Questions tagged [trace]

Lanes of copper on a printed circuit board, for carrying current or signals between pads

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Is voltage important for calculating PCB trace width? If not, why?

As per the IPC 2221A the formula for calculating PCB trace width follow the process given below; First, the area is calculated: Area[mils²] = (Current[Amps]/(k*(Temp_Rise[°C])b))^(1/c) Then, the width ...
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Instrumentation Tools for Collecting Data in DRAM accesses

We can use instrumentation tools, such as Pin tool, to collect memory accesses of an application running on a system. The type (read or write) and memory address can be collected. How about data? Can ...
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FR4, 1 oz. copper, PCB trace width for 48V/8A, pulsed (8 ms pulse length, up to 20Hz)?

I would like to determine suitable trace width for the pulses shown. Other details: The application is to pulse a solenoid; board size is 100mm x 100mm. An LM317 charges a 1000uF cap and the cap is ...
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1 answer
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Why is this recommended in PCB layout: 2 leads between pads

Why is the connection recommended as in the top picture?
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Power Circuit for TB9051FTG Trace Width

I am working on a PCB with a Toshiba motor driver chip, TB9051FTG. https://www.digikey.com/en/products/detail/toshiba-semiconductor-and-storage/TB9051FTG-EL/10123940 The datasheet mentions the ...
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2 answers
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Making a high current PCB (power PCB)

I want to make a power PCB with 1 oz copper thickness. The problem is that I want this PCB to stand up to 50 A and I don't know what to do to keep the traces a reasonable width. Using the KiCad PCB ...
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1 oz PCB printing for high current power mosfet

I have a power mosfet (STP55NF06FP) used as a low-side switch to cut-off a current of 40 A. Using pcb calculator, I estimated that the trace width is too large (50mm) and as a result I can't connect ...
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3 votes
3 answers
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Position of voltage divider relative to measured voltage and analog input

I am designing a PCB that includes a resistor voltage divider to measure the output voltage of a regulator. I am aware, that position of some components on the PCB may affect the performance and ...
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Can I use vias and long trace between processor and 24MHz crystal?

I have a situation where I can't put crystal (24MHz) close to the processor pin. As you see on the layout the trace between crystal Y1 and processor pins 46 and 47 is about 13mm and there are two vias ...
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16 votes
5 answers
3k views

Routing traces to and from a 48 pin microcontroller becoming a mess

I have a 48 pin microcontroller with VCC = 5V. I'm becoming worried that I have the traces too close and all the vias and crossing traces may mess with the signals' integrity. Are there examples and ...
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Best way to "cut" a connection on a pcb [closed]

Imagine you have some traces on a PCB, that connect from point A to point B. I would like to have control over that connection. I want to be able to enable/disable the connection from a distance (...
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6 votes
2 answers
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Using a PCB trace as a heater / Hilbert Curves

I'm considering making a PCB to use as a heater for a 3d printer bed. This has been common practice for ~10 years (https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:3919). I was playing around with KiCad and python, ...
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1 answer
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Defining VIN trace width of DC\DC

I intend to use RT8068A in the following design: The requirements are: Vin = 3.3V, Vout= 2.5V, Iout_Max = 1A (+VPP is connected to DDR4 Memory SODIMM-260, 32GB, 2400MHz/2666MHz, 1.2V). My question is,...
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Help needed with determining PCB trace termination for µC/SDRAM interface

I am trying to figure out whether I need termination resistors for my PCB routing between a µ-Controller and an SDRAM (IS42S32800J-6BLI) that I plan to clock at 166 MHz. According to Table 72 of ST's ...
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6 answers
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Why is it not possible to measure PCB trace characteristic impedance using a multimeter?

I was looking into StackExchange posts for PCB trace impedance measurement. How to measure trace impedance? This posts clearly explains what the methods to be used for trace impedance measurement are. ...
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Any short formula for PCB trace capacitance when w/h <<1 [closed]

I have this formula/equation e(w/d) for capacitance of PCB traces (parallel plate). But as it appears, this equation is valid for the assumption w/d>>1 (much greater). And multiplying 11.3 with ...
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7 answers
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In PCBs, why is copper etched away instead of added?

