Questions tagged [transient]

A change in an electrical system from an equilibrium or steady state. The response of the electrical system to a transient is its transient response. Examples of transients include load transients (in which the load suddenly changes) and line transients (in which the input voltage of an electrical system suddenly changes). The electrical system may require protection from certain transients, e.g. by using transient-voltage-suppression (TVS) diodes.

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Diode reverse recovery time and the speed (snap back) in which recovery takes place

I'm looking at generating a circa 1 nano second current pulse by utilizing the snap-back time (usually measured in the tens of pico seconds) when a diode is "forcibly" reverse polarized ...
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Abnormal source voltage of a buck converter

I'm currently making a buck converter with a rated output of 60V and 10A. For its driver, I'm using TLP250 with Arduino as its input. The switching frequency I'm using is 20kHz. You can see my driver ...
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Transient Simulation - ADS

I'm facing a doubt in transient simulation in ADS. In many setups I've seen placing a resistor in series to the transient voltage step generator. Placing the series resistor, and simulating the below ...
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Can I power my microcontroller system directly from a 3V lithium coincell (transient consideration)?

My device has to be powered with user replaceable 2032 coincell. I have a ~3.3V microcontroller like nrf52832. Its datasheet says: So lithium coincell voltage range (3.3V - 0V) is in operating ...
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Transient analysis for circuits with AC excitation using differential equations

In the process of finding transient response for circuits with AC excitation using differential equations, we use the method of complementary functions and particular solution, but I read earlier that ...
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Difference between Harmonic Balance and Transient solver in ADS

I am performing a simulation of a half wave rectifier (HWR) in ADS. I had developed a MATLAB code for Harmonic balance solver and Transient solver in MATLAB. The code gives comparable results when ...
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Series capacitor not blocking DC voltage

In my understanding a series capacitor (with some resistance) works as a DC block, essentially forming a high-pass filter, blocking DC. Under this assumption, a unipolar square wave of amplitude V ...
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LTSpice RL circuit simulation with ideal inductor and inductor from database

I am trying to simulate a simple RL circuit as shown below, the top one using inductor from the component library and the bottom one is picked from the database. Below is the properties of L1 ...
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1 answer
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how does AC coupling eliminate the ground current problem between data source and destination in FPD_Link II I/F?

Reading about FPD-Link II in Wikipedia, I came across this statement for which I need clarification: Because the signal is DC balanced the application can use AC coupling, which eliminates the ...
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Is the power frequency characteristic of a network almost constant?

When a transient phenomenon happens in an electric power grid, the network reacts to this deviation with a power-frequency characteristic (MW/Hz). Reading the following paper ''Analysis and ...
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TRIAC protection for general domestic use

I am designing a smart switch for switching 220 - 240 VAC outlets for domestic use at a maximum of 16A. The load could be a washing machine, a toaster, a vacuum cleaner or any general home appliance (...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How to add unit function u(t) - u(t-2) as voltage source in LTSpice?

As far as I know, we put the unit function as PULSE in LTSpice. If we have b.u(t) where b is a non zero integer, then we can put it in Von. But what if the function is u(t)-u(t-2)? And what if we want ...
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Output voltage of capacitor discharged in other capacitor?

Considering this circuit. How can I compute the maximum voltage across the resistor ? In this example, the capacitor on the left is initialy charged with 10 V. The second capacitor (on the right) is ...
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Explanation of the transient in an integrator circuit

Using LTSpice I have simulated the following circuit. It is a circuit integrator using the op-amp model: LF356. The simulation has a saturation voltage of 12 and -12 V and a square wave input source. ...
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Laplace analysis of coupled circuit confusion

So i solved this by first finding differential equations and then by taking laplace transform of them here are my working- for left loop $$5i_{1}\left( t\right) +4.9\dfrac{d}{dt}i_{1}\left( t\right) -...
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Ngspice convergence problem AD8606 simple simulation

