Questions tagged [transmission]

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How to calculate real power delivered to the sending end in a two-port network?

I know that the real power can be calculated by following equation: $$P_s = \sqrt(3) V \cdot I \cdot cos(\alpha - \beta) $$ What is the voltage term in this case, is it line-to-line voltage or line-to-...
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2 answers
72 views

Quarter wave transformer

I appreciate help on a confusion regarding a quarter wave transformer. When reflections at the feed-line on a transmission line are eliminated, how is all the power absorbed by the load when there are ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
44 views

Are SX1276 DIOx pins necessary?

This is about a SX1276 Semtech chip dev custom board: For this project, is there anything missed when not connecting any of the DIOx pins to my microcontroller? I meant, in my project I have no pins ...
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1 answer
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Deriving power formulas for transmission lines

I'm trying to derive formulas for active power (\$P_s\$) and reactive power (\$Q_s\$) at the sending end of a transmission line shown below: Where: \$E_s\$ and \$E_r\$ are voltage magnitudes \$X\$ is ...
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21 votes
8 answers
3k views

Single wire (no ground wire) long distance low frequency communication

In a cave we are currently exploring, there is a temporary siphon that sometimes blocks our way. I was thinking about monitoring it (pressure sensor or other level sensor at the siphon, transmitter ...
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1 answer
277 views

Why are coaxial cables typically faster/longer than twisted pairs?

I'm having trouble understand why coaxial cables tend to have higher bandwidth compared to twisted pairs. I couldn't find any source explaining why, they just mention the fact. For instance: "In ...
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2 answers
126 views

How to find the output power of antenna including distance?

I have a PCB and antenna (1) attached to it at the output. Now I would like to measure the output power of the antenna (1) using antenna (2) which is at a distance of D. I have the readings of the ...
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1 answer
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Impedance matching at the generator side or the load side?

For impedance matching, are we matching in between the generator impedance Zs and Zin, or matching between the Z0 and ZL? or both? Similarly do we add the matching network in between Zs and Z0, or Z0 ...
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2 answers
52 views

Impedance calculation issue

I am a strange calculation of Zin, Zline and ZL. As tan(pi/2) is 0, why can't we just cancel the j part, and yield Zin = ZL but as it demonstrated, using tan(pi/2) to divide, which should not be ...
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-3 votes
3 answers
227 views

The speed of light is 3*10^8 m/s and data transmission rate of optical fiber is ~100 Tb/s, how do we calculate data transmission rate?

How do we calculate data transmission rate? Is there some formulas that is involved? Fiber optic cables beat copper in this department, and it isn’t even close. Fiber optic cables are made of tiny ...
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-2 votes
3 answers
421 views

Why is digital transmission more efficient than analog transmission?

it is possible to send more data through a given circuit using digital rather than analog transmission Slide says the above thing but I am not really able to grasp this. How can we send more data in ...
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4 answers
142 views

In radio transmission, aren't all forms of modulation ultimately FM?

This is a very basic question, but I am confused by this. All forms of radio transmission result in sidebands or a frequency range (channel) that is used to carry the data. Even AM somehow results in ...
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-1 votes
6 answers
203 views

Simplest way to transmit digital data?

I have an interesting problem that's been wrecking my brain and would like some help with it. Basically what I have is a voltage readout box that has a few voltage displays on it. I would like to ...
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0 answers
37 views

Maximum Achievable distance, given the maximum delay, in optical fiber (single mode) and ethernet?

I have the following problem to solve. I have to find the maximum achievable distance between two nodes of a network, given the maximum delay possible between them. The connection can be single mode ...
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1 answer
86 views

Why my television provider doesn't measure the coaxial cable length?

I recently put cable TV in my room (we already had cable TV before, but not in my room). The technician from my TV provider, through a split, ran a coaxial cable up to the TV in my room. When he did ...
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0 answers
25 views

Insulation and losses In transmission line

Why do we consider only P=V.I In AC transmission while designing the insulation of transmission line not the equation P=V^2/Z and consider this equation in determine the insulation in DC transmission ...
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3 votes
1 answer
91 views

SPI clock behavior question

Question What is causing intermittent switching on the SPI lines of my Xilinx SoC? Background I am attempting to control a Texas Instruments LMX2572 frequency synthesizer over SPI using the code ...
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0 answers
55 views

Custom board causing strange oscillations on SPI lines

Question What could be causing the following corruption on my SPI lines? Background I have designed a daughter board which is connected to a Bajie Development board (first listing on this page). The ...
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2 votes
0 answers
222 views

How to terminate Shield of USB connector to System Ground via Resistor || Capacitor or Ferrite Bead?