I know that in virtually every case, PCBs start as a substrate with a layer of copper laminated on top, which is then etched away, leaving the traces. But why are the traces not added on an empty ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How are high currents generally handled on PCB?

I am working on a 4-layer PCB where an electric current of 40 A - 12 VDC needs to pass through 2 traces (for 2-3 cm) between two through-hole components, for 1 minute every hour. 200 units of the ...
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1 vote
5 answers
147 views

Why does signal loss increase when the frequency of a signal increases?

Particularly in the context of long PCB traces. What is the physical explanation for greater loss at higher frequencies?
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3 votes
4 answers
201 views

Strategies for decreasing trace width in PCB

I'm working on a custom alarm clock. For the display, I'm using an Arduino Nano to control a 7-segment display made of ninety Neopixels. I have some buttons and an encoder as well. Based on a 60 mA ...
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Pcb trace width when connecting an ammeter and voltmeter together

After design and simulate my 2 channel voltmeter/ammeter with arduino I came across with an issue about trace width. This is an image with part of the circuit. On +VL and GND I will connect the load ...
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1 answer
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Minimum PCB trace spacing for 500 VDC?

I'm designing a pcb for battery management. There are -250 V, 0 V, and 250 V traces. The most conservative results of the calculator on this website tell me to leave 3.1 mm for 500 V and 1.85 mm for ...
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11 votes
5 answers
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Trace impedance ohm meaning

I've been trying to understand the principle of trace impedance (single ended and differential) for a while, read several articles (all the best google has to offer), but I have still some serious ...
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I don't understand PCB fabrication copper thickness

In Eurocircuits I can select between 12um (end + -30um) to 105um (end + -130um), so in the worst case if I choose 12um can I have a thickness of 12-30 = -18um?
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2 votes
1 answer
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Soldermask on copper trace damaged by heat/cold?

I have a LED-ring PCB, relatively new, that we sent through a few temperature cycle tests (-50 to +85*C), and it now shows signs of the solder-mask coming off some of the copper traces. The LEDs weren'...
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Difference between USB Single ended impedance and common mode impedance

I was learning about USB2.0 layout guidelines from this material[USB Layout Guidelines]. In page no 2 you can see the statement that says a single ended impedance is not critical as differential ...
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3 votes
2 answers
351 views

Should routing traces be wider than top layer soldering pad?

In one of my PCB design, the microprocessor soldering leg pad size are .254mm x 1.4mm while the ground(GND) routing trace is .4mm thick. I'm trying to figure out is it safe to route the .4mm thick ...
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1 answer
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Round/smooth PCB traces or angular traces?

I was looking at my LAN8720 module because I tried to build one myself. I realised that the traces on the PCB have mostly round edges/are really smooth while other PCB layouts I see have angular/edgy ...
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LCD Zebra display, repair bonding (ITO Trace?)

Is there a way to repair the "traces" displayed below? I don't have any idea about the subject, but maybe painting them with a conductive paint? I could create a template with the traces, ...
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2 answers
238 views

PCB Trace Width : Common (LINE) Trace for 2 Relays

I am designing a simple switch controlled relay board. On board I have two 5Vdc 10Amp Sugar Cube Relays which will receive 230Vac from Terminal block connector and will be controlled with 5Vdc input ...
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Pad Spacing violates trace spacing

How does one deal with a situation where a trace has particular clearance spec to other nets, but that clearance spec is not respected by the pads on a component that the net attaches to? A simple ...
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2 answers
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KiCAD: Connections are not the same in schematic and pcbNew

This is a portion of my schematic: Now, I try to create the traces in pcbNew. Here is the portion of pcbNew: In the schematic: C4 is connected to pin 1 of U1 and to pin 2 of U1 C1 is connected to ...
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6 votes
2 answers
1k views

"shark teeth"-like PCB feature in high voltage section of modern HDTV

I found this tooth-like non-masked, solder-covered trace pattern on modern single board HDTV. It's in the 120VAC "HOT" section of the switch-mode PS. Looks like some sort of spark gap or ...
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2 answers
162 views

PCB with KiCAD: Possible error in routing decoupling capacitors

I was inspecting my work with my first PCB in KiCAD. I was looking at the 3d model, and I was checking out the three decoupling capacitors I have placed. I noticed that they do not actually connect ...
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Altium connection lines do not show the shortest connection

The connections are between a processor and a DDR chip. The problem is that Altium only shows pad to pad connection line not the shortest (eg not via to via or via to pad). The strange thing is when I ...
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1 answer
69 views

Any potential issues with running traces on both sides to increase conductivity?