I am new to electrical circuit simulation and I would like to simulate the behaviour of the operational amplifier AD8606 in a simple follower configuration, facing different loads. In order to do that ...
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Find v(t) across the resistor in first order circuit

I found this problem and it confused me a bit and I was hoping someone can clear me on this. Basically as I said we have to find the voltage across the resistor when the switch turns. This is a ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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confusion in RC circuit regarding initial conditions and capacitor voltage

Actually i was practicing circuit analysis with Differential Equations. This question has some confusing parts like- In Steady State, t<0 switch is still open the 10mF capacitor is Charged to 5V ...
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Find voltage across capacitor

I want to see code. I don’t know how to write it.
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Switching Transient Protection For ADC Pin

I am playing around with one old transformer. I am trying to use it in combination with voltage divider to get AC 230V main into DC range (0-3.3V) suitable for ESP32 ADC input. I build circuit for ...
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Avoiding spurious second order in a first-order RC circuit

While solving the simple RC circuit below in a particular way, I came across an interesting mathematical quirk. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab Using nodal analysis, ...
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1 answer
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Voltage Follower Op-Amp Circuit Transient Response

In a voltage follower circuit with negative feedback like the one below: How would the transient response of Vout look? My guess would be that if Vout is initially at 0V, when Vin is applied to the ...
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How to analyze first-order transient circuits using Simulink?

I have been trying to design a first-order circuit with a capacitor but, I could't achieve to initaliaze the steady-state condition. I mean I was not able to close the switch at t = 0. Since, I am ...
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What is "drive" (in units of coulomb) in this datasheet?

In the datasheet of the family of step-recovery diodes (they are essentially PIN diodes with the I layer "very thin") MMDx of MACOM (link here), following figure is given I understand that ...
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Modelling the PCB parasitic capacitance in LTSpice

I need to simulate the accurate behaviour of my attenuator made of an RC potential divider. Time constants of the top and bottom of my attenuator are matched. I noticed that when I inject a square ...
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1 answer
51 views

Non-ideal transformer transient state

So, I've encountered a problem that doesn't look that hard, but I simply can't solve it. I have a simple non-ideal transformer circuit and I want to compute V_0. What I was able to find so far are the ...
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Finding Diff Eqs for Variable Square Wave Oscillator of Theremin

For a project, I built a theremin using an LM311N as the basis for my fixed and variable oscillators. I wanted to find the period of the variable oscillator by finding the systems of diff eqs ...
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9 votes
4 answers
562 views

What is the physical model for energy flow in or around a lossless conductor during transient analysis? (Veritasium Electricity in Wires)

Context Veritasium - The Big Misconception About Electricity - Energy Doesn't Flow in Wires Note I do not agree with the answer (D) given by Veritasium which is only plausible if any tiny current ...
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Extracting Transient Response from a Rational Transfer Function

I am reading an online book on digital filters and wanted to know how the transient response can be obtained from a rational transfer function. $$\frac{b(1) + b(2)z^{-1} + \cdots + b(n_b+1)z^{-n_b}}{...
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fitting using unstable poles

I am trying to take into account the frequency dependent behavior of R and L in an LTspice simulation. So I fit their frequency behavior using Vector fitting technique and deduce the equivalent ...
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3 votes
2 answers
639 views

Purpose of reverse biased diode in pulse generation circuit

(Caveat: "young player" at large here.) The circuit below (not my creation) debounces a push button and generates a 1us negative pulse when it's pressed. I breadboarded it and it works as ...
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Calculating capacitor voltage with initial conditions in an RC circuit

If the initial voltage of the capacitor at 0s is 20V, would the equation for the voltage of the capacitor at a specific time be; 60 + (20-60)e^(-t/RC) or would it be 80 - 60e^(-t/RC)
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Transient behaviour of capacitor discharge [closed]

As far as my understanding, I think of a decaying exponential curve of a current in the case of a capacitor discharging. But sometimes (not sure on this), it shoes a damping waveform -- there are some ...
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2 votes
1 answer
201 views

What is the time constant for this circuit?

