabilizing controller for a transfer function

I need to find a controller C(s) that can stabilize a system G(s) with the following transfer function: G(s) = \$s^2/(s^2-1)\$ Any tips?
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1answer
424 views

What is “formal verification” of hardware?

I read that testing and verification are different but in what way? I read that somebody writes theory to prove that the hardware is "correct" but how is that done? I tried reading Wikipedia and ...
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1answer
227 views

How is an inductor a lumped element?

While learning the Lumped Circuit Abstraction (and the Lumped elements discipline), an inductor was considered a lumped element. But I fail to see how it fits the requirements of LCA: For it, the \$\...
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3answers
58 views

Where does the formula for Voltage in AC with inductance come from?

This is what the textbook says: I don't understand why does ωLIm equal Vm so if someone knows please explain it to me Thanks
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1answer
798 views

Calculation and measurement of input and output impedances of a Class-D amplifier

How would I calculate, from datasheet information or elsewhere, the input and output impedances of a Class D power amplifier, in general or for say a chip like the LM4670 or the TPA2000D1? {Note that ...
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11answers
3k views

Is there a dual of the transformer?

Capacitors and inductors are duals of each other. A transformer is made of two inductors, and transfers power through mutual inductance, through the magnetic near-field (right?) Also, you can vary ...
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3answers
4k views

AC Voltage source terminal polarity and grounding

Ill try to make it as clear as possible. This may seem like a simple question, but it is something that I havent quite figured out. It has to do with polarity on the leads of an AC source. Every book ...
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2answers
975 views

Proving RC and RL circuits as integrator and differentiator using differential equations [closed]

I need to use first degree ordinary differantial equations to prove (solve) the Differentiator and Integrator Circuits of RL and RC (for example if RL is differeantiator or integaror or both i need to ...
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2answers
245 views

Is the Nyquist plot a plot of Re(G(s)) v.s. Im(G(s) or Re(G(jω)) v.s. Im(G(jω))

It seems that people in control theory are divided over whether the Nyquist Plot/Diagram (that is the plot, not the contour!) is a plot of $$\text{Re}(G(s)) \text { v.s. } \text{Im}(G(s))$$ or $$\text{...