I have a few relays on my circuit board, they are classed as 10A 30VDC. The size and thickness of the traces I can create on my PCB is nowhere near that so I am thinking of running a parallel track on ...
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1 vote
2 answers
65 views

How should PCB traces be treated in different situations?(as capacitance, resistance or inductance) [closed]

I know that for signal integrity, the PCB traces are always considered to be part of the electrical circuit. How should traces be considered in different situations, like high current, RF, high edge ...
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0 answers
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Encircling, unconnected trace loop

I'm working on some boards layed out before my time, or anyone that I can ask why they were made this way. Very much learning as I go, and I'm confused by this. They all tend to have this loop around ...
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2 votes
3 answers
222 views

Are specific impedances for high-speed signals maintained beyond the PCB connectors?

I found this article that describes the specific impedances that single/differential traces must have for high speed signals (using microstrips). But what happens to these impedances beyond the ...
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0 votes
2 answers
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Crossing analog traces with power trace

I have a two layer board. Analog signals on the top layer and power traces on the bottom layer. Should they cross each other at 90 degrees? How bad would it be when the bottom trace and the top trace &...
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2 answers
122 views

Why is my Altium gerber file merging component borders with a polygon pour?

I have a pcb design which has two layers with two star ground polygon pours respectively, and all the components are throughhole. When I generate gerber files however, on both layers the border of the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
116 views

Long distance required between photodetector and TIA

I have a circuit that incorporates a 40 channel InGaAs (IR) photodetector array (https://www.hamamatsu.com/eu/en/product/type/G8909-01/index.html). I have a TIA design using a LTC6268-10 first stage. ...
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1 vote
1 answer
80 views

Calculating maximum permissible track amperage for intrinsic safe PCB

I'm reading IEC 60079-11 standard (Equipment protection by intrinsic safety "i") which discusses how to design intrinsic safe circuit boards. In section 5.6.4 it talks about permissible ...
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0 answers
114 views

Can I bypass a trace from the diode to the solder point with wire?

I'm working on the button/power motherboard of an X-Box one's controller - the menu (start) button doesn't work. I think there might be damage to the trace when I followed the trace to the solder ...
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1 vote
1 answer
134 views

What cause a PCB track to break

I have assembled 1000 pcs of PCB. 6/1000pcs have track broken (bottom layer) as pointed in the attached picture. The pad with track connected to an electrolytic capacitor. There are two other ...
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1 vote
0 answers
184 views

Trace clearance for 500V insulation test

Part of my job is to measure insulation resistance of cables using a tester, such as a Fluke 1587. We measure insulation resistance at 500 VDC. We have to measure insulation resistance pin to pin and ...
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0 answers
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How to determine proper capacitors to replace a battery for an Apple Magic Trackpad 2?

I have several Apple Magic Trackpad 2 devices and am finding that the batteries routinely go bad on these. They swell and deform the trackpad such that it doesn't stay flat with the desk / tray ...
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0 votes
2 answers
186 views

Is it possible to route USB 2.0 using regular traces?

In the future I will be faced to design a system that includes USB 2.0 connectivity. I've seen that there are many trace calculators, but as far as I can see, they refer to microstrip lines. So, is it ...
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1 vote
2 answers
326 views

PCB trace width guidance

So i recently inherited a design as a new graduate, and am currently in the process of working on the next board revision. The design currently calls for a 24VAC line to come out of a G6k relay, ...
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1 vote
3 answers
274 views

How do I jump from trace here?

I've been asked to reattach the positive cable that got ripped with the pad from a board given that I own a soldering iron. It seems simple enough to just jump it from a trace. Scraped a bit of the ...
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