In this practice problem, the book apparently got the value for the time constant to be 0.1ms. This means that it only considered the 100k resistor to be the Rth. Why is the 10k resistor ignored? ...
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Measuring extremely small inductance (pH) with transient pulse response

I've made an inductor device. It has 2 terminals. It has inductance, resistance, and some parallel interwinding capacitance. I am using a Keysight B1500a semiconductor probe station, which has ...
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Transient generator simulation torque fluctuation (Ansys Maxwell)

while simulation for a PM axial flux generator at no load 1000RPM in Ansys Maxwell, shows moving torque fluctuating between -0.7 to 0.7 Nm, which should have been 0, as there is no load attached and ...
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4 answers
161 views

Short-circuit current through disconnected capacitor

I have a large capacitor made of two smaller 200V rated 560uF capacitors. If I charge this capacitor to 30V with 4.5A from a bench power supply and disconnect it after around 7 seconds, how do I ...
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2 votes
1 answer
312 views

LTspice ideal diode simulation

I was trying to simulate a biased clipper circuit in LTspice, and came across this issue. This is the schematic I used: And the plots of voltages across V2 and R1: Ideally, the output voltage should ...
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Laplace of energy sources

What's the Laplace transform of an independent DC voltage or a current source? I came across this while reading transients from a book. While solving a first order circuit in Laplace domain, it took ...
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2 votes
1 answer
68 views

Transient and Surge Protection

It seems that when choosing ESD/TVS diodes, MOVS and GDTs that while their clamping voltage is rated in Volts, their protection is rated in Watts or Joules. For example, the LittleFuse SMCJ250CA is ...
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Reverse voltage spike protection on high-side of a (coiled) relay without flyback diode

I have a microcontroller interfacing with a normally-open automotive relay on the high-side, through a P-MOSFET. When the microcontroller closes the P-MOSFET's Source & Drain (by sending LOW ...
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Validity of small signal model during transient state

In most of the books it looks like small signal is used as a steady state analysis, for example a capacitor is modelled as: $$Xc=\frac{1}{j \omega C}$$ Which clearly indicates a steady state analysis. ...
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How is constant on time control better than voltage mode control for transient response?

I am trying to understand the benefits of constant on time control (COT) over voltage or current mode control. In voltage mode control, during a load transient (increase in load) an aggressive control ...
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Question - Calculating Coefficients for 2nd Order Transient Analysis

I am struggling with calculating the coefficients for second order transient analysis. For example, when analyzing a underdamped circuit, we know that the equation for voltage or current is \$x_{t}=e^{...
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RL Transient Analysis confusion

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab When I am using Thevenin's circuit and deriving inductor currents equations i am getting different Time constant \$ \tau\$ from what I ...
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3 answers
145 views

AC Transient analysis of an RL or RC circuit

When an AC input is applied, the inductor in initial condition (uncharged) does not act as an open circuit, even though the magnitude of instantaneous AC voltage constantly varies. Why is its behavior ...
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2 answers
71 views

How to control the transient output current of a synchronous buck converter?

I am dealing with the following problem, I want to control the output current and voltage of a synchronous buck converter during the output load (resistor) step change. Suppose we set the output ...
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Window comparator with transient detection

I need some advice with over range circuitry I my design. In summary, I need to probe two nodes in my circuit and raise an alarm if any of them raises above approx. 2V peak (in both polarities). The ...
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2 votes
3 answers
405 views

I need to implement DC and transient analysis of diode and transistor circuits. How can I do that?

I am doing a MATLAB project at my university. I have tried to implement DC and transient analysis of diode and transistor circuits by linearizing them and using iterative methods, but the results don'...
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What to do when studying "travelling wave" in a coaxial cable?

Propagation of travelling waves on cables may sometimes be difficult to apply and understand. There is a method called in french "abaque de Bewley" or "diagramme de Bergeron" (in ...
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