Questions tagged [voltage]

Voltage, otherwise known as electrical potential difference (denoted ∆V and measured in volts) is the difference in electric potential between two points (adapted from Wikipedia). Voltage can be constant (DC) or varying (AC).

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146 views

Voltage divider network calculation

Hello I am troubleshooting a voltage divider circuit in which I know the output going to U28 pin 3 should be around 700mv. What I am measuring however is around 7.5v. How do I calculate the v out for ...
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46 views

What causes voltage to increase from 12V to 36V as specified?

Reference article and paragraph: Relays, Selection & Usage (Part 1) - 8 - Latching Relays ...
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1answer
185 views

Is there a derivation of the Early effect?

I can't seem to find a derivation of the following equation: $$I_C=I_Se^{\frac{V_{BE}}{V_{T}}}\left(1+\frac{V_{CE}}{V_A}\right)$$ Is there a way to derive this equation? Edit: The equation ...
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1answer
45 views

Activating a relay when certain voltage received (Water injection system)

I decided to build a simple water/methanol injection system for my car and now I'm thinking about a simple way to activate the water pump only from certain boost level. For the boost reading I'm ...
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2answers
55 views

What happens if the load (connected to the output of the circuit) disconnects suddenly from Arduino/ESP32?

My circuit (that contains esp32 with few current and voltage sensor) is connected to 9Ah Battery (with BMS), where the load gets connected to see the discharge rate of the battery. There are times ...
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64 views

Voltage increase by connecting Voltmeter

I've got this scheme. V1 and V2 are voltmeters without their own power supply. (V1 gets power from the measured circuit, V2 is powered separately, but in this case from the same power supply.) The ...
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2answers
189 views

Battery failing. Oscilloscope?

The question is - is there an inexpensive oscilloscope I can use to measure DC voltage and current to see why my battery pack is failing to power a DSLR? In order to take long time lapse photos with ...
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2answers
228 views

Find Voltage of inductor in LC series circuit with resistor in parallel

I have a LC resonance circuit with a resistor between the capacitor and inductor: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I want to find the Voltage at L1, more specifically ...
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0answers
215 views

Mistake in published paper about magnetic levitation?

As I was reading through this paper: Nonlinear Model & Controller Design for Magnetic Levitation System, I stumbled cross section 3.3 which I could not follow. Summarizing section 3.3 Non Linear ...
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3answers
271 views

Push-Button Voltage Spike (not debouncing)

I have a circuit which reads push-button presses. If it is pressed, it turns on the door by rotating motor. In this system, safety and stability are keys. I added r/c filter to debounce button and ...
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2answers
991 views

Transformer maximum voltage rating specifications

I don't know how to interpret the voltage values found in datasheets for transformers. For example, in the datasheet below: where it says 15v, 50mA near the winding schematic. Is this a maximum or a ...
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1answer
196 views

Switch bounce vs LC Spike Voltage

For my EE lab, our professor wants us to show switch bounce, and then eliminate it using hardware, and software debouncing. However, I seem to be stuck on finding the switch bounce in the first ...
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2answers
1k views

Schematic for a lipo battery bleeder overcharge protector

OK, so I am building a 12v (really 11.1v) 10000mah lipo battery. I am going to use it on campouts to run things like 12v fans and car chargers and run other high-current devices that couldn't be run ...
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539 views

Convert [-24V,24V] range analog signal to [0V,3.3V] range for ADC

I need to realize a circuit that converts an analog signal from [-24V,24V] to [0V,3.3V] before sending that signal to an ADC "MCP3208". I found the circuit in the picture below and it works perfectly ...
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454 views

Voltage Translator (74HC4050) Voltage Fluctuations

I have a simple circuit with a simple problem that I just can not fix. I have a 74HC4050D hooked up to an SD card. I have a 0.1uf on the 5V line and 2.2uf on the 3.3V line. Whenever a signal is sent ...
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1k views

PSpice VSIN frequency - how to set it in rad/s?