I want to know the best approach to connect USB connector's (receptor) Shield to System Ground? Below are the two options. PC(Earthed)<----- USB Cable ----> USB Connector female(PCB with NO ...
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2 votes
1 answer
84 views

Is an (n+1/4) wavelength transmission line impedance transformer comparable to a 1/4 wavelength line of the same composition?

I use coaxial transmission line transformers for simple power splitting and combining networks. This is for connecting multiple resonant antennas in array configurations. It's a standard technique ...
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3 votes
2 answers
500 views

What makes RF transmission so efficient?

I'm a layman in this field. I have a question about RF transmission. How does the data transferred by RF waves (for example in mobiles, wifi) reach the users accurately in spite of losses during ...
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1 vote
2 answers
265 views

Sanity check: would this configuration work to address an item in a grid?

This is a follow-on to this question. The circuit that I have in mind is represented below. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab The idea is that I want to be able to ...
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1 answer
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In discrete memoryless channels what is meant by output probabilities?

In my book it is mentioned that P[Y]= P(X)* P(Y/X) Where P[Y] is the output probability matrix, P(X)=input probability matrix, P(Y/X)= channel matrix. I understand the physical significance of input ...
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3 votes
1 answer
173 views

Can someone explain me these waveforms?

During this experiment, I connected a 10m coaxial cable to pulse generator and at the load end I connected capacitor and inductor one by one, I got these waveforms. Can someone explain me the the ...
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1 vote
0 answers
196 views

creating symbol for Transmission gate switch in ltspice

I need to create a symbol of transmission gate to use but when putting its symbol I get a message "unknown subcircuit called in xx1_nc01_nc02_nc03_nc04 how may I fix it?
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2 votes
0 answers
46 views

Transmission distance with AM2320 temperature and humidity sensor

I'm about to work with a temperature/Humidity sensor, this sensor has to be wired more than 5m and less than 10 m to my PCB board, I was going to use the SHT3xx sensors, these sensors work with I2C ...
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0 votes
0 answers
63 views

What does it mean to short circuit a transmission line stub at a specific frequency?

I'm currently designing a microwave FET mixer right now, and I have to short-circuit the FET's drain at LO frequency and its harmonics. I've checked the "stub" article in wiki, and it says ...
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0 answers
54 views

How can I simulate microwave radio link transmission?

My task is to simulate a two-way data transmission microwave link. The fixed parameters are distance, transmitter power, carrier frequencies, bandwidth, receiver noise figure, intermediate frequency, ...
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2 votes
2 answers
153 views

Transmitting digital signal long distances, without complex parts

I'm controlling several multiplexers from NI DO modules. The multiplexers channel select inputs, A0-A4, are 5v. The DO modules output 5v TTL. On the bench I have everything working exactly the way ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Voltage regulation at full load

The voltage regulation is I(Rcosa -Xsina)/Vr For leading pf Here %of regulation=(VRcosa-Vxsina)/Vr ×100 %=((4×0.8)-(6×0.6))/100 ×100% =-0.4 Where I am doing wrong?
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1 vote
0 answers
50 views

Data transmission through multiple IoT devices

We are implementing a device which will have multiple sensors inside multiple houses in our local area. Each house will have 1 device fixed at a place and data will be transmitted to one central ...
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0 votes
1 answer
237 views

for calculating the number of insulator disks needed for creepage is line to line voltage or phase voltage used?

For example, I am calculating the number of disks required for a 330kV line. Assuming medium pollution (20mm/kV) and each disk having 405mm would my number of disks be 17 (based off line voltage) or ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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WIFI over wires [closed]

So, guys I have made wifi gun a but it seems not working as there are a lot of trees between my friend's wifi and my home ( 1km distance ), So is there a method to convert wifi to wire and transmit ...
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0 votes
0 answers
107 views

How to calculate how much voice channels is being multiplexed

I would like to know how I could calculate from the bitstream which has a bitrate of 2,048 Mbps into how much voice channels is being used. I know that the syn has 32 bits and sign is 16 bits. Bitrate ...
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0 votes
1 answer
52 views

How to choose an appropiate antenna?