I know, that if I want to set FREQ, I need to set it in Hz, not in rad/s. I know, that 1 Hz = 2*pi rad/s, but how to do this in PSpice? What should I enter exactly? and btw. if I want to set VOFF (...
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1answer
248 views

How do you output whole number voltages (1-4V) from an Arduino/5V source using only digital pins and passive components?

I would like to output whole number voltages 0V,1V,2V,3V and 4V from two digital pins on an arduino/5V source. A simple r2r ladder doesn't seem like it would work because it would split its definition ...
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1answer
122 views

Is there a pattern to where various industrial AC voltages are used?

AC voltages in the "low voltage" class vary quite a bit. I've seen nominal voltages of 208, 220-240, 277, 380-415, 460-480, 575-600, and 690 VAC. Past that I don't see anything until medium voltage ...
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2answers
37 views

Hows does this 12v relay works with transistor voltage drop?

I'm working my way through "Make: Electronics" by Charles Platt and came across the following schematic: As someone who just recently got started with electronics, what I can't wrap my head around is ...
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2answers
148 views

Copper Coil and Electromagnetic Induction

Waiting for answer Does mixing thickness of wires affect the Induction? What I mean is that I've like some 2mm and 1mm copper wires joined together. Basically I remove insulation on copper wire ends ...
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0answers
34 views

How would I apply miller theorem to the following capacitor?

So I have a common source amplifier and I am considering the high frequency small-signal gain of the circuit. I have derived the small signal model as follows where output voltage is taken at the ...
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32 views

Phasor voltage drop clarification?

Upon reading this pdf about voltage drop calculations : https://pdhonline.com/courses/e426/e426content.pdf I came across page 30 which shows the image down below. I am a bit puzzled on their ...
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27 views

memristive crossbar neural network

I am struggling to understand how to train a memristive crossbar neural network to recognise digits (MNIST or whatever). I am using LTSpice to construct my crossbar and I am also familiar with NNs. I ...
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0answers
94 views

Supercapacitor spot welder - which capacitors to use?

I built a spot welder using a big transformer (approximately 4kW from an old welding machine) but I now need to build a spot welder with more power (more current.) The current spot welder works great ...
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22 views

Higher order effects of CTAT and PTAT when testing a BANDGAP

I want to use candence to simulate the real behavior of a voltage reference and so far I found circuits that are based on the ideal models. What non linearities can I introduce in this ideal model ...
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28 views

Ground offset test

I need to perform a ground offset test. Ground offset = 1V Please tell me whether my approach is correct. Typ Input power supply to the circuit is +12V Typ Load current for the circuit is 0.5A So, I ...
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74 views

Measure 220V alternating current with a multimeter in DC mode

What happens if we measure 220V AC from wall socket with a multimeter in DC mode (instead of AC)? If I remember correctly, it should show the average value of this sinusoidal 220V, i.e. 0V. Is ...
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0answers
55 views

MOSFET, the effect of the gate voltage

Here the gate voltage is 5V and lots of the 12V input voltage stays across drain and source. Here the gate voltage is 12V and still some voltage stays across drain and source but this time smaller. ...
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1answer
38 views

Computer controlled potential difference across wires

I am trying to design a circuit to control the potential difference across 2 stainless steel wires. The two wires are connected together at one end (common node) and on the other end, one wire is ...
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2answers
71 views

Dividing output voltage from a buck boost converter

I am a student in high school and have been working with buck boost converters. I currently have a buck boost converter that steps up 5V to about 58V. I created 3 voltage dividers that should step the ...
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0answers
92 views

What is the voltage across the diodes D1 and D2?

Following is the circuit I have been analyzing. Voltage supply at the input is -6V. I have to calculate the voltage across the diodes (D1&D2) or R2. simulate this circuit – Schematic ...
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51 views

High Voltage shares ground, Problems?

I am having a problem with identifying why a high voltage part of my circuit broke the low voltage controller. To start, the basic premise of the circuit is to take a very accurate 0-10V DAC voltage(...
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62 views

Problem calculating fuses

I am calculating a fuse and I'm having a bit of trouble. I have a 12v 2A power supply that I want to protect, so my first thought was to place a fast 250v 2.5A fuse in series so it should blow if a ...
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1answer
42 views

Separation of same layer traces

I've seen this capacitor: https://api.kemet.com/component-edge/download/datasheet/C0603C221JDGACAUTO.pdf It is a 0603 capacitor with a 1000VDC rating. As I am familiar with IPC2221, this did not ...
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67 views

How to 3x or 4x a DC voltage while minimizing board space with no microcontroller?

I have a 3.7V DC voltage source that I'd like to boost to at least 10 Volts. I've been using Microchip's TC7660 component as a voltage doubler. But it only comes in SOIC (rather large for SMT). And ...
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1answer
111 views

Drive transistor harder for more distortion

I've been working on a distortion circuit for a guitar pedal and so far I like the tone but I was wondering if I could get some insight on how I might drive the transistor (T1) harder, increase gain ...
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1answer
50 views

Wheelchair battery life calculation

Apologies because I'm sure this is an incredibly basic question and I've tried to work out the answer myself but I'm getting nowhere with it! I'm looking to get a powered trike attachment from my ...
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1answer
30 views

Dual transient voltage supressors

I've been trying to reverse engineering a monitoring system and there's a component that I can't understand. What does these Z symbols represent?
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1answer
110 views

Why am I reading 22VDC / 69VAC when measuring between myself touching a MacBook and ground?

If I put the positive probe of my multimeter on earth, and touch the negative probe with my hand, while another hand is touching the metal surface of my MacBook, I get around 22VDC or 69VAC. I cannot ...
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71 views

Understanding a ZVS Oscillator in-depth

For a project I've been building, I've been using the (overused) ZVS oscillator that can be found online. So far it's been working great transferring power wirelessly, but I'm interested in ...
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0answers
85 views

What am I doing wrong with this Wheatstone Bridge?

Experienced experimentalists, be aware that this is probably going to sound like a stupid question: I am having a LOT of trouble predicting the output of this Wheatstone bridge circuit. I am trying ...
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0answers
44 views

Voltage step up module and if I am using it correctly

I am making a "simple" bluetooth speaker and have followed instructions from a Youtube video on how to assemble the components I have bought. However... I am finding that the rechargeable li-po ...
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0answers
56 views

What can I add to a DC circuit, to limit the voltage to 24V and current to 16 amps?

I have a battery pack that can put out around 25V and 20 amps, but it needs to be limited to 24V and 16 amps. Update: This is a follow-up to my question from yesterday: Protected 18650 batteries ...
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2answers
80 views

Doubt about Phase Locked Loop

How is it possible that the Signal Output will have the same frequencies as the Reference Signal?\$f_1\$, Frequency of the Reference Signal;\$f_2\$, Frequency of the VCO. Let's assume that \$f_1>...
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40 views

does a higher amperage source help prevent voltage sag?

I'm currently troubleshooting my car's ongoing electrical issues and during the troubleshooting process so far I have gone through multiple OEM alternators and multiple OEM & non-OEM batteries. ...
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2answers
102 views

Parallel circuit with LED on one path and resistor on the other

I'm a beginner to circuits. Unlike many other questions, my circuit involves a parallel circuit with a LED on one path but a resistor on the other, as shown in the picture. Q1: assuming the LED has ...
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67 views

Smart undervoltage protection

what is the simplest way to regulate the min DC voltage in a circuit? ...
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0answers
192 views

Why the opposite of the passive sign convention is not the active sign convention?

Studying the fundamentals of circuit theory, I was reading the Wikipedia article on the Passive Sign Convention and found out about the Active Sign Convention (ASC). After searching many introductory ...
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116 views

Why do I have voltage on Collector and Emitter when NPN transistor turns on? How to get rid of it?

I have a 2N3904 NPN transistor. I'm feeding the base 5V. the transistor turns on just fine and it shorts the collector and emitter. However, when I turn my meter on volts, I read around 1- 1.5 volts ...
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1answer
198 views

DC Shunt Motor Load Loss

I have three DC shunt wound motors in series. Each motor has a coupling to a transmission. I am trying to work out (mathematically, as opposed to intuitively), what happens if the coupling was to drop ...