I want to increase the Bluetooth Low Energy transmission range of my ESP32 with IPEX connector. How can I select the right antenna? Do I have to take a look only at a 2,4 GHz WiFi antenna, the antenna ...
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2 votes
6 answers
244 views

how bits are still synchronized in asynchronous transmission?

I was reading a textbook which syas: In asynchronous transmission, we send 1 start bit (0) at the beginning and 1 or more stop bits (1s) at the end of each byte. There may be a gap between bytes....
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0 votes
1 answer
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What is a good method for wireless transmission of images in a ~2km radius?

I am working on a project requiring regular image transmission over a 2km range. This needs to be done in an area with no cellular coverage. Energy efficiency is a factor, however it does not need ...
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-2 votes
2 answers
114 views

Can anyone explain HVDC transmission to me?

HVDC transmission system sounds strange to me because I wonder why we would need it? We have HVAC transmission system which is much more efficient and less power losses. When we use the DC for same ...
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-2 votes
3 answers
273 views

HC-05 Bluetooth RF transmit power [duplicate]

The datasheet of the HC-05 Bluetooth module says the RF transmit power is up to +4 dBm RF, but I think that is for boundary value conditions. I am planning to use the it at a data rate of 100 kbps ...
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2 answers
90 views

How far can the signals travel?

I want to build a centralized system which will be getting values from many sensors around an agricultural field. The field's large area leads to long wires going from sensors to the central ...
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0 answers
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Current Amplitude Distribution Lossless Transmission Line

I need to proof that the formula for Current Amplitude Distribution in a Lossless Transmission Line it's the following and I don't know where to start from... A little help would be appreciated. ...
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0 votes
1 answer
83 views

Conductivity and high speed transmission using aluminium slip rings

So I came across a Persistence of Vision globe based video where a YouTuber he makes DIY slip rings to power and control some LEDs as seen in this picture: My question is, given the high rate of ...
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2 answers
249 views

What is the effect of the reflection coefficient?

I know that the reflection coefficient is the ratio of the backwards wave with the forward wave in terms of the characteristic and load impedances. But what does this mean? Does this represent a loss ...
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3 votes
3 answers
2k views

What would cause a square wave to become rounded?

I have a square wave going through a thousand feet of cable. The cable has \$120 \,\Omega\$ characteristic impedance. I measured the capacitance and inductance of the cable and they are pretty close ...
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0 votes
2 answers
81 views

Pspice modeling of transmission line

I'm trying to model a differential digital signal going through 4000 feet of twisted shielded pair. The nominal impedance is 120 ohms and capacitance per foot is 14.6 pF. For 1000 feet I calculated ...
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1 vote
2 answers
134 views

Pulse Down a line with Series terminations between transmission lines

I am interested in a relative edge case in transmission line of a simulation. If send a pulse down the setup below, now obviously my rudimentary steady state electronics knows this is a basic voltage ...
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0 answers
62 views

Single-ended analog signal to differential

I need to transmit 2 analog signals over a cable in a noisy environment. How to transmit them as differential ? Given that : Each signal can be used to inject and receive current (< 130 kHz, < ...
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2 votes
1 answer
219 views

How to transmit analog signals over cable?

In my current project, I need to transmit 4 analog signals (A1, A2, A3 and A4) on a cable from one PCB to another. I am working at 3 VDC and the distance between them is relatively short (< 30 cm). ...
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2 votes
1 answer
298 views

Differential pairs or single ended signals for 1m cable

I have one control board and 3 additional boards for the power electronics, that send and receive data from the control board over a distance of ~1m (3ft). All signals are single ended. I have to ...
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3 votes
3 answers
442 views

Is the impedance control of differential pair traces a transmission line problem?

I read in an article of design reference that "If the length of the interconnect PCB is greater than 1/10 th of the wavelength, we should consider using the transmission line instead of ordinary ...
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